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1.
Am J Cardiol ; 124(11): 1655-1661, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590910

RESUMO

Thoracic aortic calcium (TAC) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and death. However, risk factors associated with arterial calcium may vary across vascular beds. We verified whether TAC is associated with the same risk factors as is CAC in adults without established CVD. Cross-sectional analysis including 2,433 participants (aged 38 to 78 years) of ELSA-Brasil cohort in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Nonenhanced ECG-gated multislice computed tomography were performed to detect calcium in the thoracic aorta and the coronaries (2015 to 2016). Multivariate logistic regression evaluated the associations of both TAC and CAC with CVD risk factors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol intake, family history of CVD, low-density lipoprotein- and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HbA1c, blood pressure, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and lipid lowering medications). Overall prevalence of TAC and CAC were 69% and 43%, respectively. CAC prevalence was lower among women (31%) than men (56%) (Adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.30; 0.24 to 0.38). After adjustments, black individuals were less likely to have any CAC as compared with whites (OR 0.63; 0.47 to 0.86). Neither sex, nor race/skin color were statistically associated with TAC. Use of antidiabetic medications remained associated with CAC (OR 1.80; 1.23 to 2.631.01), but not with TAC. All other risk factors, except education, alcohol, physical activity and HbA1c, persisted statistically associated with both TAC and CAC in the final analysis, with small differences in the magnitudes of the ORs. In conclusion, the only disagreements seen in the risk factors associated with CAC and TAC were sex, race/skin color, and use of antidiabetic medications.

2.
J Electrocardiol ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526573

RESUMO

Digital electrocardiographs are now widely available and a large number of digital electrocardiograms (ECGs) have been recorded and stored. The present study describes the development and clinical applications of a large database of such digital ECGs, namely the CODE (Clinical Outcomes in Digital Electrocardiology) study. ECGs obtained by the Telehealth Network of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2010 to 17, were organized in a structured database. A hierarchical free-text machine learning algorithm recognized specific ECG diagnoses from cardiologist reports. The Glasgow ECG Analysis Program provided Minnesota Codes and automatic diagnostic statements. The presence of a specific ECG abnormality was considered when both automatic and medical diagnosis were concordant; cases of discordance were decided using heuristisc rules and manual review. The ECG database was linked to the national mortality information system using probabilistic linkage methods. From 2,470,424 ECGs, 1,773,689 patients were identified. After excluding the ECGs with technical problems and patients <16 years-old, 1,558,415 patients were studied. High performance measures were obtained using an end-to-end deep neural network trained to detect 6 types of ECG abnormalities, with F1 scores >80% and specificity >99% in an independent test dataset. We also evaluated the risk of mortality associated with the presence of atrial fibrillation (AF), which showed that AF was a strong predictor of cardiovascular mortality and mortality for all causes, with increased risk in women. In conclusion, a large database that comprises all ECGs performed by a large telehealth network can be useful for further developments in the field of digital electrocardiography, clinical cardiology and cardiovascular epidemiology.

3.
Ann Epidemiol ; 34: 45-51, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31072681

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the association between social and nutritional adversities in childhood and increased arterial stiffness in adulthood, according to race/skin color. METHODS: We used baseline data (2008-2010) from 13,365 adults (aged 34-75 years) from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV). Childhood social and nutritional adversities were assessed by maternal education and birth weight. Race/skin color was self-reported. RESULTS: The lower the maternal education, the higher the cfPWV in adulthood in Whites, Browns, and Blacks. This association was no longer significant after adjusting for the participant's education level in Whites, but it persisted after full adjustment among Browns (low vs. high maternal education: ß = 0.18, 95% confidence interval: 0.01; 0.34) and Blacks (low vs. high maternal education: ß = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.18; 0.70). On the other hand, the association between low birth weight and higher cfPWV was found only among Whites. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings regarding the association between maternal education and arterial stiffness are consistent with the disproportionate burden of cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality in Blacks and Browns. The fact that the association between birth weight and arterial stiffness was only present in Whites may have reflected a survival bias.

