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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36633729

RESUMO

Cell-free based therapies, for example, the use of the cell secretome, have emerged as a promising alternative to conventional skin therapies using bioactive and, when combined with 3D printing technologies, allow the development of personalized dosage forms. This research work aimed to develop gelatin-based patches with controlled network topology via extrusion 3D printing, loaded with cell culture medium as a model of the secretome, and applicable as vehicles for topical delivery. Inks were optimized through rheological and printing assays, and the incorporation of medium had minor effects in printability. Regarding network topology, grid infills rendered more defined structures than the triangular layout, depicting clearer pores and pore area consistency. Release studies showed that filament spacing and infill pattern influenced the release of rhodamine B (model bioactive) and bovine serum albumin (model protein). Moreover, the grid patches (G-0.7/1/0.7), despite having around a seven-fold higher mean pore area than 0.7-mm triangular ones (T-0.7), showed a similar release profile, which can be linked to the network topology of the printed structures This work provided insight on employing (bio)printing in the production of carriers with reproducible and controlled pore area, able to incorporate cell-derived secretome and to be quickly tailored to the patient's lesions.

2.
Curr Nutr Rep ; 2022 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36522570

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: To conduct a systematic review of studies to investigate the association between climate and vitamin D in humans. RECENT FINDINGS: There is growing interest in the association between the environment and vitamin D, but robust methods to understand this relationship are lacking. Studies focus mainly on seasonality and latitude. Research quantifying sunlight exposure necessary for adequate vitamin D synthesis in people with darker skin color and those people living at low latitudes are scarce, as are studies in urban populations that may have limited opportunity for sunlight exposure. There are gaps regarding values and timing of exposure to UV radiation required for adequate vitamin D synthesis considering skin color, geography, climate, and local irradiation. Nature-based solutions (NbS) that can mitigate climate change will become increasingly important for preventing hypovitaminosis D. For example, tree-shaded spaces might encourage more participation in outside activities and thereby favor vitamin D synthesis by the skin.

4.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(22): 7431-7447, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36255447

RESUMO

The development of an effective, realistic, and sustainable microbial biorefinery depends on several factors, including as one of the key aspects an adequate selection of microbial strain. The oleaginous red yeast Rhodotorula sp. has been studied as one powerful source for a plethora of high added-value biomolecules, such as carotenoids, lipids, and enzymes. Although known for over a century, the use of Rhodotorula sp. as resource for valuable products has not yet commercialized. Current interests for Rhodotorula sp. yeast have sparked from its high nutritional versatility and ability to convert agro-food residues into added-value biomolecules, two attractive characteristics for designing new biorefineries. In addition, as for other yeast-based bioprocesses, the overall process sustainability can be maximized by a proper integration with subsequent downstream processing stages, for example, by using eco-friendly solvents for the recovery of intracellular products from yeast biomass. This review intends to reflect on the current state of the art of microbial bioprocesses using Rhodotorula species. Therefore, we will provide an analysis of bioproduction performance with some insights regarding downstream separation steps for the extraction of high added-value biomolecules (specifically using efficient and sustainable platforms), providing information regarding the potential applications of biomolecules produced by Rhodotorula sp, as well as detailing the strengths and limitations of yeast-based biorefinery approaches. Novel genetic engineering technologies are further discussed, indicating some directions on their possible use for maximizing the potential of Rhodotorula sp. as cell factories. KEY POINTS: • Rhodotorula sp. are valuable source of high value-added compounds. • Potential of employing Rhodotorula sp. in a multiple product biorefinery. • Future perspectives in the biorefining of Rhodotorula sp. were discussed.


Assuntos
Rhodotorula , Rhodotorula/genética , Biomassa , Carotenoides , Engenharia Genética , Biocombustíveis
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36231230

RESUMO

Waste-contaminated areas have been reused and requalified environmentally across the globe, aiming to reintegrate them into urban dynamics with new functions such as public parks. This practice has attracted the attention of public health and environmental control agencies due to the scarcity of free areas and vacant spaces for creation of green areas, and d the need for more sustainable planning guidelines in large cities. The present work aimed to study processes of requalification of waste-contaminated areas for transformation in parks, using as study two cases located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Method: Documentary research in environmental agencies, literature review and field visit. Results: In the two cases the process of requalification was unequal, with emphasis on three aspects: the actors involved in the case, the role of civil society and the action of the Public Prosecutor's Office of the State of São Paulo. Thus, it becomes evident that successful cases of waste-contaminated areas in the city of São Paulo are linked to the direct support of these aspects complemented with the private sector. Furthermore, a consensus is necessary among the public authorities regarding the laws of contaminated areas versus environmental damage full repair in the process of requalification.


