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1.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 159(1): 39-47, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593951

RESUMO

Greenhouse gas emissions are known to influence the planet's temperature, mainly due to human activities. To allow hypothesis testing, as well as to seek viable alternatives for mitigation, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) suggested 3 main scenarios for changes projected for the year 2100. In this paper, we subjected Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 (tambaqui) individuals in a microcosm to IPCC scenarios B1 (mild), A1B (intermediate), and A2 (extreme) to test possible impacts on their genome. We found chromosome heterochromatinization in specimens exposed to the A2 scenario, where terminal blocks and interstitial bands were detected on several chromosome pairs. The behavior of Rex1 and Rex3 sequences differed between the test scenarios. Hybridization of Rex1 resulted in diffuse signals which showed a gradual increase in the tested scenarios. For Rex3, an increase was observed in the A2 scenario with blocks on several chromosomes, some of which coincided with heterochromatin. Heterochromatinization is an epigenetic process, which may have occurred as a mechanism for regulating Rex3 activity. The signal pattern of Rex6 did not change, suggesting that other mechanisms are acting to regulate its activity.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/genética , Mudança Climática , Gases de Efeito Estufa/efeitos adversos , Retroelementos/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cariótipo , Temperatura
2.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 158(1): 38-45, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079097

RESUMO

Karyotypes and chromosomal characteristics with focus on B chromosomes of 2 species of the serrasalmid genus Metynnis, namely M. lippincottianus and M. maculatus, were examined using conventional (C-banding) and molecular (FISH mapping of minor and major rDNAs and Rex1, Rex3, and Rex6 retrotransposable elements) protocols. Both species possessed a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 62 and karyotypes composed of 32 metacentric + 28 submetacentric + 2 subtelocentric and 32 metacentric + 26 submetacentric + 4 subtelocentric, respectively; one small B element was found in the female genome of M. lippincottianus. C-banding revealed heterochromatin in the pericentromeric and terminal portions of all chromosomes of both species; the B chromosome was entirely heterochromatic. FISH showed 18S rDNA sites in 2 chromosome pairs in both species (pairs 19 and 22), and a large block in the B chromosome, while 5S rDNA signals were detected in the first pair of subtelocentric chromosomes in both species, moreover in M. maculatus an additional labeled pair 4 was observed. Mapping of the Rex1, Rex3, and Rex6 retrotransposable elements in the genomes of M. lippincottianus and M. maculatus indicated that they were dispersed throughout nearly all the chromosomes of the complement, except for the B chromosome of M. lippincottianus.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Animais , Bandeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos/ultraestrutura , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Feminino , Heterocromatina/genética , Heterocromatina/ultraestrutura , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , Masculino , Retroelementos/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Especificidade da Espécie
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(2): 107-111, mar.-abr. 2019. graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1003569

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar o nível de conhecimento dos pacientes diabéticos, atendidos no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) na cidade de Boa Vista/Roraima, acerca da Retinopatia Diabética (RD). Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal, descritivo, de caráter quantitativo, realizado através da aplicação de um questionário semi-estruturado para 150 indivíduos diabéticos, usuários do SUS, da cidade de Boa Vista - RR, durante o ano de 2017. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas utilizando os programas Microsoft Excel e EpiInfo 7®, fixando-se o nível de 5% para a rejeição da hipótese de nulidade. Resultados: Do total amostral pesquisado,76,7% dos indivíduos não possuía nenhum conhecimento sobre a RD, 19,3% tinha algum tipo de conhecimento, mas não possuía a patologia, 2,7% conhecia, possuía a RD e fazia tratamento e 1,3% conhecia, possuía a RD e não se tratava. Quanto a orientação, 40,6% dos participantes nunca recebeu nenhuma informação sobre o risco de perda da visão. Acerca do tipo de Diabetes, 44,7% dos participantes não sabia que tipo possuía, 42% relatou ter DM 2 e 13,3% DM1. Sobre o controle da glicose, 59,4% não conseguia mantê-lo. Foi evidenciada associação entre o controle da glicose e o conhecimento sobre RD, entre o tempo de instalação da DM e o conhecimento sobre RD e entre ter consultado um oftalmologista e conhecer sobre a RD. Conclusão: O nível de conhecimento sobre a RD é muito baixo, fator preocupante por tratar-se de uma das complicações mais importantes do Diabetes. Percebe-se que o sistema de saúde não está sendo eficiente como facilitador deste conhecimento.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the level of knowledge of diabetic patients treated at the Unified Health System (SUS - Sistema Único de Saúde) in the city of Boa Vista / Roraima, about Diabetic Retinopathy (DR). Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, quantitative study conducted through the application of a semi-structured questionnaire for 150 diabetic individuals, SUS users, from the city of Boa Vista - RR, during the year 2017. Statistical analyzes were performed using the Microsoft Excel and EpiInfo 7® programs, setting the 5% level for the rejection of the null hypothesis. Results: Of the total sample, 76.7% of the individuals did not have any knowledge about DR, 19.3% had some type of knowledge, but did not have the pathology, 2.7% knew, had DR and was receiving treatment, 1,3% knew, had DR and was not receiving treatment. About orientation, 40.6% of the participants never received any information about the risk of vision loss. About the type of Diabetes, 44.7% of the participants did not know what type they had, 42% reported having DM 2 and 13.3% DM1. On glucose control, 59.4% could not maintain it. It was evidenced an association between glucose control and DR knowledge, between the time of DM installation and knowledge about DR, and between having consulted an ophthalmologist and knowing about DR. Conclusion: The level of knowledge about DR is very low, a worrying factor because it is one of the most important complications of diabetes. It is observed that the health system is not being efficient as facilitator of this knowledge.

