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1.
Vet Med Sci ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573747

RESUMO

Nocardia asiatica causing pyogranulomatous pleuropneumonia is reported for the first time in a dog coinfected with canine morbillivirus (CM), diagnosed based on epidemiological, clinical, haematological, images, microbiological, histopathological, polymerase chain reaction and hsp65 gene sequencing findings. The immunosuppression of CM probably favoured the opportunistic behaviour of N. asiatica. Despite the therapeutic measures, the animal died, mainly due to respiratory distress. The association of methods to improve early diagnosis, therapy procedures and prognosis of canine nocardiosis is discussed, as well as the close relationship between pets and their owners, which may favour the transmission of pathogens such as Nocardia from pets-to-humans, which poses an emerging public health issue.

2.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 66(6): 695-700, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173477

RESUMO

Coxiella burnetii is a zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution that is responsible for Q fever in humans. It is a highly infectious bacterium that can be transmitted from cattle to humans through the consumption of unpasteurized milk. We report the molecular identification of C. burnetii in raw cow's milk being sold directly for human consumption in Brazil without official inspection or pasteurization. One hundred and twelve samples of raw milk were analysed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and C. burnetii was detected in 3.57% (4/112) of the samples at a concentration ranging from 125 to 404 bacteria per millilitre. The identification of this zoonotic pathogen in raw milk sold directly for human consumption is a public health concern since C. burnetii can be transmitted through the oral route. This result indicates that health education and other preventive measures should be officially implemented in Brazil to prevent the spread of infection. To our knowledge, this is the first qPCR-based detection of C. burnetii in raw milk samples from cows sold in Brazil that do not undergo official inspection or pasteurization.

3.
Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther ; 26: 210-213, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30965146

RESUMO

Prototheca spp. are pathogenic algae with important zoonotic potential. Most importantly, these algae often infect dairy cattle. Since there is no effective therapy against the algae, the standard recommendation is the disposal or culling of infected cows to avoid outbreaks. This study investigated the ability of blue light to inactivate pathogenic Prototheca species. Blue LED light (λ = 410 nm) was used to inactivate in vitro suspensions of P. zopfii genotypes 1 and 2, and P. blaschkeae. Our results showed that blue light irradiation induced a strain-specific dose-dependent algicidal effect against all tested strains. P. zopfii genotype 1, was more sensitive than genotype 2 and P. blaschkeae was the most tolerant. Even though we observed different inactivation kinetics, all strains presented significant photoinactivation levels within feasible procedure periods. Therefore, we conclude that blue light irradiation offers promising potential for the development of novel technologies that control contaminations and infections caused by Prototheca spp.

4.
Sci Total Environ ; 633: 1345-1351, 2018 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29758886

RESUMO

The life cycle of synanthropic flies and their behavior, allows them to serve as mechanical vectors of several pathogens. Given that flies can carry multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, this study aimed to investigate the spread of genes of antimicrobial resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from flies collected in two dairy farms in Brazil. Besides antimicrobial resistance determinants, the presence of virulence genes related to bovine colibacillosis was also assessed. Of 94 flies collected, Musca domestica was the most frequently found in the two farms. We isolated 198 E. coli strains (farm A=135 and farm B=63), and >30% were MDR E. coli. We found an association between blaTEM and phenotypical resistance to ampicillin, or chloramphenicol, or tetracycline; and blaCTX-M and resistance to cefoperazone. A high frequency (86%) of phylogenetic group B1 among MDR strains and the lack of association between multidrug resistance and virulence factors suggest that antimicrobial resistance possibly is associated with the commensal bacteria. Clonal relatedness of MDR E. coli performed by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis showed wide genomic diversity. Different flies can carry clones, but with distinct antimicrobial resistance pattern. Sanger sequencing showed that the same class 1 integron arrangement is displayed by apparently unrelated strains, carried by different flies. Our conjugation results indicate class 1 integron transfer associated with tetracycline resistance. We report for the first time, in Brazil, that MDR E. coli is carried by flies in the milking environment. Therefore, flies can act as carriers for MDR strains and contribute to dissemination routes of antimicrobial resistance.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Dípteros/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Monitoramento Ambiental , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Animais , Brasil , Bovinos , Fazendas
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 50(6): 1319-1326, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29546549