4.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 21(4): 502-509, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30861624

RESUMO

Blood pressure (BP) is a strong cardiovascular risk factor, predicting cardiovascular mortality in the general population. High salt consumption is a major contributor of increased BP and hypertension. However, there is a controversy on whether BP response to salt intake would be sex-specific. Thus, we aimed to verify the changes in BP according to different salt intake in men and women in a large sample of adults. The present analysis refers to 12 813 participants (from 35 to 64 years) with a validated 12-hour overnight urine collection in which salt intake was estimated. A set of questionnaires, clinical examination, and laboratory tests were carried out during a single visit to one of the six investigation centers involved. Salt intake was 12.9 ± 5.9 g/d in men and 9.3 ± 4.3 g/d in women. BP increases as salt intake increases, regardless of using BP-lowering medication. The slope of increase in BP elicited by salt intake was significantly higher in women than in men. Thus, the increase in BP by salt intake was stepper in women even after controlling for confounders, regardless of using BP-lowering medication or being hypertensive. In conclusion, salt intake is elevated in this large sample of Brazilian adults in which only a few participants are compliant with the recommendation. Also, women have a higher responsiveness of BP according to salt intake than men, and it is not associated with age, BP level, or the use of BP-lowering medication.

5.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 61: e11, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785565

RESUMO

The diagnosis of Chagas disease is based on the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi)-specific antibodies. Nonetheless, there is concern about the sensitivity of current serological assays due to reports of T. cruzi PCR positivity among seronegative individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate if T. cruzi seronegative infections occur in endemic areas. We recruited 2,157 individuals that were identified as having Chagas disease in a public health system database of an endemic region in Brazil. All participants were interviewed and 2,091 had a sample collected for serological and PCR testing. From these, 149 (7.1%) had negative serological results. PCR was positive in 610 samples (31.4%) of the 1,942 seropositive samples but in none of the 149 samples from seronegative participants. True T. cruzi seronegative infections seem to be rare (95% CI 0-3.7) and should not be a concern for blood supply, which relies on antibody screening.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Reações Falso-Negativas , Humanos , Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética
6.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0210522, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30716076

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Arterial stiffness has been associated with renal dysfunction and its progression, but the pathophysiological relation underlying this association has not been fully established, particularly among individuals without hypertension and diabetes. We investigated the cross-sectional associations between arterial stiffness and renal function in adults without cardiovascular disease, and whether this association remained among subjects without hypertension and diabetes. METHODS: All eligible participants from ELSA-Brasil (2008-2010), aged 35 to 74 years (N = 13,586) were included, of whom 7,979 were free from hypertension and diabetes. The response variables were: 1) low glomerular filtration rate (eGFR<60ml/min/1.73m2) estimated by CKD-EPI; 2) increased albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR ≥30mg/g); and 3) chronic kidney disease (CKD). Arterial stiffness was ascertained by the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). The covariates were sex, age, race/color, level of schooling, smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol/HDL-c glycated hemoglobin, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, heart rate and use of antihypertensive drugs. Logistic regression was used to examine the associations. RESULTS: After all adjustments, 1 m/s increase in PWV was associated with ORs equal to 1.10 (95%CI: 1.04-1.16), 1.10 (95%CI: 1.05-1.16) and 1.12 (95%CI: 1.08-1.17) of low eGFR, high ACR, and CKD, respectively. In subjects without hypertension and diabetes, these ORs were 1.19 (95%CI: 1.07-1.33), 1.20 (95%CI: 1.07-1.32) and 1.21 (95%CI: 1.11-1.30), respectively. CONCLUSION: The increase in PWV was associated with all renal dysfunction markers, even in individuals without hypertension and diabetes, suggesting a relation that is not completely mediated by the presence of these conditions.