Assuntos
Poluição Ambiental , Parques Recreativos , Brasil , Cidades , Humanos
6.
Endocr Connect ; 11(10)2022 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048470

RESUMO

Vitamin D enhances calcium absorption and bone mineralisation, promotes maintenance of muscle function, and is crucial for musculoskeletal health. Low vitamin D status triggers secondary hyperparathyroidism, increases bone loss, and leads to muscle weakness. The primary physiologic function of vitamin D and its metabolites is maintaining calcium homeostasis for metabolic functioning, signal transduction, and neuromuscular activity. A considerable amount of human evidence supports the well-recognised contribution of adequate serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations for bone homeostasis maintenance and prevention and treatment strategies for osteoporosis when combined with adequate calcium intake. This paper aimed to review the literature published, mainly in the last 20 years, on the effect of vitamin D and its supplementation for musculoskeletal health in order to identify the aspects that remain unclear or controversial and therefore require further investigation and debate. There is a clear need for consistent data to establish realistic and meaningful recommendations of vitamin D status that consider different population groups and locations. Moreover, there is still a lack of consensus on thresholds for vitamin D deficiency and optimal status as well as toxicity, optimal intake of vitamin D, vitamin D supplement alone as a strategy to prevent fractures and falls, recommended sun exposure at different latitudes and for different skin pigmentations, and the extra skeletal effects of vitamin D.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 821094, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35935795

RESUMO

Background/aims: Combination products are therapeutic and/or diagnostic products that can combine drugs and medical devices and which increasing complexity has raised new regulatory framework challenges. To reach the market, a combination product must be classified based on the principal mode of action (PMOA). However, research and technological progress has been leading to the development of novel combination products with no clearly defined PMOA, emphasizing the lack of a systematization process, thus challenging the correct classification of these products. To illustrate the regulatory challenge, two case studies are discussed: innovative combination products with PMOA that can change due to an external stimulus, specifically custom-made 3D-printed scaffolds with incorporated medicinal substances. Methods: Data was collected through computational search engines, regulatory agencies and equally relevant associations. The analysis of the data resulted on this state-of-the-art review, a description of the decision-making process by the regulatory authorities, and case studies analysis that culminated in the proposal of a decision-tree scheme. Findings: Current regulations do not fully address complex combination products namely personalized 3D-printed scaffolds. Two merged regulatory approaches are suggested along with the schematization of the rational assisted by a decision-tree tool. Conclusion: Combination products have become increasingly sophisticated, which has furthered the need to develop multidisciplinary collaborations within the health sector to adapt to these innovative healthcare solutions as well as with regulators to overcome the challenges posed for their classification.

8.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(7)2022 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35890204

RESUMO

The authors would like to make the following corrections about the published paper [...].

