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1.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 143: 102-116, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31563077

RESUMO

Choice of treatment for newly diagnosed transplant-ineligible multiple myeloma poses a difficult task due to an ever-increasing plethora of different regimens. Attempting to clarify this subject, we performed a systematic review and Bayesian network meta-analysis of 29 randomized clinical trials, enrolling 14,533 patients, and comparing 25 different treatment regimens regarding overall survival(OS), progression-free survival(PFS), complete response(CR), overall response rate(ORR) and toxicity. Head-to-head comparisons for all regimens and ranking of best treatments are reported. OS analysis showed superiority of lenalidomide(R) and bortezomib(V) containing regimens over thalidomide(T) protocols (e.g. Rd/CTD-HR:0.7;95%CrI:0.53-0.93, VMP/TD-HR:95%0.45;CrI:0.29-0.69). Concerning PFS, daratumumab(D) plus V (Dara-VMP) showed superior results over R (e.g. Dara-VMP/MPR-HR:0.52;95%CrI:0.34-0.77), V plus T (Dara-VMP/VTd-HR:0.56;95%CrI:0.37-0.65) and T (Dara-VMP/CTD-HR:0.34;95%CrI:0.23-0.49) containing regimens. Also, VRd and VMPT-VT performed well over other regimens. Dara-VMP showed superior response rates over R (ORR Dara-VMP/MPR-RR:6.27;95%CrI:2.18-18.95, CR Dara-VMP/MPR-RR:1.53;95%CrI:1.21-1.96) and T (ORR Dara-VMP/MPT-T-RR:4.05;95%CrI:1.19-13.26, CR Dara-VMP/MPT-T-RR:1.42;95%CrI:1.09-1.85; ORR Dara-VMP/CTD-RR:2.72;95%CrI:1.2-6.31, CR Dara-VMP/CTD-RR:1.2;95%CrI:1.05-1.36) including a higher rate of complete remission even when compared to VRd (RR:1.29;95%CrI:1.01-1.66). A higher rate of grade 3-4 adverse events was found for RD and CPR (thrombotic); VTd, VTP and VMPT-VT (neurological); RD and VAD (infectious); MPR-R and VAD (hematological); Vd and VTd (gastrointestinal); VAD, VMPCc and RD (cardiovascular). These results confirm obsolescence of classical regimens (such as VAD and MP) while pointing out benefits in efficacy resulting from incorporation of quadruplets and triplets combining new agents (Dara-VMP, VRd and VMPT-VT) and supports current rational of treatment until progression or prohibitive toxicity, especially when including lenalidomide. Based on this data, we would recommended incorporation of strategies combining novel agents (monoclonal antibodies, immunomodulatory imide drugs and proteasome inhibitors) in triplets or quadruplets and/or those comprising long term use of lenalidomide as standard frontline treatments. Moreover, this study settles daratumumab's place as an attractive alternative for upfront treatment.

2.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 113(2): 252-257, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1019391

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia worldwide, with significantly associated hospitalizations. Considering its growing incidence, the AF related economic burden to healthcare systems is increasing. Healthcare expenditures might be substantially reduced after AF radiofrequency ablation (AFRA). Objective: To compare resource utilization and costs before and after AFRA in a cohort of patients from the Brazilian private healthcare system. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, based on patients' billing information from an administrative database. Eighty-three adult patients who had an AFRA procedure between 2014 and 2015 were included. Healthcare resource utilization related to cardiovascular causes, including ambulatory and hospital care, as well as its costs, were analyzed. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean follow-up was 14.7 ± 7.1 and 10.7 ± 5.4 months before and after AFRA, respectively. The 1-year AF recurrence-free rate was 83.6%. Before AFRA, median monthly total costs were Brazilian Reais (BRL) 286 (interquartile range [IQR]: 137-766), which decreased by 63.5% (p = 0.001) after the procedure, to BRL 104 (IQR: 57-232). Costs were reduced both in the emergency (by 58.6%, p < 0.001) and outpatient settings (by 56%, p < 0.001); there were no significant differences in the outpatient visits, inpatient elective admissions and elective admission costs before and after AFRA. The monthly median emergency department visits were reduced (p < 0.001). Conclusion: In this cohort, overall healthcare costs were reduced by 63.5%. A longer follow-up could be useful to evaluate if long-term cost reduction is maintained.


Resumo Fundamento: A fibrilação atrial (FA) é a arritmia mais comum em todo o mundo, com hospitalizações significativamente associadas. Considerando sua crescente incidência, a carga econômica relacionada à FA para os sistemas de saúde está aumentando. Os gastos com saúde podem ser substancialmente reduzidos após a ablação por radiofrequência (ARF). Objetivo: Comparar a utilização de recursos e os custos anteriores e posteriores à ARF em uma coorte de pacientes do sistema de saúde privado brasileiro. Métodos: Foi realizado um estudo de coorte retrospectivo, com base nas informações de cobrança dos pacientes de um banco de dados administrativo. Foram incluídos oitenta e três pacientes adultos que passaram pelo procedimento de ARF entre 2014 e 2015. A utilização de recursos de saúde relacionados às causas cardiovasculares, incluindo atendimento ambulatorial e hospitalar, assim como seus custos, foram analisados. Um valor de p inferior a 0,05 foi considerado estatisticamente significativo. Resultados: O seguimento médio foi de 14,7 ± 7,1 e 10,7 ± 5,4 meses antes e após a ARF, respectivamente. A taxa de FA livre de recidiva em 1 ano foi de 83,6%. Antes da ARF, a mediana dos custos totais mensais foi de R$286,00 (intervalo interquartil [IIQ]: 137-766), com redução de 63,5% (p = 0,001) após o procedimento, para um valor de R$104 (IIQ: 57-232). Os custos foram reduzidos tanto na emergência (em 58,6%, p < 0,001) como no ambiente ambulatorial (em 56%, p < 0,001); não houve diferenças significativas nas consultas ambulatoriais, internações eletivas e custos de internação eletiva antes e depois da ARF. As medianas das consultas mensais no setor de emergência foram reduzidas (p < 0,001). Conclusão: Nesta coorte, os custos gerais com saúde foram reduzidos em 63,5%. Um seguimento mais longo pode ser útil para avaliar se a redução de custos em longo prazo é mantida.