Assuntos
Complicações do Diabetes/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Idoso , Albuminúria/complicações , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Albuminúria/fisiopatologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Complicações do Diabetes/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia
7.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. São Paulo (Online) ; 61: 11, Feb. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1020991

RESUMO

The diagnosis of Chagas disease is based on the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi)-specific antibodies. Nonetheless, there is concern about the sensitivity of current serological assays due to reports of T. cruzi PCR positivity among seronegative individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate if T. cruzi seronegative infections occur in endemic areas. We recruited 2,157 individuals that were identified as having Chagas disease in a public health system database of an endemic region in Brazil. All participants were interviewed and 2,091 had a sample collected for serological and PCR testing. From these, 149 (7.1%) had negative serological results. PCR was positive in 610 samples (31.4%) of the 1,942 seropositive samples but in none of the 149 samples from seronegative participants. True T. cruzi seronegative infections seem to be rare (95% CI 0-3.7) and should not be a concern for blood supply, which relies on antibody screening.


Assuntos
Humanos , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/epidemiologia
8.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(2): e007928, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2012 World Heart Federation Criteria are the current gold standard for the diagnosis of latent rheumatic heart disease (RHD). Because data and experience using these criteria have grown, there is opportunity to simplify and develop outcome prediction tools. We aimed to develop a simple echocardiographic score applicable for RHD screening with potential to predict disease progression. METHODS: This study included 3 cohorts used for score derivation (n=9501), score validation (n=7312), and assessment of outcomes prediction (n=227). In the derivation cohort, variables independently associated with definite RHD were assigned point values proportional to their regression coefficients. The sum of these values was stratified into low (0-6), intermediate (7-9), and high (≥10) risk. RESULTS: Five components were selected for score development, including mitral valve anterior leaflet thickening, excessive leaflet tip motion, and regurgitation jet length ≥2 cm, and aortic valve focal thickening and any regurgitation. The score showed optimal discrimination and calibration for RHD diagnosis in the derivation and validation cohorts (C statistic, 0.998 and 0.994, respectively), with good discrimination for predicting disease progression (C statistic, 0.811). Progression-free survival rate in the low-risk children at 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-up was 100%, 100%, and 93%, respectively, compared with 90%, 60%, and 47% in high-risk group. The point-based score was strongly associated with disease progression (hazard ratio, 1.270; 95% CI, 1.188-1.358; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This simplified score, based on components of the World Heart Federation criteria, is highly accurate to recognize definite RHD and provides the first tool for risk stratification, assigning children with latent RHD to low, intermediate, or high risk based on echocardiographic features at diagnosis.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Ecocardiografia , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagem , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Cardiopatia Reumática/diagnóstico por imagem , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Valvas Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Cardiopatia Reumática/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
9.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(5): 833-838, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30545483

RESUMO

Incidence of Yellow Fever (YF) has increased in Brazil, and cardiac findings such as bradyarrhythmias and conduction abnormalities have been described. We aimed to perform a comprehensive cardiac evaluation of patients with YF, and to assess the association between cardiac involvement and disease severity. Patients hospitalized with YF from February to March 2018 underwent clinical and laboratory evaluation, focused bedside echocardiography (GE Vivid IQ), electrocardiogram and, in case of alterations, 24-hours Holter. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to YF severity. Five patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging and 3 had necropsy. Seventy patients had confirmed YF, 69% with severe form. Mean age was 48 ± 14 years, 63 (90%) were males and 5 (7%) died. Significant electrocardiogram abnormalities were present in 52% of patients with mild/moderate form of YF (G1) and 77% of those with severe form (G2), p = 0.046. Sinus bradycardia was observed in 24% (N = 17): G1 23% versus G2 25%, p = 0.67. Among 32 patients who underwent Holter, 14 (44%) had mean HR <60 beats per minute, being 8 from G2. Echocardiogram revealed left ventricular dysfunction in 4 (6%) patients, from G2. Left ventricular wall thickening with a hyper-refringent myocardial texture suggesting infiltration was observed in 17 patients (G1 18% vs G2 27%, p = 0.55). One magnetic resonance (G2) was suggestive of myocarditis, and one necropsy revealed areas of myocardial necrosis and acute myocarditis. In conclusion, cardiac involvement was observed in patients with YF, most commonly bradycardia and myocardial hyper-refringent texture suggestive of infiltration.