RESUMO

Mycobacterium species and the virulence-associated proteins (vapA, vapB, and vapN genes) of Rhodococcus equi isolated from 330 lymph nodes of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) and white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) intended for human consumption were investigated. Thirty-six (10.9%) R. equi strains were isolated; 3.3% (n = 11/330) were from white-lipped peccary lymph nodes, and 7.6% (25/330) were from collared peccary lymph nodes. Among the 11 isolates of R. equi from the white-lipped peccaries, 90.9% (n = 10/11) were obtained from the mesenteric lymph nodes, and only 9.1% (n = 1/10) were obtained from the mediastinal lymph nodes. In the 25 isolates of R. equi obtained from the collared peccaries, 40.0% (n = 10/25) were recovered from the mesenteric lymph nodes, 36% (n = 9/25) from the submandibular lymph nodes, and 24.0% (n = 6/25) from the mediastinal lymph nodes. No vapA, vapB, or vapN genes (plasmidless) or three host-associated types (pVAPA, pVAPB, and pVAPN) were identified among the R. equi isolates. Mycobacterium species were isolated in 3.03% (n = 10/330) of all the lymph nodes analyzed. Among the 10 mycobacterial isolates, 60% (n = 6/10) were from the white-lipped peccary lymph nodes, and 40% (n = 4/10) were from the collared peccary lymph nodes. Ten Mycobacterium species were detected by PCR-PRA with a predominance of M. avium type 1. Sequencing of the hsp65 and rpob genes revealed mycobacteria that were saprophytic (M. sinense and M. kumamotonense) and potentially pathogenic (M. colombiense and M. intracellulare) to humans and animals. To our knowledge, this is the first description of R. equi and/or mycobacterial species identified in the lymph nodes of peccary specimens. R. equi (plasmidless) and the mycobacterial species described here have been reported as causes of pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised humans.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/microbiologia , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Rhodococcus equi/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Humanos , Mycobacterium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Rhodococcus equi/patogenicidade , Virulência
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29451594

RESUMO

Although the tuberculin test represents the main in vivo diagnostic method used in the control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis, few studies have focused on the identification of mycobacteria in the milk from cows positive to the tuberculin test. The aim of this study was to identify Mycobacterium species in milk samples from cows positive to the comparative intradermal test. Milk samples from 142 cows positive to the comparative intradermal test carried out in 4,766 animals were aseptically collected, cultivated on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media and incubated for up to 90 days. Colonies compatible with mycobacteria were stained by Ziehl-Neelsen to detect acid-fast bacilli, while to confirm the Mycobacterium genus, conventional PCR was performed. Fourteen mycobacterial strains were isolated from 12 cows (8.4%). The hsp65 gene sequencing identified M. engbaekii (n=5), M. arupense (n=4), M. nonchromogenicum (n=3), and M. heraklionense (n=2) species belong to the Mycobacterium terrae complex. Despite the absence of M. tuberculosis complex species in the milk samples, identification of these mycobacteria highlights the risk of pathogen transmission from bovines to humans throughout milk or dairy products, since many of mycobacterial species described here have been reported in pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised people.


Assuntos
Leite/microbiologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/veterinária , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Testes Intradérmicos , Infecções por Mycobacterium/microbiologia , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/diagnóstico , Infecções por Micobactéria não Tuberculosa/transmissão , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/genética , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco , Teste Tuberculínico
7.
Int J Syst Evol Microbiol ; 67(10): 3865-3871, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28884665

RESUMO

A strain of an achlorophyllic alga, named PR24T, was isolated from cow milk samples from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Based on 18S rDNA, 28S rRNA, D1/D2 region of the LSU rDNA and SSU rRNA gene sequence similarities, this strain was found to be a member of the genus Prototheca and closely related to Protothecablaschkeae SAG2064T. However, the novel strain could easily be distinguished from recognized Prototheca species by internal transcribed spacer, species-specific PCR, single-strand conformation polymorphism-PCR analysis and phenotypic characteristics. The inability to grow in Sabouraud broth at pH 4.0 and the different cellular fatty acid composition clearly distinguished PR24T from the reference strain of P. blaschkeae. The combination of genotypic and phenotypic data indicates that strain PR24T represents a subspecies of P. blaschkeae, for which the name Prototheca blaschkeae subsp. brasiliensis subsp. nov. is proposed. The respective type strain is PR24T (=DSM 103592T=IHEM 26958T).