9.
Molecules ; 27(11)2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35684509

RESUMO

Essential oils (EOs) and hydrolates (Hds) are natural sources of biologically active ingredients with broad applications in the cosmetic industry. In this study, nationally produced (mainland Portugal and Azores archipelago) EOs (11) and Hds (7) obtained from forest logging and thinning of Eucalyptus globulus, Pinus pinaster, Pinus pinea and Cryptomeria japonica, were chemically evaluated, and their bioactivity and sensorial properties were assessed. EOs and Hd volatiles (HdVs) were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. 1,8-Cineole was dominant in E. globulus EOs and HdVs, and α- and ß-pinene in P. pinaster EOs. Limonene and α-pinene led in P. pinea and C. japonica EOs, respectively. P. pinaster and C. japonica HVs were dominated by α-terpineol and terpinen-4-ol, respectively. The antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH, ORAC and ROS. C. japonica EO showed the highest antioxidant activity, whereas one of the E. globulus EOs showed the lowest. Antimicrobial activity results revealed different levels of efficacy for Eucalyptus and Pinus EOs while C. japonica EO showed no antimicrobial activity against the selected strains. The perception and applicability of emulsions with 0.5% of EOs were evaluated through an in vivo sensory study. C. japonica emulsion, which has a fresh and earthy odour, was chosen as the most pleasant fragrance (60%), followed by P. pinea emulsion (53%). In summary, some of the studied EOs and Hds showed antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and they are possible candidates to address the consumers demand for more sustainable and responsibly sourced ingredients.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Eucalyptus , Óleos Voláteis , Pinus , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Emulsões , Eucalyptus/química , Florestas , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Pinus/química , Portugal
10.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0269091, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35704604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics associated with vaccination against Covid-19 in pregnant and postpartum women with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome in Brazil and to investigate a possible association between vaccination and the clinical course and outcome of the disease. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of hospitalized pregnant and postpartum women diagnosed with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) by SARS-CoV-2, presenting onset of signs and symptoms between May and October 2021. Secondary data were used, available in the Influenza Epidemiological Surveillance Information System (SIVEP-Gripe). Data were analyzed using the SPSS statistical program, medians were applied to present continuous variables and frequencies, and proportions were calculated for categorical variables, using logistic and multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: The final study population included 3,585 pregnant and postpartum women, of whom 596 (16.6) were vaccinated: 443 (74.3%) received one dose and 153 (25.7%) received two doses. They were factors associated with non-vaccination against Covid-19 age ≤ 19 anos (OR: 2.57; IC95% 1.40;4.71), non-white women (OR: 1.34; IC95% 1.07;1.67) and those who required ventilatory support (OR: 1.51; IC95% 1.19;1.90) and invasive ventilation (OR: 2.05; IC95% 1.37;3.08). On the other hand, vaccination was associated with advanced maternal age (OR: 0.60; IC95% 0.48;0.76), presence of comorbidities (OR: 0.57; IC95% 0.45;0.72) and loss of taste (OR: 0.63; IC95% 0.48;0.82). CONCLUSIONS: Demographic, ethnic-racial and clinical characteristics were associated with the vaccination status of pregnant and postpartum women with SARS by SARS-CoV-2 in Brazil. Vaccination against Covid-19 in the obstetric population has already shown positive results in the evolution of severe cases, which reiterates its importance. It is essential that health services advance vaccination against Covid-19 in the obstetric population, especially adolescentes and non-white women.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Gestantes , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
11.
EClinicalMedicine ; 47: 101400, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35497056

RESUMO

Background: Vitamin D deficiency has been documented to be prevalent, even in low latitude regions; and this may be related to sun exposure behaviors. The aim of the current study was to assess the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations and lifestyle-related factors in a sample of Brazilian women living at latitude 21º 8' S. Methods: A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 101 women aged 35 years or older in July 2019 to assess the association between 25(OH)D concentration and level of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), smoking habits, alcohol consumption, and physical activity levels. Age, body mass index (BMI), and postmenopausal status were investigated. Findings: According to the slope coefficient for individual daily UVR levels, the concentration of 25(OH)D increased by 5 nmol / L for each extra Standard Erythema Dose of UVR, regardless of age and BMI (p < 0·001). Postmenopausal women had a significantly higher mean concentration of 25(OH)D (p = 0·01), higher UVR exposure (p = 0·01) and lower BMI (p = 0·005) compared with younger women, independent of other confounders including smoking, alcohol, occupation and physical activity. Interpretation: Although postmenopausal women from Brazil had higher mean concentrations of 25(OH)D than younger women, more studies are necessary to understand how sun exposure and lifestyle variables interfere with these levels. These findings have important public health implications since they suggest that vitamin D deficiency in older age is not inevitable. Funding: This study was funded by an award received by Universities Global Partnership Network - UGPN. KVSS and SLO receive scholarship from CAPES, Brazilian Ministry of Education. HR receives a productivity grant from CNPq.