10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(11): e0006814, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of anti-parasite treatment with benznidazole in the chronic Chagas disease (ChD) remains uncertain. We evaluated, using data from the NIH-sponsored SaMi-Trop prospective cohort study, if previous treatment with benznidazole is associated with lower mortality, less advanced cardiac disease and lower parasitemia in patients with chronic ChD. METHODS: The study enrolled 1,959 ChD patients and abnormal electrocardiogram (ECG) from in 21 remote towns in Brazil. A total of 1,813 patients were evaluated at baseline and after two years of follow-up. Those who received at least one course of benznidazole were classified as treated group (TrG = 493) and those who were never treated as control group (CG = 1,320). The primary outcome was death after two-year follow-up; the secondary outcomes were presence at the baseline of major ChD-associated ECG abnormalities, NT-ProBNP levels suggestive of heart failure, and PCR positivity. RESULTS: Mortality after two years was 6.3%; it was lower in the TrG (2.8%) than the CG (7.6%); adjusted OR: 0.37 (95%CI: 0.21;0.63). The ECG abnormalities typical for ChD and high age-adjusted NT-ProBNP levels suggestive of heart failure were lower in the TrG than the CG, OR: 0.35 [CI: 0.23;0.53]. The TrG had significantly lower rates of PCR positivity, OR: 0.35 [CI: 0.27;0.45]. CONCLUSION: Patients previously treated with benznidazole had significantly reduced parasitemia, a lower prevalence of markers of severe cardiomyopathy, and lower mortality after two years of follow-up. If used in the early phases, benznidazole treatment may improve clinical and parasitological outcomes in patients with chronic ChD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, Trial registration: NCT02646943.

11.
Heart ; 2018 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269080

RESUMO

Ischaemic heart disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, with an increasing trend from 6.1 million deaths in 1990 to 9.5 million in 2016, markedly driven by rates observed in low/middle-income countries (LMIC). Improvements in myocardial infarction (MI) care are crucial for reducing premature mortality. We aimed to evaluate the main challenges for adequate MI care in LMIC, and possible strategies to overcome these existing barriers.Reperfusion is the cornerstone of MI treatment, but worldwide around 30% of patients are not reperfused, with even lower rates in LMIC. The main challenges are related to delays associated with patient education, late diagnosis and inadequate referral strategies, health infrastructure and insufficient funding. The implementation of regional MI systems of care in LMIC, systematising timely reperfusion strategies, access to intensive care, risk stratification and use of adjunctive medications have shown some successful strategies. Telemedicine support for remote ECG, diagnosis and organisation of referrals has proven to be useful, improving access to reperfusion even in prehospital settings. Organisation of transport and referral hubs based on anticipated delays and development of MI excellence centres have also resulted in better equality of care. Also, education of healthcare staff and task shifting may potentially widen access to optimal therapy.In conclusion, efforts have been made for the implementation of MI systems of care in LMIC, aiming to address particularities of the health systems. However, the increasing impact of MI in these countries urges the development of further strategies to improve reperfusion and reduce system delays.