4.
Rev. latinoam. psicopatol. fundam ; 21(3): 646-659, jul.-set. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-978655

RESUMO

Promove discussão teórica sobre o desempenho das redes de apoio no caso da violência doméstica na infância, os sentidos da violência e as formas de enfrentamento da questão. Retrata a rede de apoio e a infância nas políticas públicas. Discute a precariedade das redes na abordagem da violência doméstica. Propõe modificações na mentalidade da gestão pública e na formação de recursos humanos na área.


This paper promotes a theoretical discussion about the performance of support networks in cases of childhood domestic violence, ways of violence, and how to address the issue. It portrays the support network and childhood in public policies. It discusses the deficiency of networks when addressing domestic violence. It proposes changes to the mindset of public administrators and in the formation of human resources in that field.


Il encourage la discussion théorique sur la performance des réseaux de soutien dans le cas de la violence domestique dans l'enfance, les sens de la violence et façons de faire face au problème. Il les décrit dans les politiques publiques et expose la précarité des réseaux dans l'approche de cette violence domestique. Il propose des changements de mentalité de la gestion publique et dans la formation des ressources humaines dans le domaine.


Promueve una discusión teórica sobre el desempeño de las redes de apoyo en caso de violencia doméstica en la infancia, los sentidos de la violencia y las formas para enfrentar dicha cuestión. Retrata a la red de apoyo y a la infancia en las políticas públicas. Discute la precariedad de las redes en cuanto al abordaje de la violencia doméstica. Propone modificaciones en la mentalidad de la gestión pública y en la formación de recursos humanos en el área.


Dieser Artikel beschreibt eine theoretische Diskussion über die Leistungen der Unterstützungsnetzwerke bei häuslicher Gewalt in der Kindheit, die Bedeutungen der Gewalt und die Formen der Bekämpfung dieser Problematik. Ferner wird das Netz von Hilfswerken sowie die Kindheit unter dem Blickpunkt öffentlicher Politiken dargestellt. Weiter erörtert der Artikel die prekäre Rolle der Hilfswerke bei der Bekämpfung der häuslichen Gewalt und empfiehlt als Lösung Änderungen in der Mentalität der öffentlichen Verwaltung herbeizuführen sowie in der beruflichen Ausbildung in diesem Bereich.

5.
Comput Biol Chem ; 72: 62-76, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29414098

RESUMO

The genes of the NFκB pathway are involved in the control of a plethora of biological processes ranking from inhibition of apoptosis to metastasis in cancer. It has been described that Gliobastoma multiforme (GBM) patients carry aberrant NFκB activation, but the molecular mechanisms are not completely understood. Here, we present a NFκB pathway analysis in tumor specimens of GBM compared to non-neoplasic brain tissues, based on the different kind of cycles found among genes of a gene co-expression network constructed using quantized data obtained from the microarrays. A cycle is a closed walk with all vertices distinct (except the first and last). Thanks to this way of finding relations among genes, a more robust interpretation of gene correlations is possible, because the cycles are associated with feedback mechanisms that are very common in biological networks. In GBM samples, we could conclude that the stoichiometric relationship between genes involved in NFκB pathway regulation is unbalanced. This can be measured and explained by the identification of a cycle. This conclusion helps to understand more about the biology of this type of tumor.