Assuntos
Bovinos/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Filogenia , Prototheca/classificação , Animais , Composição de Bases , Brasil , DNA de Algas/genética , Ácidos Graxos/química , Feminino , Mastite Bovina , Prototheca/genética , Prototheca/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , RNA Ribossômico 28S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
8.
Genome Announc ; 5(33)2017 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28818893

RESUMO

The Hobi-like virus presents antigenic and molecular differences in relation to bovine virus diarrhea virus 1 and 2. The description of the complete genome of the Hobi-like virus SV757/15, isolated from a Nelore cow with gastroenteric disease in Brazil, will help in understanding the evolution and diversity of pestiviruses.

9.
Anaerobe ; 48: 66-69, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28733230

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens in 82 diarrheic dogs positive for canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV). Enterotoxigenic C. perfringens type A was isolated from three (3.6%) dogs. One (1.2%) strain was also positive for NetE- and NetF-encoding genes, which are commonly associated with diarrhea in dogs. Toxigenic C. difficile was isolated from one animal (1.2%), which was also positive for A/B toxins. The present study identified C. difficile and C. perfringens infection in CPV-positive dogs. Further studies are necessary to clarify if clostridial infections may predispose or potentiate CPV-infection in dogs or vice versa.


Assuntos
Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium difficile/isolamento & purificação , Clostridium perfringens/isolamento & purificação , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Toxinas Bacterianas/metabolismo , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Enterotoxinas/metabolismo , Parvovirus Canino/genética
10.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 59: e40, 2017 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28591268

RESUMO

Tuberculosis remains as the world's biggest threat. In 2014, human tuberculosis ranked as a major infectious disease by the first time, overcoming HIV death rates. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of global distribution that affects animals and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw milk, representing a serious public health concern. Despite the efforts of different countries to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis, the high negative economic impact on meat and milk production chains remains, given the decreased production efficiency (approximately 25%), the high number of condemned carcasses, and increased animal culling rates. This scenario has motivated the establishment of official programs based on regulations and diagnostic procedures. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are the major pathogenic species to humans and bovines, respectively, nontuberculous mycobacteria within the Mycobacterium genus have become increasingly important in recent decades due to human infections, including the ones that occur in immunocompetent people. Diagnosis of mycobacteria can be performed by microbiological culture from tissue samples (lymph nodes, lungs) and secretions (sputum, milk). In general, these pathogens demand special nutrient requirements for isolation/growth, and the use of selective and rich culture media. Indeed, within these genera, mycobacteria are classified as either fast- or slow-growth microorganisms. Regarding the latter ones, incubation times can vary from 45 to 90 days. Although microbiological culture is still considered the gold standard method for diagnosis, molecular approaches have been increasingly used. We describe here an overview of the diagnosis of Mycobacterium species in bovine milk.


Assuntos
Bovinos/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Humanos , Mycobacterium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia
11.
Tuberculosis (Edinb) ; 104: 30-37, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28454647