12.
Heart ; 2018 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181202

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Heart disease (HD) accounts for high morbidity and mortality in Brazil. Underserved populations often suffer long delays in diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of integrating screening echocardiography (echo) with remote interpretation in the established primary care system (PC) in Brazil and to assess HD prevalence. METHODS: Over 11 months, 20 healthcare workers (four physicians, four nurses, and 12 technicians) at 16 PC centres were trained on simplified handheld echo protocols. Three screening (SC) groups, including all consented patients aged 17-20, 35-40 and 60-65 years, and patients referred (RF) for clinical indications underwent focused echo. Studies were remotely interpreted through telemedicine. Significant HD was defined as moderate/severe valve disease, ventricular dysfunction/hypertrophy, pericardial effusion, wall-motion abnormalities and congenital heart disease. RESULTS: Total 1004 patients underwent echo; 299 (29.8%) in the SC group. Median age was 51±18 years, 63.9% females; 42.7% had cardiovascular symptoms. Significant HD was found in 354 (35.3%) patients (23.4% in SC vs 40.3% in RF group, p<0.001). Prevalence was higher in patients in the SC group aged >60 years (29.2%), compared with 35-40 (14.9%) and under 20 (16.5%), p=0.012. Comparing SC to RF groups, moderate/severe left ventricular dysfunction was observed in 4.1% vs 8.1%, p=0.03, mitral regurgitation in 8.9% vs 20.3%, p<0.001 and aortic stenosis in 5.4% vs 4.3%, p=0.51. CONCLUSIONS: Integration focused echo into PC is feasible in Brazil as a strategy to deliver cardiovascular care to low-resourced areas through task shifting. The burden of HD observed suggests this tool may improve early diagnosis and referral.

13.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 110(6): 500-511, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30226906

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Portuguese-speaking countries (PSC) share the influence of the Portuguese culture but have socioeconomic development patterns that differ from that of Portugal. OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in the PSC between 1990 and 2016, stratified by sex, and their association with the respective sociodemographic indexes (SDI). METHODS: This study used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016 data and methodology. Data collection followed international standards for death certification, through information systems on vital statistics and mortality surveillance, surveys, and hospital registries. Techniques were used to standardize causes of death by the direct method, as were corrections for underreporting of deaths and garbage codes. To determine the number of deaths due to each cause, the CODEm (Cause of Death Ensemble Model) algorithm was applied. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and SDI (income per capita, educational attainment and total fertility rate) were estimated for each country. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: There are large differences, mainly related to socioeconomic conditions, in the relative impact of CVD burden in PSC. Among CVD, ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of death in all PSC in 2016, except for Mozambique and Sao Tome and Principe, where cerebrovascular diseases have supplanted it. The most relevant attributable risk factors for CVD among all PSC are hypertension and dietary factors. CONCLUSION: Collaboration among PSC may allow successful experiences in combating CVD to be shared between those countries.

14.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0203487, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autonomic dysregulation is one of the recognized pathophysiological mechanisms in sepsis, generating the hypothesis that heart rate variability (HRV) can be used to predict mortality in sepsis. METHODS: This was a systematic review of studies evaluating HRV as a predictor of death in patients with sepsis. The search was performed by independent researchers in PubMed, LILACS and Cochrane, including papers in English, Portuguese or Spanish, indexed until August 20th, 2017 with at least 10 patients. Study quality was assessed by Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. To analyze the results, we divided the articles between those who measured HRV for short-term recordings (≤ 1 hour), and those who did long-term recordings (≥ 24 hours). RESULTS: Nine studies were included with a total of 536 patients. All of them were observational studies. Studies quality varied from 4 to 7 stars in Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The mortality rate in the studies ranged from 8 to 61%. Seven studies performed HRV analysis in short-term recordings. With the exception of one study that did not explain which group had the lowest results, all other studies showed reduction of several HRV parameters in the non-survivors in relation to the surviving septic patients. SDNN (Standard deviation of the Normal to Normal interval), TP (Total Power), VLF (Very Low Frequency Power), LF (Low Frequency Power), LF/HF (Low Frequency Power / High Frequency Power), nLF (Normalized Low Frequency Power), α1/α2 (short-term and long-term fractal scaling coefficients from DFA) and r-MSSD (Square root of the squared mean of the difference of successive NN-intervals) of the non-survivor group were reduced in relation to the survivors in at least one study. Two studies found that SDNN is associated with mortality in sepsis, even after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Three studies performed HRV analysis using long-term recordings. Only one of these studies found difference between surviving and non-surviving groups, and even so, in only one HRV parameter: LogHF. CONCLUSIONS: Several HRV parameters are reduced in nonsurviving septic patients in short-term recording. Two studies have found that SDNN is associated with mortality in sepsis, even after adjusting for possible confounding factors.