Assuntos
Retroalimentação Fisiológica , Glioblastoma/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Ciclo Celular/genética , Ciclo Celular/fisiologia , Curadoria de Dados , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/fisiologia , Glioblastoma/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Análise em Microsséries , NF-kappa B/genética , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
6.
Int J Med Inform ; 104: 10-25, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28599811

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We propose the use of a formal approach to support content validation of a standard operating procedure (SOP) for a therapeutic intervention. Such an approach provides a useful tool to identify ambiguities, omissions and inconsistencies, and improves the applicability and efficacy of documents in the health settings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We apply and evaluate a methodology originally proposed for the verification of software specification documents to a specific SOP. The verification methodology uses the graph formalism to model the document. Semi-automatic analysis identifies possible problems in the model and in the original document. The verification is an iterative process that identifies possible faults in the original text that should be revised by its authors and/or specialists. RESULTS: The proposed method was able to identify 23 possible issues in the original document (ambiguities, omissions, redundant information, and inaccuracies, among others). The formal verification process aided the specialists to consider a wider range of usage scenarios and to identify which instructions form the kernel of the proposed SOP and which ones represent additional or required knowledge that are mandatory for the correct application of the medical document. CONCLUSION: By using the proposed verification process, a simpler and yet more complete SOP could be produced. As consequence, during the validation process the experts received a more mature document and could focus on the technical aspects of the procedure itself.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Documentação/normas , Leishmaniose Cutânea/terapia , Registros Médicos/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Software , Estudos de Validação como Assunto , Humanos , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde
7.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 26(2): 369-378, abr.-jun. 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-953313

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: descrever as proporções de abandono do tratamento segundo características sociodemográficas e clínico-epidemiológicas dos casos novos de tuberculose no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudo ecológico descritivo, com dados do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (Sinan) referentes ao período 2001-2014; a Gerência Regional de Saúde (GERES) calculou a proporção de abandono. RESULTADOS: dos 57.015 novos casos, 6.474 (11,3%) abandonaram o tratamento, representando decréscimo de 16,4% (2001) para 9,3% (2014); as GERES I Recife, III Palmares, IV Caruaru, VIII Petrolina e IX Ouricuri ainda apresentavam proporção de abandono >5% em 2014; essa proporção foi maior para homens (11,9%), de 20-39 anos (12,7%), com Ensino Fundamental incompleto (12,1%), negros (13,7%), institucionalizados (12,5%) e da forma clínica pulmonar + extrapulmonar (14,1%). CONCLUSÃO: apesar do decréscimo, a proporção de abandono continuava elevada; homens, adultos, com baixa escolaridade, negros, institucionalizados e portadores de tuberculose pulmonar mais extrapulmonar demonstram maior predisposição ao abandono.


OBJETIVO: describir las proporciones de abandono según características sociodemográficas y clínico-epidemiológicas de los nuevos casos en tratamiento para tuberculosis, en Pernambuco, Brasil. MÉTODOS: estudio ecológico descriptivo con datos del Sistema de Información sobre enfermedades de notificación obligatoria, en el período 2001-2014; la Gerencia Regional de Salud (GERES) calculó la proporción de abandono. RESULTADOS: de los 57.015 nuevos casos, 6.474 (11,3%) abandonaron el tratamiento, disminución del 16,4% (2001) al 9,3% (2014); las GERES I Recife, III Palmares, IV Caruaru, VIII Petrolina y IX Ouricuri tenían una proporción de abandono >5% en 2014; la proporción fue mayor en hombres (11,9%), entre 20-39 años (12,7%), con educación primaria incompleta (12,1%), negros (13,7%), institucionalizados (12,5%) y con presentación clínica pulmonar + extra pulmonar (14,1%). CONCLUSIÓN: a pesar de la disminución, la proporción de abandono se mantuvo alta; hombres, adultos con bajo nivel de educación, negros, institucionalizados y con tuberculosis pulmonar + extra pulmonar demuestran mayor predisposición al abandono.