RESUMO

In developing nations, 10-20% of the human cases of tuberculosis are caused by Mycobacterium bovis. However, this percentage may be underestimated because most laboratories in developing countries do not routinely perform mycobacterial cultures, and only a few have the systems in place to identify M. bovis. There are few studies investigating genotypic diversity and drug resistance in M. bovis from animal and/or human infections. The genotypic diversity of M. bovis strains obtained from bovine lymph nodes were investigated by spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing (MIRU-VNTR). The phenotypic resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin and MIC values of the isolates were determined using the resazurin microtiter assay plate method (REMA). The evaluation of the possible genetic basis for such resistance was performed with GenoType MTBDRplus. Sixty-seven isolates were obtained, of which 11 (16%) were MDR-TB, 8 (12%) were isoniazid-resistant, and 2 (3%) were rifampicin-resistant. Mutations associated with drug resistance were not found. Genotyping techniques enabled the grouping of the strains into 12 clusters and 21 isolates with unique profiles. The high frequency of M. bovis reinforces the impact of the pathogen as a major causal agent of bovine tuberculosis in the study area. The resistance of the strains to drugs used for first-line treatment of human tuberculosis raises public health concerns. Further studies are required to elucidate the basis of drug resistance and genotypic diversity in M. bovis.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Variação Genética , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Linfonodos/efeitos dos fármacos , Repetições Minissatélites , Mycobacterium bovis/efeitos dos fármacos , Rifampina/farmacologia , Tuberculose Bovina/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bovinos , Genótipo , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mutação , Mycobacterium bovis/classificação , Mycobacterium bovis/genética , Mycobacterium bovis/patogenicidade , Fenótipo , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/microbiologia
12.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 37(4): 325-330, Apr. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895424

RESUMO

Septic arthritis is a debilitating joint infectious disease of equines that requires early diagnosis and immediate therapeutic intervention to prevent degenerative effects on the articular cartilage, as well as loss of athletic ability and work performance of the animals. Few studies have investigated the etiological complexity of this disease, as well as multidrug resistance of isolates. In this study, 60 horses with arthritis had synovial fluid samples aseptically collected, and tested by microbiological culture and in vitro susceptibility test (disk diffusion) using nine antimicrobials belonging to six different pharmacological groups. Bacteria were isolated in 45 (75.0%) samples, as follows: Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (11=18.3%), Escherichia coli (9=15.0%), Staphylococcus aureus (6=10.0%), Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (5=8.3%), Staphylococcus intermedius (2=3.3%), Proteus vulgaris (2=3.3%), Trueperella pyogenes (2=3.3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2=3.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1=1.7%), Rhodococcus equi (1=1.7%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (1=1.7%), Klebsiella oxytoca (1=1.7%), Nocardia asteroides (1=1.7%), and Enterobacter cloacae (1=1.7%). Ceftiofur was the most effective drug (>70% efficacy) against the pathogens in the disk diffusion test. In contrast, high resistance rate (>70% resistance) was observed to penicillin (42.2%), enrofloxacin (33.3%), and amikacin (31.2%). Eleven (24.4%) isolates were resistant to three or more different pharmacological groups and were considered multidrug resistant strains. The present study emphasizes the etiological complexity of equine septic arthritis, and highlights the need to institute treatment based on the in vitro susceptibility pattern, due to the multidrug resistance of isolates. According to the available literature, this is the first report in Brazil on the investigation of the etiology. of the septic arthritis in a great number of horses associated with multidrug resistance of the isolates.(AU)


Artrite séptica é uma artropatia infecciosa debilitante de equinos, que requer diagnóstico precoce e intervenção terapêutica imediata, com intuito de evitar a degeneração de a cartilagem articular e a perda da capacidade atlética e de trabalho dos animais. Poucos estudos têm investigado a complexidade etiológica da afecção, bem como a presença de multirresistência dos isolados aos antimicrobianos. Foram investigados 60 equinos portadores de artrite, submetidos à colheita asséptica de líquido sinovial para a realização de cultivo microbiológico e teste de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro (difusão com discos) com nove antimicrobianos pertencentes a seis diferentes grupos farmacológicos. Foi obtido isolamento microbiano em 45 (75,0%) amostras, como segue: Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (11=18,3%), Escherichia coli (9=15,0%), Staphylococcus aureus (6=10,0%), Streptococcus zooepidemicus (5=8,3%), Staphylococcus intermedius (2=3,3%), Proteus vulgaris (2=3,3%), Trueperella pyogenes (2=3,3%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2=3,3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (1=1,7%), Rhodococcus equi (1=1,7%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (1=1,7%), Klebsiella oxytoca (1=1,7%), Nocardia asteroides (1=1,7%) e Enterobacter cloacae (1=1,7%). Ceftiofur foi o antimicrobiano mais efetivo (>70% eficácia) in vitro diante dos patógenos. Em contraste, alta resistência dos isolados (>70% de resistência) foi observada para penicilina (42,2%), enrofloxacino (33,3%) e amicacina (31,2%). Onze (24,4%) isolados foram resistentes a três ou mais diferentes grupamentos de fármacos e considerados com resistência múltipla aos antimicrobianos. O presente estudo enaltece a complexidade etiológica envolvida na artrite séptica em equinos e ressalta a necessidade de instituir o tratamento dos animais com respaldo de testes de sensibilidade microbiana in vitro em virtude da resistência múltipla dos isolados. De acordo com a literatura consultada, esta é a primeira descrição no país da etiologia da artrite séptica em grande número de equinos associada a multirresistência dos isolados aos fármacos testados.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Artrite Infecciosa/etiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Cavalos
13.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 84: e0382017, 2017. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-981813