12.
J Dermatol ; 49(9): 805-817, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35567311

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) enforced the use of hand sanitation and of personal protective equipment, such as masks and visors, especially by health-care professionals, but also by the general public. However, frequent hand sanitation and the prolonged and continuous use of personal protective equipment are responsible for constant frictional and pressure forces on skin causing lesions, the most reported being acne, facial itching, dryness, and rash. Thus, it is important to find measures to prevent skin lesions, in order to improve the quality of life of health-care professionals and of the general public. This article gathers the current information regarding measures to prevent human to human transmission of COVID-19, reviews the most common skin lesions caused by the use of hand sanitizers and different types of personal protective equipment, and the possible preventive measures that can be used on a daily basis to minimize the risk of developing skin-related pathologies. Daily skin care routines and the incorporation of a dressing between the skin and the personal protective equipment to serve as a protective barrier are some of the applied measures. Moisturizers and dressings improve the skin's ability to respond to constant aggressions. Lastly, the need for additional studies to evaluate the lubrication properties of different types of dressings is discussed. The understanding of what kind of dressing is more suitable to prevent pressure injuries is crucial to promote healthy skin and wellbeing during pandemic times.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dermatopatias , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/efeitos adversos , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Saneamento , Dermatopatias/etiologia
13.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 23(4): 107, 2022 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35381882

RESUMO

Palatability and swallowability in the pediatric population are perceived as true challenges in the oral administration of medication. Pediatric patients have high sensitivity to taste and reduced ability to take solid dosage forms, which can often lead to a poor therapeutic compliance. It is crucial to find new strategies to simplify the oral administration of drugs to children. The present paper reports the development of a new hydrogel vehicle adapted to the pediatric population. Several polymers with similar properties were selected and adjustments were made to obtain the desired characteristics of the final product. The developed formulations were studied for organoleptic properties, rheology, mucoadhesion properties, preservative efficacy, and stability. Physical and chemical compatibilities between the vehicle and several drugs/medicines, at the time of administration, were also studied. Six final formulations with different polymers, odor, and color were chosen, and no known interactions with medications were observed. The proposed new oral vehicles are the first sugar-free vehicle hydrogels designed to make the intake of oral solid forms a more pleasant and safer experience for pediatric patients.


Assuntos
Hidrogéis , Pediatria , Administração Oral , Criança , Excipientes , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 832: 154892, 2022 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378190

RESUMO

Particulate matter (PM) and pollen interaction, either airborne or at the respiratory mucosa needs further clarification, as allergic reaction intensification can be related to the PM physical characteristics and toxicity. This study aimed to investigate the physical-chemical properties of PM that can adhere to the pollen wall during its transport or inhalation, using Quercus spp. as a model, in three Portuguese cities with different geographical locations, meteorological influence and urbanization levels. Possible sources were evaluated through air masses trajectory analysis using the HYSPLIT model and correlation with meteorological factors. The sampling was performed using a 7-days Hirst-type volumetric sampler, and the pollen grains were observed using a Field Emission Electron Probe Microanalyser for PM analysis. A secondary electron image of each pollen grain was taken, to determine the adhered particles characteristics and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) spectra were obtained for individual particles. A total of 484 pollen grains was observed, with 7683 particles counted and 1914 EDS spectra analyzed. The particle's equivalent diameter ranged from 0.3-16 µm, with most having a diameter < 3 µm. For the three cities, there were significant differences in the number of particles per pollen and the % area occupied by the particles. Particles adhered were mainly Si-rich, but variations in other dominant groups were observed. For Évora and Guarda, Ca-rich, SO-rich were second and third more representative, while Porto were Organic and Cl-rich. Metals&Oxides were found in all cities with the highest number in Porto. P-rich particles were only found in Évora. Sea salt particles were observed in Évora, coincide with air mass trajectories possible carrying them from the Mediterranean Sea. In conclusion, the PM physical characteristics are similar between the studied cities, however, the dominant chemical composition is different, certainly impacting the exposome influence and pollen-allergy intensification towards the same pollen type and concentration.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Quercus , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Cidades , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise , Pólen/química
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(14): 4221-4242, 2022 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35357173

RESUMO

Over the years, the growth of the world population has caused a huge agricultural production to support the population's needs. Since plant protection products are essential to preserve agricultural crops and to optimize vital plant processes, it is crucial to use more sustainable, biodegradable, and biocompatible raw materials, without harming the environment and human health. Although the development of new plant protection products is a costly process, the environmental benefits should be considered. In this context, marine raw materials obtained as byproducts of fishing industries, possessing a wide variety of physicochemical and biological properties, can serve as a promising source of such materials. They have a high potential for developing alternative and safe formulations for agricultural applications, not only as biocompatible excipients but also as effective and selective, or even both. It is also possible to promote a synergistic effect between an active substance and the biological activity of the marine polymer used in the formulation, enabling plant protection products with lower concentrations of the active substances. Thus, this review addresses the repurposing of marine raw materials for the development of innovative plant protection products, focusing on micro- and nanoparticulate formulations, to protect the environment through more ecological and sustainable strategies.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Produtos Agrícolas , Materiais Biocompatíveis , Humanos , Polímeros
16.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(2)2022 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215320