OBJECTIVE: to describe abandonment rates according to sociodemographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of new tuberculosis cases being treated in Pernambuco State, Brazil. METHODS: this is a descriptive ecological study using data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases from 2001 to 2014; the abandonment rate was calculated by the Regional Administration on Health (GERES). RESULTS: of the 57,015 new cases, 6,474 (11.3%) abandoned treatment, although abandonment decreased from 16.4% (2001) to 9.3% (2014); the abandonment rate in GERES I Recife, III Palmares, IV Caruaru, VIII Petrolina and IX Ouricuri was still >5% in 2014; the rate was higher in males (11.9%), people aged 20-39 (12.7%), people with incomplete elementary school (12.1%), black-skinned people (13.7%), institutionalized people (12.5%) and those with pulmonary + extrapulmonary tuberculosis (14.1%). CONCLUSION: despite the decrease, the abandonment rate remained high; males, adults with low education level, black-skinned people, institutionalized patients and patients with pulmonary + extrapulmonary tuberculosis seemed more prone to abandoning treatment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Tuberculose , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento , Adesão à Medicação , Epidemiologia Descritiva
8.
Epidemiol Serv Saude ; 26(2): 369-378, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28492778

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to describe abandonment rates according to sociodemographic, clinical and epidemiological characteristics of new tuberculosis cases being treated in Pernambuco State, Brazil. METHODS: this is a descriptive ecological study using data from the Information System for Notifiable Diseases from 2001 to 2014; the abandonment rate was calculated by the Regional Administration on Health (GERES). RESULTS: of the 57,015 new cases, 6,474 (11.3%) abandoned treatment, although abandonment decreased from 16.4% (2001) to 9.3% (2014); the abandonment rate in GERES I Recife, III Palmares, IV Caruaru, VIII Petrolina and IX Ouricuri was still >5% in 2014; the rate was higher in males (11.9%), people aged 20-39 (12.7%), people with incomplete elementary school (12.1%), black-skinned people (13.7%), institutionalized people (12.5%) and those with pulmonary + extrapulmonary tuberculosis (14.1%). CONCLUSION: despite the decrease, the abandonment rate remained high; males, adults with low education level, black-skinned people, institutionalized patients and patients with pulmonary + extrapulmonary tuberculosis seemed more prone to abandoning treatment.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/administração & dosagem , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Sistemas de Informação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
9.
Zebrafish ; 14(2): 155-160, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28067606

RESUMO

Some species of Characiformes are known for their high economic value, such as Colossoma macropomum and Piaractus mesopotamicus, and are used in aquaculture programs to generate hybrid tambacu (interbreeding of C. macropomum females and P. mesopotamicus males). The present work aimed to investigate the location of the Rex3 and Rex6 transposable elements in the hybrid and in the species, in addition to checking the genomic organization of the 18S and 5S rDNA in tambacu. The diploid number found for the hybrid was equal to 54 chromosomes, with heterochromatic blocks distributed mainly in the centromeric portions. The chromosomal location of the mobile elements Rex3 and Rex6 in C. macropomum, P. mesopotamicus, and in the hybrid between these species enabled knowledge expansion and the generation of data on such mobile elements. In addition, the location of such elements is not related to the distribution of ribosomal DNA sites. The mapping of the 18S rDNA was shown to be effective in cytogenetic identification of the hybrid tambacu, allowing for differentiation from the parent species and from the hybrid between C. macropomum and the other species from Piaractus (P. brachypomus).


Assuntos
Caraciformes/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Hibridização Genética/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Animais , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Cariótipo , Masculino
10.
Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 21(1): 27-31, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27888363