RESUMO

Bovine dermatophilosis is a dermatitis characterized by typical focal or localized lesions with "paintbrush" aspect and occasionally as disseminated cutaneous disease. We report the case of a one-year-old Nelore female with history of chronic cutaneous disseminated lesions that appeared immediately after a rainfall period. Serous to purulent exudates, hair with tufted appearance, hyperkeratotic, non-pruritic, hardened, yellowish to brown, and coalescent crusty lesions were observed distributed all over its body. Removal of the crusts revealed ulcerated or hemorrhagic areas, with irregular elevated crusts like "paintbrush". Microbiological diagnosis enabled the identification of a microorganism, the Dermatophilus congolensis. Despite disseminated and chronic lesions, we obtained a successful therapy with parenteral therapy using long-acting tetracycline based on modified in vitro disk diffusion test. The present report highlights success therapy in uncommon generalized bovine dermatophilosis with selection of first-choice drugs based on modified in vitro susceptibility test, and need of responsible use of antimicrobials in livestock.(AU)


A dermatofilose bovina é uma dermatite caracterizada por lesões focais ou localizadas com aspecto de "pincel" e, ocasionalmente, como lesão cutânea disseminada. Relata-se o caso de uma fêmea bovina de um ano de idade, que foi atendida apresentando história de lesões cutâneas crônicas imediatamente após um período de alta pluviosidade. Ao exame clínico, lesões serosas a purulentas, com hiperqueratose, coalescentes, não pruriginosas, ressecadas, de coloração amarelada à acinzentada foram observadas distribuídas de modo generalizado pelo animal. A remoção das crostas revelou áreas ulceradas ou hemorrágicas, com crostas irregulares e elevadas semelhantes a "pincel". O diagnóstico microbiológico possibilitou a identificação do micro-organismo Dermatophilus congolensis. Apesar das lesões disseminadas e crônicas, a cura do animal foi obtida com tratamento parenteral usando oxitetraciclina de longa duração, baseado em teste in vitro de sensibilidade microbiana modificado. O presente relato ressalta o sucesso no tratamento de caso incomum de lesões generalizadas de dermatofilose bovina com respaldo de teste in vitro de sensibilidade modificado, bem como a necessidade do uso responsável de antimicrobianos em animais de produção.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Oxitetraciclina , Terapêutica , Dermatite Digital , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Anti-Infecciosos
14.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 54(1): 81-87, 2017. ilus., tab.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-846777

RESUMO

The multidrug resistant and the emergence of methicillin-resistant staphylococci isolated from animals, food, and humans are public health concern. These microorganisms produce different toxins related to food poisoning in humans. This study aimed to characterize Staphylococcus spp. isolated from two organic milk farms in Brazil. A total of 259 milk samples were collected, from which 58 (22.4%) Staphylococcus spp. were isolated. The highest sensibility to ceftiofur and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was observed in 96.6% of Staphylococcus spp., and whereas 89% were resistant to penicillin G. The mecA gene was detected in 13.8% of the isolates. SEA and SEC were the most common enterotoxins detected. PFGE revealed genetic heterogeneity from S. intermedius and S. warneri analyzed, while S. aureus presented similar profiles among isolates from the two studied herds. To the best of our knowledge, the current study describes for the first time presence of enterotoxins, mecA gene, and genetic diversity of staphylococci isolated from organic dairy farms in Brazil.(AU)