15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(8): e0006742, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125291

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a neglected chronic condition caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, with high prevalence and burden in Latin America. Ventricular arrhythmias are common in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy, and amiodarone has been widely used for this purpose. The aim of our study was to assess the effect of amiodarone in patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy. METHODOLOGY: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and LILACS up to January 2018. Data from randomized and observational studies evaluating amiodarone use in Chagas cardiomyopathy were included. Two reviewers selected the studies, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Overall quality of evidence was accessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We included 9 studies (3 before-after studies, 5 case series and 1 randomized controlled trial). Two studies with a total of 38 patients had the full dataset, allowing individual patient data (IPD) analysis. In 24-hour Holter, amiodarone reduced the number of ventricular tachycardia episodes in 99.9% (95%CI 99.8%-100%), ventricular premature beats in 93.1% (95%CI 82%-97.4%) and the incidence of ventricular couplets in 79% (RR 0.21, 95%CI 0.11-0.39). Studies not included in the IPD analysis showed a reduction of ventricular premature beats (5 studies), ventricular tachycardia (6 studies) and ventricular couplets (1 study). We pooled the incidence of adverse side effects with random effects meta-analysis; amiodarone was associated with corneal microdeposits (61.1%, 95%CI 19.0-91.3, 5 studies), gastrointestinal events (16.1%, 95%CI 6.61-34.2, 3 studies), sinus bradycardia (12.7%, 95%CI 3.71-35.5, 6 studies), dermatological events (10.6%, 95%CI 4.77-21.9, 3 studies) and drug discontinuation (7.68%, 95%CI 4.17-13.7, 5 studies). Quality of evidence ranged from moderate to very low. CONCLUSIONS: Amiodarone is effective in reducing ventricular arrhythmias, but there is no evidence for hard endpoints (sudden death, hospitalization). Although our findings support the use of amiodarone, it is important to balance the potential benefits and harms at the individual level for decision-making.

16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(6): 500-511, June 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-950178

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Portuguese-speaking countries (PSC) share the influence of the Portuguese culture but have socioeconomic development patterns that differ from that of Portugal. Objective: To describe trends in cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality in the PSC between 1990 and 2016, stratified by sex, and their association with the respective sociodemographic indexes (SDI). Methods: This study used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016 data and methodology. Data collection followed international standards for death certification, through information systems on vital statistics and mortality surveillance, surveys, and hospital registries. Techniques were used to standardize causes of death by the direct method, as were corrections for underreporting of deaths and garbage codes. To determine the number of deaths due to each cause, the CODEm (Cause of Death Ensemble Model) algorithm was applied. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and SDI (income per capita, educational attainment and total fertility rate) were estimated for each country. A p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: There are large differences, mainly related to socioeconomic conditions, in the relative impact of CVD burden in PSC. Among CVD, ischemic heart disease was the leading cause of death in all PSC in 2016, except for Mozambique and Sao Tome and Principe, where cerebrovascular diseases have supplanted it. The most relevant attributable risk factors for CVD among all PSC are hypertension and dietary factors. Conclusion: Collaboration among PSC may allow successful experiences in combating CVD to be shared between those countries.


Resumo Fundamento: Os países de língua portuguesa (PLP) partilham a influência da cultura portuguesa com desenvolvimento socioeconômico diverso de Portugal. Objetivo: Descrever as tendências de morbidade e mortalidade por doenças cardiovasculares (DCV) nos PLP, entre 1990 e 2016, estratificadas por sexo, e sua associação com os respectivos índices sociodemográficos (SDI). Métodos: O estudo utilizou dados e metodologia do Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016. As informações seguiram padrões internacionais de certificação de óbito, através de sistemas de informação sobre estatísticas vitais e vigilância da mortalidade, pesquisas e registros hospitalares. Empregaram-se técnicas para padronização das causas de morte pelo método direto, e correções para sub-registro dos óbitos e garbage codes. Para determinar o número de mortes por cada causa, aplicou-se o algoritmo CODEm (Modelagem Agrupada de Causas de Morte). Estimaram-se os anos saudáveis de vida perdidos (DALYs) e o SDI (renda per capita, nível de escolaridade e taxa de fertilidade total) para cada país. Resultados: Existem grandes diferenças na importância relativa da carga de DCV nos PLP relacionadas principalmente às condições socioeconômicas. Entre as DCV, a doença isquêmica do coração foi a principal causa de morte nos PLP em 2016, com exceção de Moçambique e São Tomé e Príncipe, onde as doenças cerebrovasculares a suplantaram. Os fatores de risco atribuíveis mais relevantes para as DCV entre os PLP foram a hipertensão arterial e os fatores dietéticos. Um valor de p < 0,05 foi considerado significativo. Conclusão: A colaboração entre os PLP poderá permitir que experiências exitosas no combate às DCV sejam compartilhadas entre esses países.