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to evaluate the dimensions of the oropharynx and its shape in the minimum cross-sectional area, in individuals with Class I and Class II skeletal patterns, using three-dimensional CBCT images. METHODS: Forty-two cone-beam computed tomography images of grown individuals were evaluated. The images were divided according to the patient's skeletal patterns. The dimensions of the oropharyngeal airway space were determined using the Dolphin Imaging software. RESULTS: The volume and the minimum cross-sectional area were greater in patients with a Class I skeletal pattern, with a median difference of 5379 mm3 and 86.8 mm2, respectively. The anteroposterior and lateral diameters in the minimum cross-sectional area were also higher in Class I individuals (2.3 and 6.0 mm, respectively), but the ratio between them was not different. CONCLUSIONS: The volume and the minimum cross-sectional area of the oropharynx, as well as the anteroposterior and lateral diameters, are lower in individuals with a class II skeletal pattern than in individuals with a class I skeletal pattern. There was no difference in the shape of the oropharynx in healthy individuals with different skeletal patterns.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada de Feixe Cônico , Imageamento Tridimensional , Orofaringe/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Orofaringe/anatomia & histologia , Valores de Referência
11.
J Hered ; 108(3): 254-261, 2017 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27940473

RESUMO

Repetitive DNA sequences are present in the genome of basically every known organism, and transposable elements (TE) are one of the most representative sequences involved in chromosomal rearrangements and the genomic evolution of eukaryotes. In fish, the non-LTR retrotransposon TEs, Rex1, Rex3, and Rex6, are widely distributed in fish genomes and are the best-characterized TEs in several species. In the current study, three of these retroelements were physically mapped, through fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in 7 species (71 specimens) of the genus Ancistrus, known as bristlenose catfish: Ancistrus ranunculus, Ancistrus sp. 1 "Purus," Ancistrus sp. 2 "Catalão," Ancistrus dolichopterus, Ancistrus maximus, Ancistrus aff. dolichopterus, and Ancistrus dubius. Rex1, Rex3, and Rex6 showed a cluster distribution, mainly in the terminal and pericentromeric portions, in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, and did not occur in sexual chromosomes; however, the number and position of the clusters varied between species. This TE distribution suggests its implication in the karyotypic evolution of these species, without affecting the rise of sexual chromosome systems in Ancistrus, in view of their chromosomal variation.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Elementos de DNA Transponíveis , Animais , Brasil , Peixes-Gato/classificação , Feminino , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariótipo , Masculino , Retroelementos
12.
PLoS One ; 11(8): e0160274, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27494409

RESUMO

Boids are primitive snakes from a basal lineage that is widely distributed in Neotropical region. Many of these species are both morphologically and biogeographically divergent, and the relationship among some species remains uncertain even with evolutionary and phylogenetic studies being proposed for the group. For a better understanding of the evolutionary relationship between these snakes, we cytogenetically analysed 7 species and 3 subspecies of Neotropical snakes from the Boidae family using different chromosomal markers. The karyotypes of Boa constrictor occidentalis, Corallus hortulanus, Eunectes notaeus, Epicrates cenchria and Epicrates assisi are presented here for the first time with the redescriptions of the karyotypes of Boa constrictor constrictor, B. c. amarali, Eunectes murinus and Epicrates crassus. The three subspecies of Boa, two species of Eunectes and three species of Epicrates exhibit 2n = 36 chromosomes. In contrast, C. hortulanus presented a totally different karyotype composition for the Boidae family, showing 2n = 40 chromosomes with a greater number of macrochromosomes. Furthermore, chromosomal mapping of telomeric sequences revealed the presence of interstitial telomeric sites (ITSs) on many chromosomes in addition to the terminal markings on all chromosomes of all taxa analysed, with the exception of E. notaeus. Thus, we demonstrate that the karyotypes of these snakes are not as highly conserved as previously thought. Moreover, we provide an overview of the current cytotaxonomy of the group.


Assuntos
Boidae/classificação , Boidae/genética , Animais , Cromossomos , DNA Ribossômico , Heterocromatina/genética , Cariótipo , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo , Filogenia , Telômero
13.
Zebrafish ; 13(6): 571-577, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27454711

RESUMO

Microsternarchus bilineatus is a neotropical electric fish species widely distributed in Amazonian ecosystems. This work reports the first karyotypic description of the species M. bilineatus, which presented 2n = 48 chromosomes, with a distinct karyotypic formula between the sexes: males with 21 metacentric (m)/submetacentric (sm) + 27 subtelocentric (st)/acrocentric (a) and fundamental number (FN) = 69 and females with 20 m/sm + 28 st/a and FN = 68. We found a probable recent sex system of XX/XY type. The nucleoli organizer regions (NORs) were multiple terminally located, and the heterochromatic blocks were mostly pericentromeric. The 18S rDNA markings confirmed NORs and their distinction between sexes, which suggested some differential role of this gene related to gender in this species. The 5S rDNA presented terminal markings on a single chromosome pair, with no distinction between sexes, and the telomeric probes have shown a uniform pattern in males and females.