A emergência de estafilococos multirresistentes e resistentes à meticilina, isolados de animais, alimentos e humanos é uma preocupação em saúde pública. Esses micro-organismos produzem diferentes toxinas relacionadas à intoxicação alimentar em humanos. Este estudo caracterizou Staphylococcus spp. isolados em duas fazendas orgânicas no Brasil. Foram coletadas 259 amostras de leite em duas propriedades leiteiras orgânicas, nas quais 58 (22,4%) estirpes de Staphylococcus spp. foram isoladas. A maior sensibilidade dos isolados foi observada para ceftiofur e sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim em 96,6%. Em contraste, acima de 89% de resistência dos estafilicocos foi encontrada para penicilina G. O gene mecA foi identificado em 13,8% dos isolados. SEA e SEC foram as enterotoxinas mais comumente detectadas. PFGE revelou heterogeneidade genética entre S. intermedius e S. warneri, enquanto S. aureus demonstraram perfis semelhantes entre isolados dos dois rebanhos estudados. Relata-se pela primeira vez no Brasil a detecção de enterotoxinas, o gene mecA e diversidade genética em estafilococos isolados de vacas em produção orgânica.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Farmacorresistência Viral Múltipla , Alimentos Orgânicos , Genes MDR , Leite/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/isolamento & purificação , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Enterotoxinas/genética , Variação Genética
15.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 59: e40, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-842765

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Tuberculosis remains as the world’s biggest threat. In 2014, human tuberculosis ranked as a major infectious disease by the first time, overcoming HIV death rates. Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic disease of global distribution that affects animals and can be transmitted to humans by the consumption of raw milk, representing a serious public health concern. Despite the efforts of different countries to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis, the high negative economic impact on meat and milk production chains remains, given the decreased production efficiency (approximately 25%), the high number of condemned carcasses, and increased animal culling rates. This scenario has motivated the establishment of official programs based on regulations and diagnostic procedures. Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis are the major pathogenic species to humans and bovines, respectively, nontuberculous mycobacteria within the Mycobacterium genus have become increasingly important in recent decades due to human infections, including the ones that occur in immunocompetent people. Diagnosis of mycobacteria can be performed by microbiological culture from tissue samples (lymph nodes, lungs) and secretions (sputum, milk). In general, these pathogens demand special nutrient requirements for isolation/growth, and the use of selective and rich culture media. Indeed, within these genera, mycobacteria are classified as either fast- or slow-growth microorganisms. Regarding the latter ones, incubation times can vary from 45 to 90 days. Although microbiological culture is still considered the gold standard method for diagnosis, molecular approaches have been increasingly used. We describe here an overview of the diagnosis of Mycobacterium species in bovine milk.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Bovinos/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/isolamento & purificação , Impressões Digitais de DNA/métodos , Mycobacterium/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Tuberculose Bovina/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Bovina/microbiologia
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(7): 587-590, jul. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-794767

RESUMO

The caudal vena cava thrombosis, or pulmonary thromboembolism, in cattle is correlated with lactic acidosis, caused by diets rich in grains and highly fermentable, associated or not to septic situations, used in feedlots of beef or high-producing dairy cattle. This paper reports an unusual caudal vena cava thrombosis in a cow, secondary to Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes infection, resulting in reduced milk production, anorexia, pale mucous membranes, ruminal atony, sternal decubitus and autoauscultation position. The heart was enlarged at necropsy, presence of clots distributed along the thoracic cavity, adherence between lung and pleura, abscesses, emphysema, petechiae, suffusions and ecchymosis in lungs, thickening of the caudal vena cava wall, hepatomegaly with chronic passive congestion ("nutmeg" aspect), and rumenitis. In lab, the actinomycete Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes was isolated from liver and lung samples, probably resulting through dissemination of the bacteria of the rumen content, what reaffirms the opportunistic behavior of this actinomycete.(AU)