17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 12(2): e0006226, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29425201

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, the causative agent of Chagas disease, infects about six million individuals in more than 20 countries. Monitoring parasite persistence in infected individuals is of utmost importance to develop and evaluate treatments to control the disease. Routine screening for infected human individuals is achieved by serological assays; PCR testing to monitor spontaneous or therapy-induced parasitological cure has limitations due to the low and fluctuating parasitic load in circulating blood. The aim of the present study is to evaluate a newly developed antibody profiling assay as an indirect method to assess parasite persistence based on waning of antibodies following spontaneous or therapy-induced clearance of the infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We designed a multiplex serology assay, an array of fifteen optimized T. cruzi antigens, to evaluate antibody diversity in 1654 serum samples from chronic Chagas patients. One specific antibody response (antibody 3, Ab3) showed a strong correlation with T. cruzi parasite persistence as determined by T. cruzi PCR positive results. High and sustained Ab3 signal was strongly associated with PCR positivity in untreated patients, whereas significant decline in Ab3 signals was observed in BZN-treated patients who cleared parasitemia based on blood PCR results. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Ab3 is a new surrogate biomarker that strongly correlates with parasite persistence in chronic and benznidazole-treated Chagas patients. We hypothesize that Ab3 is induced and maintained by incessant stimulation of the immune system by tissue-based and shed parasites that are not consistently detectable by blood based PCR techniques. Hence, a simple immunoassay measurement of Ab3 could be beneficial for monitoring the infectious status of seropositive patients.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença de Chagas/diagnóstico , Doença de Chagas/imunologia , Testes Sorológicos/métodos , Trypanosoma cruzi/imunologia , Trypanosoma cruzi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antígenos de Protozoários/genética , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Brasil , Doença de Chagas/sangue , Doença de Chagas/terapia , DNA de Protozoário , Humanos , Imunoensaio/métodos , Nitroimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Carga Parasitária , Parasitemia/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trypanosoma cruzi/genética , Trypanosoma cruzi/patogenicidade
18.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(4)2018 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29444774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering the limited accuracy of clinical examination for early diagnosis of rheumatic heart disease (RHD), echocardiography has emerged as an important epidemiological tool. The ideal setting for screening is yet to be defined. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and pattern of latent RHD in schoolchildren (aged 5-18 years) and to compare effectiveness of screening between public schools, private schools, and primary care centers in Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS AND RESULTS: The PROVAR (Rheumatic Valve Disease Screening Program) study uses nonexperts and portable and handheld devices for RHD echocardiographic screening, with remote interpretation by telemedicine, according to the 2012 World Heart Federation criteria. Compliance with study consent and prevalence were compared between different screening settings, and variables associated with RHD were analyzed. In 26 months, 12 048 students were screened in 52 public schools (n=10 901), 2 private schools (n=589), and 3 primary care centers (n=558). Median age was 12.9 years, and 55.4% were girls. Overall RHD prevalence was 4.0% borderline (n=486) and 0.5% definite (n=63), with statistically similar rates between public schools (4.6%), private schools (3.5%), and primary care centers (4.8%) (P=0.24). The percentage of informed consents signed was higher in primary care centers (84.4%) and private schools (66.9%) compared with public schools (38.7%) (P<0.001). Prevalence was higher in children ≥12 years (5.3% versus 3.1%; P<0.001) and girls (4.9% versus 4.0%; P=0.02). Only age (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.17; P<0.001) was independently associated with RHD. CONCLUSIONS: RHD screening in primary care centers seems to achieve higher coverage rates. Prevalence among schoolchildren is significantly high, with rates higher than expected in private schools of high-income areas. These data are important for the formulation of public policies to confront RHD.