Assuntos
Gimnotiformes/genética , Cariótipo , Região Organizadora do Nucléolo , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Masculino , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , Caracteres Sexuais
14.
Mol Neurobiol ; 53(1): 423-435, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25465239

RESUMO

SH-SY5Y cells, a neuroblastoma cell line that is a well-established model system to study the initial phases of neuronal differentiation, have been used in studies to elucidate the mechanisms of neuronal differentiation. In the present study, we investigated alterations of gene expression in SH-SY5Y cells during neuronal differentiation mediated by retinoic acid (RA) treatment. We evaluated important pathways involving nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), nuclear E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), glycolytic, and p53 during neuronal differentiation. We also investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in modulating the gene expression profile of those pathways by antioxidant co-treatment with Trolox®, a hydrophilic analogue of α-tocopherol. We found that RA treatment increases levels of gene expression of NF-κB, glycolytic, and antioxidant pathway genes during neuronal differentiation of SH-SY5Y cells. We also found that ROS production induced by RA treatment in SH-SY5Y cells is involved in gene expression profile alterations, chiefly in NF-κB, and glycolytic pathways. Antioxidant co-treatment with Trolox® reversed the effects mediated by RA NF-κB, and glycolytic pathways gene expression. Interestingly, co-treatment with Trolox® did not reverse the effects in antioxidant gene expression mediated by RA in SH-SY5Y. To confirm neuronal differentiation, we quantified endogenous levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, a recognized marker of neuronal differentiation. Our data suggest that during neuronal differentiation mediated by RA, changes in profile gene expression of important pathways occur. These alterations are in part mediated by ROS production. Therefore, our results reinforce the importance in understanding the mechanism by which RA induces neuronal differentiation in SH-SY5Y cells, principally due this model being commonly used as a neuronal cell model in studies of neuronal pathologies.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Glicólise/genética , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , Neurônios/citologia , Tretinoína/farmacologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicólise/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
15.
Genet Mol Biol ; 37(1): 46-53, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24688290

RESUMO

The Serrasalmidae family is composed of a number of commercially interesting species, mainly in the Amazon region where most of these fishes occur. In the present study, we investigated the genomic organization of the 18S and 5S rDNA and telomeric sequences in mitotic chromosomes of four species from the basal clade of the Serrasalmidae family: Colossoma macropomum, Mylossoma aureum, M. duriventre, and Piaractus mesopotamicus, in order to understand the chromosomal evolution in the family. All the species studied had diploid numbers 2n = 54 and exclusively biarmed chromosomes, but variations of the karyotypic formulas were observed. C-banding resulted in similar patterns among the analyzed species, with heterochromatic blocks mainly present in centromeric regions. The 18S rDNA mapping of C. macropomum and P. mesopotamicus revealed multiple sites of this gene; 5S rDNA sites were detected in two chromosome pairs in all species, although not all of them were homeologs. Hybridization with a telomeric probe revealed signals in the terminal portions of chromosomes in all the species and an interstitial signal was observed in one pair of C. macropomum.

16.
Cad Saude Publica ; 29(10): 2131-5, 2013 Oct.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24127106

RESUMO

Changes have occurred in the world scenario in recent years due to declining fertility and mortality, and longevity has thus appeared as a real phenomenon. Sexuality of the elderly is viewed with various prejudices. The current study characterized AIDS cases in persons 60 years or older in Pernambuco State, Brazil, reported to the State Health Department from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed with data from the Information System on Diseases of Notification (SINAN). In 1998 the AIDS incidence rate in the target age bracket was 1.6 cases per 100 thousand, increasing to 4.8 per 100 thousand in 2008, or an increase of 200%. There is thus an evident need to develop measures for prevention, diagnosis, and patient care specifically targeting the elderly, since sexuality in this age bracket is still enshrouded by myths and taboos.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos
17.
Cad. saúde pública ; 29(10): 2131-2135, Out. 2013. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-688794