A síndrome da veia cava caudal ou tromboembolismo pulmonar bovino está relacionada à acidose láctica causada por dietas ricas em grãos e altamente fermentáveis, associados ou não a quadros sépticos, usadas em confinamentos de bovinos de corte ou para vacas leiteiras de alta produção. O presente artigo reporta caso raro de trombose da veia cava caudal em uma vaca, secundária a infecção por Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes, apresentando reduzida produção de leite, anorexia, palidez de mucosas, atonia ruminal, decúbito esternal e posição de autoauscultação. À necrópsia observou-se coração aumentado de tamanho, coágulos distribuídos por toda cavidade torácica, aderência entre os pulmões e pleura, abscessos, enfisema, petéquias, sufusões, equimoses nos pulmões, espessamento da parede da veia cava caudal com trombo, hepatomegalia com congestão passiva crônica (aspecto de "noz moscada"), e ruminite. Em laboratório isolou-se o actinomiceto Trueperella (Arcanobacterium) pyogenes a partir de amostras de fígado e pulmão, provavelmente resultando da disseminação da bactéria proveniente do conteúdo ruminal, e reafirma o comportamento oportunista deste actinomiceto.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Arcanobacterium/patogenicidade , Embolia Pulmonar/veterinária , Veias Cavas/patologia , Abscesso/veterinária , Acidose Láctica/veterinária
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2016: 1512690, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28116290

RESUMO

Diarrhea is a major clinical problem affecting foals up to 3 months of age. The aim of this study was to identify enteric microorganisms involved in monoinfections and coinfections and the associated virulence factors in healthy and diarrheic foals. Diarrheic (D) (n = 56) and nondiarrheic (ND) foals (n = 60) up to three months of age were studied. Fecal samples were analyzed for identification of infectious agents (microbiological culturing, molecular techniques, and microscopic analyses). Escherichia coli fimH (30% versus 25%), Salmonella spp. (25% versus 7%), Strongyloides westeri (25% versus 25%), Clostridium perfringens type A (21% versus 10%), E. coli ag43 (20% versus 35%), Strongylus (11% versus 18%), and vapA-positive Rhodococcus equi (5% versus 2%) were the most frequent enteric pathogens detected in D and ND foals, respectively. The frequency of toxin A-positive C. perfringens was significantly increased in the D (p = 0.033) compared with the ND animals. R. equi strains harboring virulent plasmids were also identified (VapA 85-kb type I and VapA 87-kb type I) in D and ND foals. Coinfections were observed in 46% of the D and 33% of the ND foals. Our results demonstrate the great diversity of enteric pathogens, virulence factors, and coinfections involved in enteric infections of foals.


Assuntos
Diarreia/veterinária , Disenteria/microbiologia , Disenteria/parasitologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/parasitologia , Animais , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/parasitologia , Disenteria/virologia , Feminino , Doenças dos Cavalos/virologia , Cavalos , Masculino
18.
Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo ; 57(3): 251-6, 2015 May-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26200967

RESUMO

Nocardia is a ubiquitous microorganism related to pyogranulomatous infection, which is difficult to treat in humans and animals. The occurrence of the disease is on the rise in many countries due to an increase in immunosuppressive diseases and treatments. This report of cases from Brazil presents the genotypic characterization and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern using the disk-diffusion method and inhibitory minimal concentration with E-test® strips. In summary, this report focuses on infections in young adult men, of which three cases were cutaneous, two pulmonary, one neurological and one systemic. The pulmonary, neurological and systemic cases were attributed to immunosuppressive diseases or treatments. Sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA segments (1491 bp) identified four isolates of Nocardia farcinica, two isolates of Nocardia nova and one isolate of Nocardia asiatica. N. farcinica was involved in two cutaneous, one systemic and other pulmonary cases; N. nova was involved in one neurological and one pulmonary case; and Nocardia asiatica in one cutaneous case. The disk-diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that the most effective antimicrobials were amikacin (100%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (100%), cephalexin (100%) and ceftiofur (100%), while isolates had presented most resistance to gentamicin (43%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (43%) and ampicillin (29%). However, on the inhibitory minimal concentration test (MIC test), only one of the four isolates of Nocardia farcinica was resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Nocardiose/microbiologia , Nocardia/genética , Adulto , Animais , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Brasil , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Humanos , Masculino , Nocardia/classificação , Nocardia/isolamento & purificação , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
19.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 57(3): 251-256, May-Jun/2015. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-752597