19.
Am J Cardiol ; 121(3): 364-369, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29191568

RESUMO

We sought to investigate the prognostic value of the electrocardiogram (ECG) electrical axes (P wave, T wave and QRS) as predictors of mortality in the 14-year follow-up of the prospective cohort of all residents ≥60 years living in the southeastern Brazilian city of Bambuí, a population with high prevalence of Chagas disease (ChD). Baseline ECG axes were automatically measured with normal values defined as follows: P-wave axis 0° to 75°, QRS axis -30° to 90°, and T axis 15° to 75°. Participants underwent annual follow-up visits and death was verified using death certificates. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the prognostic value of ECG axes for all-cause mortality, after adjustment for potential confounders. From 1,742 qualifying residents, 1,462 were enrolled, of whom 557 (38.1%) had ChD. Mortality rate was 51.9%. In multivariable adjusted models, abnormal P-wave axis was associated with a 48% (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.48 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.88]) increased mortality risk in patients with ChD and 43% (HR = 1.43 [CI 1.13-1.81]) in patients without ChD. Abnormal QRS axis was associated with a 34% (HR = 1.34 [CI 1.04-1.73]) increased mortality risk in patients with ChD, but not in individuals without ChD. Similarly, in the ChD group, abnormal T-wave axis was associated with a 35% (HR = 1.35 [CI 1.07-1.71]) increased mortality, but not in patients without ChD. In conclusion, abnormal P-wave, QRS, and T-wave axes were associated with increased all-cause mortality in patients with ChD. Abnormal P-wave axis was associated with mortality also among those without ChD, being the strongest predictor among ECG variables.

20.
Popul Health Metr ; 15(1): 39, 2017 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29166948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reliable data on cause of death (COD) are fundamental for planning and resource allocation priorities. We used GBD 2015 estimates to examine levels and trends for the leading causes of death in Brazil from 1990 to 2015. METHODS: We describe the main analytical approaches focused on both overall and specific causes of death for Brazil and Brazilian states. RESULTS: There was an overall improvement in life expectancy at birth from 1990 to 2015, but with important heterogeneity among states. Reduced mortality due to diarrhea, lower respiratory infections, and other infectious diseases contributed the most for increasing life expectancy in most states from the North and Northeast regions. Reduced mortality due to cardiovascular diseases was the highest contributor in the South, Southeast, and Center West regions. However, among men, intentional injuries reduced life expectancy in 17 out of 27 states. Although age-standardized rates due to ischemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease declined over time, these remained the leading CODs in the country and states. In contrast, leading causes of premature mortality changed substantially - e.g., diarrheal diseases moved from 1st to 13th and then the 36th position in 1990, 2005, and 2015, respectively, while violence moved from 7th to 1st and to 2nd. Overall, the total age-standardized years of life lost (YLL) rate was reduced from 1990 to 2015, bringing the burden of premature deaths closer to expected rates given the country's Socio-demographic Index (SDI). In 1990, IHD, stroke, diarrhea, neonatal preterm birth complications, road injury, and violence had ratios higher than the expected, while in 2015 only violence was higher, overall and in all states, according to the SDI. CONCLUSIONS: A widespread reduction of mortality levels occurred in Brazil from 1990 to 2015, particularly among children under 5 years old. Major shifts in mortality rates took place among communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders. The mortality profile has shifted to older ages with increases in non-communicable diseases as well as premature deaths due to violence. Policymakers should address health interventions accordingly.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Carga Global da Doença , Expectativa de Vida , Mortalidade Prematura , Doenças não Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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