RESUMO

The use of natural products in dermatology is increasingly being pursued due to sustainability and ecological issues, and as a possible way to improve the therapeutic outcome of chronic skin diseases, relieving the burden for both patients and healthcare systems. The legalization of cannabis by a growing number of countries has opened the way for researching the use of cannabinoids in therapeutic topical formulations. Cannabinoids are a diverse class of pharmacologically active compounds produced by Cannabis sativa (phytocannabinoids) and similar molecules (endocannabinoids, synthetic cannabinoids). Humans possess an endocannabinoid system involved in the regulation of several physiological processes, which includes naturally-produced endocannabinoids, and proteins involved in their transport, synthesis and degradation. The modulation of the endocannabinoid system is a promising therapeutic target for multiple diseases, including vascular, mental and neurodegenerative disorders. However, due to the complex nature of this system and its crosstalk with other biological systems, the development of novel target drugs is an ongoing challenging task. The discovery of a skin endocannabinoid system and its role in maintaining skin homeostasis, alongside the anti-inflammatory actions of cannabinoids, has raised interest in their use for the treatment of skin inflammatory diseases, which is the focus of this review. Oral treatments are only effective at high doses, having considerable adverse effects; thus, research into plant-based or synthetic cannabinoids that can be incorporated into high-quality, safe topical products for the treatment of inflammatory skin conditions is timely. Previous studies revealed that such products are usually well tolerated and showed promising results for example in the treatment of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, and contact dermatitis. However, further controlled human clinical trials are needed to fully unravel the potential of these compounds, and the possible side effects associated with their topical use.

17.
Acta Biomater ; 142: 14-35, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202853

RESUMO

Hair care and treatment has evolved significantly through the years as new formulations are continuously being explored in an attempt to meet the demand in cosmetic and medicinal fields. While standard hair care procedures include hair washing, aimed at hair cleansing and maintenance, as well as hair dyeing and bleaching formulations for hair embellishment, modern hair treatments are mainly focused on circumventing hair loss conditions, strengthening hair follicle properties and treat hair infestations. In this regard, active compounds (ACs) included in hair cosmetic formulations include a vast array of hair cleansing and hair dye molecules, and typical hair treatments include anti-hair loss ACs (e.g. minoxidil and finasteride) and anti-lice ACs (e.g. permethrin). However, several challenges still persist, as conventional AC formulations exhibit sub-optimal performance and some may present toxicity issues, calling for an improved design of formulations regarding both efficacy and safety. More recently, nano-based strategies encompassing nanomaterials have emerged as promising tailored approaches to improve the performance of ACs incorporated into hair cosmetics and treatment formulations. The interest in using these nanomaterials is based on account of their ability to: (1) increase stability, safety and biocompatibility of ACs; (2) maximize hair affinity, contact and retention, acting as versatile biointerfaces; (3) enable the controlled release of ACs in both hair and scalp, serving as prolonged AC reservoirs; besides offering (4) hair follicle targeting features attending to the possibility of surface tunability. This review covers the breakthrough of nanomaterials for hair cosmetics and hair treatment, focusing on organic nanomaterials (polymer-based and lipid-based nanoparticles) and inorganic nanomaterials (nanosheets, nanotubes and inorganic nanoparticles), as well as their applications, highlighting their potential as innovative multifunctional nanomaterials towards maximized hair care and treatment. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: This manuscript is focused on reviewing the nanotechnological strategies investigated for hair care and treatment so far. While conventional formulations exhibit sub-optimal performance and some may present toxicity issues, the selection of improved and suitable nanodelivery systems is of utmost relevance to ensure a proper active ingredient release in both hair and scalp, maximize hair affinity, contact and retention, and provide hair follicle targeting features, warranting stability, efficacy and safety. This innovative manuscript highlights the advantages of nanotechnology-based approaches, particularly as tunable and versatile biointerfaces, and their applications as innovative multifunctional nanomaterials towards maximized hair care and treatment.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Preparações para Cabelo , Nanoestruturas , Cabelo , Preparações para Cabelo/farmacologia , Nanotecnologia
18.
Int J Pharm ; 615: 121455, 2022 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031412