RESUMO

Nocardia is a ubiquitous microorganism related to pyogranulomatous infection, which is difficult to treat in humans and animals. The occurrence of the disease is on the rise in many countries due to an increase in immunosuppressive diseases and treatments. This report of cases from Brazil presents the genotypic characterization and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern using the disk-diffusion method and inhibitory minimal concentration with E-test® strips. In summary, this report focuses on infections in young adult men, of which three cases were cutaneous, two pulmonary, one neurological and one systemic. The pulmonary, neurological and systemic cases were attributed to immunosuppressive diseases or treatments. Sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA segments (1491 bp) identified four isolates of Nocardia farcinica, two isolates of Nocardia nova and one isolate of Nocardia asiatica. N. farcinica was involved in two cutaneous, one systemic and other pulmonary cases; N. nova was involved in one neurological and one pulmonary case; and Nocardia asiatica in one cutaneous case. The disk-diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that the most effective antimicrobials were amikacin (100%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (100%), cephalexin (100%) and ceftiofur (100%), while isolates had presented most resistance to gentamicin (43%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (43%) and ampicillin (29%). However, on the inhibitory minimal concentration test (MIC test), only one of the four isolates of Nocardia farcinica was resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.


Nocardia é um microorganismo ubiquitário relacionado a infecções piogranulomatosas, com difícil resolução tecidual em humanos e animais. A doença é mundialmente emergente devido ao aumento de doenças e tratamentos imunossupressores. Este relato de casos ocorridos no Brasil visa apresentar a identificação molecular dos isolados e o padrão de sensibilidade a antimicrobianos por disco-difusão e concentração inibitória mínima (CIM) através de fitas E-test®. Os casos ocorreram em homens, em idade adulta. Três quadros foram cutâneos, dois pulmonares, um neurológico e um sistêmico. O quadro respiratório, o neurológico e um sistêmico estavam associados à doença ou terapia imunossupressoras. O sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA (1491pb) possibilitou a identificação de quatro isolados de Nocardia farcinica, dois de Nocardia nova e um de Nocardia asiatica. N. farcinica foi observada em dois casos dermatológicos, um pulmonar e um quadro sistêmico, N. nova foi isolada de um caso neurológico e outro pulmonar; e N. asiatica em um caso dermatológico. O teste de disco-difusão mostrou que amicacina (100%), amoxicilina/clavulanato (100%), cefalexina (100%) e ceftiofur (100%) foram mais efetivos; enquanto gentamicina (43%), sulfametoxazol/trimetoprim (43%) e ampicilina (29%) foram menos efetivos. No entanto, no teste de concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), apenas um dos quatro isolados da espécie Nocardia farcinica mostrou-se resistente a sulfametoxazole-trimetropina.


Assuntos
Adulto , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Nocardiose/microbiologia , Nocardia/genética , Técnicas de Tipagem Bacteriana , Brasil , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Nocardia/classificação , Nocardia/isolamento & purificação , /genética
20.
Vet Microbiol ; 178(1-2): 163-6, 2015 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25937144

RESUMO

Many new, emerging and re-emerging diseases of humans are caused by pathogens which originate from animals or products of animal origin. Corynebacterium lactis, a recently described species of the genus Corynebacterium, was first isolated from milk of asymptomatic cows. In the present study a cutaneous abscess caused by C. lactis in a dog was recognized by cytologic and histologic examination in addition to 16S rRNA gene analysis of the microorganism. Therefore, C. lactis should be included among other bacterial species recognized as emerging pathogens for companion animals.


Assuntos
Abscesso/patologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Infecções por Corynebacterium/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Animais de Estimação , Pele/patologia , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Corynebacterium/genética , Infecções por Corynebacterium/patologia , Cães , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
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