RESUMO

Mudanças vêm acontecendo no panorama mundial nos últimos anos devido ao declínio das taxas de fertilidade e mortalidade, e como decorrência a longevidade tem sido apresentada como um fenômeno real. Na maturidade, a sexualidade vem acrescida de vários preconceitos. O presente trabalho caracterizou os casos de AIDS em pessoas com 60 anos ou mais, residentes no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, notificados à Secretaria de Saúde de Pernambuco entre 1º de janeiro de 1998 e 31 de dezembro de 2008. Foi realizado um estudo transversal/descritivo, com base nos dados de notificação do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação (SINAN). Em 1998 a taxa de incidência de AIDS, na população de estudo, era de 1,6 caso/100 mil habitantes, passando para 4,8 casos/100 mil habitantes em 2008, caracterizando um aumento de 200%. Fica evidente a necessidade de desenvolvimento de ações de prevenção, diagnóstico e assistência direcionada especificamente para a terceira idade, uma vez que a sexualidade nesta fase da vida ainda é envolta por muitos tabus e mitos.


Changes have occurred in the world scenario in recent years due to declining fertility and mortality, and longevity has thus appeared as a real phenomenon. Sexuality of the elderly is viewed with various prejudices. The current study characterized AIDS cases in persons 60 years or older in Pernambuco State, Brazil, reported to the State Health Department from January 1, 1998, to December 31, 2008. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed with data from the Information System on Diseases of Notification (SINAN). In 1998 the AIDS incidence rate in the target age bracket was 1.6 cases per 100 thousand, increasing to 4.8 per 100 thousand in 2008, or an increase of 200%. There is thus an evident need to develop measures for prevention, diagnosis, and patient care specifically targeting the elderly, since sexuality in this age bracket is still enshrouded by myths and taboos.


Se están produciendo cambios en el escenario mundial durante los últimos años, debido a la reducción de las tasas de fecundidad y mortalidad, y como resultado, la longevidad se presenta como un fenómeno real. Durante la madurez, la sexualidad viene asociada a prejuicios más diversos. Este estudio caracteriza los casos de SIDA en personas de 60 años o más que vivían en el estado de Pernambuco, Brasil, y que se notificaron al Departamento de Salud de Pernambuco entre el 1 enero 1998 al 31 diciembre 2008. Se realizó un estudio transversal/ datos descriptivos con información del Sistema de Notificación de Resultados. En 1998, la tasa de incidencia del SIDA en la población estudiada fue de 1,6 casos por cada 100 mil habitantes, elevándose a 4,8 casos/100 mil habitantes en 2008, con un incremento del 200%. Es evidente la necesidad de desarrollo de la prevención, el diagnóstico y la asistencia dirigida específicamente a las personas mayores, ya que la sexualidad esa etapa de la vida, sigue rodeada de muchos tabúes y mitos.


Assuntos
Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Heterossexualidade , Incidência , Fatores Socioeconômicos
18.
Rev. bras. epidemiol ; 14(1): 151-160, mar. 2011. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-576939

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a frequência de anomalias craniofaciais em pacientes assistidos em um Centro de Referência Brasileiro para deformidades craniofaciais. MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo epidemiológico avaliando os prontuários clínicos de 1.142 pacientes, sendo 656 (57,4 por cento) do gênero masculino e 486 (42,6 por cento) do feminino, entre os anos de 1992 e 2008. RESULTADOS: Entre os defeitos congênitos, fissura labial e/ou palatina não-sindrômica foi o mais frequente (778 casos; 68,1 por cento), seguido por anomalias congênitas simples ou múltiplas sem fissura labial e/ou palatina (240 casos; 21 por cento), síndromes ou sequências reconhecidas (56 casos; 5 por cento), síndromes com fissura orofacial como um componente do quadro sindrômico (41 casos; 3,5 por cento), e fissuras orofaciais em associação com malformações sistêmicas (27 casos; 2,4 por cento). CONCLUSÕES: Observou-se que o defeito congênito identificado mais frequente foi a fissura labial e/ou palatina não-sindrômica, no entanto, anomalias isoladas e síndromes envolvendo as estruturas craniofaciais foram bastante encontradas. Além disso, ressalta-se a necessidade de estudos que identifiquem a frequência e os fatores de riscos associados às anomalias craniofaciais na população brasileira, a fim de que se planejem estratégias e ações integradas para o desenvolvimento de programas preventivos e de tratamento adequado.