RESUMO

Pickering emulsions are systems composed of two immiscible fluids, which are stabilized by solid organic or inorganic particles. These solid particles include a broad range of particles that can be used to stabilize Pickering emulsions. An improved resistance against coalescence and lower toxicity, against conventional emulsions stabilized by surfactants, make Pickering emulsions suitable candidates for numerous applications, such as catalysis, food, oil recovery, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. In this article, we give an overview of Pickering emulsions focusing on topical applications. First, we reference the parameters that influence the stabilization of Pickering emulsions. Second, we discuss some of the already investigated topical applications of nano- and microparticles used to stabilize Pickering emulsions. Afterwards, we consider some of the most promising stabilizers of Pickering emulsions for topical applications. Ultimately, we carried out a brief analysis of toxicity and advances in future perspectives, highlighting the promising use of these emulsions in cosmetics and dermopharmaceutical formulations.


Assuntos
Cosméticos , Emulsões , Tensoativos
19.
Int J Pharm ; 615: 121506, 2022 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085727

RESUMO

One of the exciting future directions in the 3D printing field is the development of innovative personalized smart constructions for bio-applications, including drug delivery, namely high-throughput drug screening and customized topical/oral administration of pharmaceuticals, as well as tissue engineering. In this context, hydrogels have emerged as a promising material that, when combined with extrusion 3D printing, allow the creation of soft-material structures with defined spatial locations, that can be printed at room temperature and customized by tuning the geometric design and/or the formulation components. Thus, the efficacy and quality of such vehicles is dependent on formulation, design, and printing process parameters. However, hydrogel inks are often designed and characterized using different methods and this lack of uniformity impairs. Characterization techniques are usually arbitrary and differ among research groups, challenging the inference of possible conclusions on hydrogel behaviour and potential applications. Therefore, to properly analyse the potential of a particular hydrogel ink formulation, we review, for the first time, the most frequently employed characterization procedures, from rheological approaches to printing parameters and settings, and discuss their relevance, limitations and drawbacks, and highlight future perspectives. Overall, to accelerate the development of high-quality 3D constructs, comprehensive characterization protocols for both pre-printing and printing assays should be adopted. Furthermore, their transversal adoption could serve as a boost in terms of quality requirements and regulatory aspects.


Assuntos
Bioimpressão , Hidrogéis , Tinta , Impressão Tridimensional , Engenharia Tecidual
20.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 76(4): 516-526, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency remains a global public health issue, particularly in minority ethnic groups. This review investigates the vitamin D status (as measured by 25(OH)D and dietary intake) of the African-Caribbean population globally. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching key databases (PUBMED, Web of Science, Scopus) from inception until October 2019. Search terms included 'Vitamin D status' and 'African-Caribbean'. A random effects and fixed effects meta-analysis was performed by combining means and standard error of the mean. RESULT: The search yielded 19 papers that included n = 5670 African-Caribbean participants from six countries. A meta-analysis found this population to have sufficient (>50 nmol/L) 25(OH)D levels at 67.8 nmol/L, 95% CI (57.9, 7.6) but poor dietary intake of vitamin D at only 3.0 µg/day, 95% CI (1.67,4.31). For those living at low latitudes 'insufficient' (as defined by study authors) 25(OH)D levels were found only in participants with type 2 diabetes and in those undergoing haemodialysis. Suboptimal dietary vitamin D intake (according to the UK recommended nutrient intake of 10 µg/day) was reported in all studies at high latitudes. Studies at lower latitudes, with lower recommended dietary intakes (Caribbean recommended dietary intake: 2.5 µg/day) found 'sufficient' intake in two out of three studies. CONCLUSIONS: 25(OH)D sufficiency was found in African-Caribbean populations at lower latitudes. However, at higher latitudes, 25(OH)D deficiency and low dietary vitamin D intake was prevalent.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Deficiência de Vitamina D , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Estações do Ano , Vitamina D , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitaminas
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