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of craniofacial anomalies in patients treated at a Brazilian Reference Center for craniofacial deformities. METHOD: Retrospective epidemiological study evaluating the clinical records of 1,142 patients: 656 (57.4%) male and 486 (42.6%) female, between 1992 and 2008. RESULTS: Among birth defects, non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate were the most frequent ones (778 cases; 68.1%), followed by single or multiple congenital anomalies without cleft lip and/or palate (240 cases; 21%), recognized syndromes or sequences (56 cases; 5%), syndromes with orofacial cleft as a component (41 cases; 3.5%), and orofacial clefts in association with systemic malformations (27 cases; 2.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate was the congenital defect most frequently identified, although, isolated anomalies and syndromes involving craniofacial structures were quite frequent. Furthermore, the need for studies to identify the frequency and risk factors associated with craniofacial anomalies in the Brazilian population is emphasized in order to plan comprehensive strategies and integrated actions for the development of preventive programs and treatment.


Assuntos
Humanos , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/epidemiologia , Anormalidades Congênitas , Fenda Labial/epidemiologia , Fissura Palatina/epidemiologia , Serviços de Informação , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Fonoaudiol ; 15(4): 514-519, dez. 2010. graf, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-569393

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Conhecer os efeitos, para a audição, da exposição combinada ao monóxido de carbono e ao ruído em um grupo de operadores de empilhadeira. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se audiometria convencional em grupo controle exposto apenas ao ruído (Grupo 1) e um grupo de funcionários expostos ao monóxido de carbono e ao ruído (Grupo 2). RESULTADOS: Observou-se um caso sugestivo de perda auditiva induzida por ruído para o grupo exposto somente ao ruído (Group 1), e cinco casos para o grupo exposto ao monóxido de carbono e ruído (Group 2). A ocorrência de mudança significativa de limiar também foi maior no Grupo 2. Observaram-se diferenças nos limiares auditivos da orelha esquerda nas frequências de 1 kHz e 8 kHz no Grupo 2, comparativamente ao Grupo 1. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados demonstraram efeitos auditivos significativos causados pela exposição combinada ao monóxido de carbono e ao ruído em operadores de empilhadeira, em comparação ao grupo exposto somente ao ruído. Conclui-se que é imprescindível a realização dos monitoramentos ambiental, biológico e auditivo nos operadores de empilhadeira, independentemente do nível de ruído ao qual se encontram expostos.


PURPOSE: To get to know the effects of the combined exposure to carbon monoxide and noise on hearing, in a group of forklift operators. METHODS: A pure tone audiometry was carried out in a control group exposed only to noise (Group 1), and a group of employees exposed to both carbon monoxide and noise (Group 2). RESULTS: A single case of noise-induced hearing loss was observed in the group exposed to noise (Group 1), and five cases were observed in the group exposed to both carbon monoxide and noise (Group 2). The occurrence of significant threshold change was also higher in Group 2. There was a difference between the auditory thresholds in 1 and 8 kHz of the left ear in Group 2, when compared to Group 1. CONCLUSION: Results showed significant auditory effects caused by the combined exposure of forklift operators to carbon monoxide and noise, when compared to the group exposed only to noise. Thus, environmental, biological, and auditory monitoring of forklift operators is indispensable, regardless the level of noise to which they are exposed.


Assuntos
Humanos , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Efeitos do Ruído , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Perda Auditiva/etiologia
20.
Comput Biol Med ; 37(2): 134-48, 2007 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16620804

RESUMO

Understanding biochemical pathways is one of the biggest challenges in the field of molecular biology nowadays. Computer science can contribute in this area by providing formalisms and tools to simulate and analyse pathways. One formalism that is suited for modelling concurrent systems is Milner's Calculus of Communicating Systems (CCS). This paper shows the viability of using CCS to model and reason about biochemical networks. As a case study, we describe the regulation of lactose operon. After describing this operon formally using CCS, we validate our model by automatically checking some known properties for lactose regulation. Moreover, since biological systems tend to be very complex, we propose to use multiple descriptions of the same system at different levels of abstraction. The compatibility of these multiple views can be assured via mathematical proofs of observational equivalence.


Assuntos
Lactose/metabolismo , Modelos Teóricos , Óperon , Biologia de Sistemas
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