3.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 113(2): 252-257, 2019 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365602

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia worldwide, with significantly associated hospitalizations. Considering its growing incidence, the AF related economic burden to healthcare systems is increasing. Healthcare expenditures might be substantially reduced after AF radiofrequency ablation (AFRA). OBJECTIVE: To compare resource utilization and costs before and after AFRA in a cohort of patients from the Brazilian private healthcare system. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study, based on patients' billing information from an administrative database. Eighty-three adult patients who had an AFRA procedure between 2014 and 2015 were included. Healthcare resource utilization related to cardiovascular causes, including ambulatory and hospital care, as well as its costs, were analyzed. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 14.7 ± 7.1 and 10.7 ± 5.4 months before and after AFRA, respectively. The 1-year AF recurrence-free rate was 83.6%. Before AFRA, median monthly total costs were Brazilian Reais (BRL) 286 (interquartile range [IQR]: 137-766), which decreased by 63.5% (p = 0.001) after the procedure, to BRL 104 (IQR: 57-232). Costs were reduced both in the emergency (by 58.6%, p < 0.001) and outpatient settings (by 56%, p < 0.001); there were no significant differences in the outpatient visits, inpatient elective admissions and elective admission costs before and after AFRA. The monthly median emergency department visits were reduced (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this cohort, overall healthcare costs were reduced by 63.5%. A longer follow-up could be useful to evaluate if long-term cost reduction is maintained.

4.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 11(1): 49-56, Abril/2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1005722

RESUMO

Objetivo: Avaliar a custo-efetividade da empagliflozina adicionada ao cuidado usual para tratamento de diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) no cenário da saúde suplementar brasileira. Métodos: Foi utilizada simulação de eventos discretos, com dados de efetividade baseados no estudo EMPA-REG OUTCOME. Foram incluídos pacientes com DM2 e alto risco cardiovascular (histórico de cardiopatia isquêmica, acidente vascular cerebral ou doença vascular periférica). O horizonte temporal foi o tempo de vida; a taxa de desconto foi de 5% ao ano. Os dados de utilidade foram predominantemente de estudos brasileiros. Para estimar os custos de eventos/condições com diferença estatisticamente significativa no EMPA-REG OUTCOME (insuficiência cardíaca, diálise, morte cardiovascular), foi feita uma revisão sistemática, que identificou estudos com dados da saúde suplementar. O limiar de disposição a pagar utilizado foi 1 produto interno bruto (PIB) per capita (2017: R$ 31.587). Foram conduzidas análises de sensibilidade determinísticas e probabilísticas. Resultados: No caso-base, a empagliflozina gerou ganho de 0,66 ano de vida ajustado para qualidade (QALY) na comparação com o cuidado usual, com acréscimo de R$ 12.630 e relação de custo-efetividade incremental (RCEI) de R$ 18.895/QALY. Na análise determinística, nenhuma variação de parâmetro resultou em RCEI acima do limiar. A análise probabilística teve RCEI média de R$ 19.878/QALY (intervalo de credibilidade de 2,5% a 97,5%: R$ 5.237-R$ 36.451). Considerando 1 PIB per capita, 50% das simulações seriam custo-efetivas; para 2 PIB per capita, o percentual ultrapassaria 90%. Conclusão: Considerando o limiar de custo-efetividade adotado, de 1 PIB per capita, a empagliflozina se mostrou custo-efetiva em relação ao cuidado usual na perspectiva da saúde suplementar brasileira.


Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of empagliflozin added to usual care in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the private healthcare sector. Methods: We used a discrete events simulation model with effectiveness data based on the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial. The population included patients with T2DM at high cardiovascular risk (history of ischemic heart disease, stroke, or peripheral vascular disease). A lifetime horizon and a 5% annual discount rate were used. The utility data used were predominantly from Brazilian studies. To estimate the cost of events/conditions with statistically significant difference in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial (heart failure, dialysis, cardiovascular death), a systematic review was performed to identify studies with data from the private healthcare system. A willingness-to-pay threshold of 1 GDP per capita (2017: R$ 31,587) was considered. Deterministic sensitivity analysis and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis were performed. Results: In the base case, empagliflozin generated incremental 0.66 QALY as compared to usual care, with an added cost of R$ 12,630 and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of R$ 18,895/QALY. None of the parameter variations evaluated by deterministic analysis generated ICERs above the cost-effectiveness threshold. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis revealed mean ICER of R$ 19,878/QALY (credibility interval 2.5% to 97.5%: R$ 5,237 to R$ 36,451). Considering 1 GDP per capita, 50% of the simulations would be cost-effective; considering 2 GDP per capita, over 90% would be cost-effective. Conclusion: Considering a threshold of 1 GDP per capita, the study shows that empagliflozin was cost-effective from the perspective of the Brazilian private healthcare sector.


Assuntos
Humanos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Saúde Suplementar
5.
Int J Health Care Qual Assur ; 32(2): 474-487, 2019 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017060

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to identify and describe hospital quality indicators, classifying them according to Donabedian's structure, process and outcome model and in specific domains (quality, safety, infection and mortality) in two care divisions: inpatient and emergency services. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: A systematic review identified hospital clinical indicators. Two independent investigators evaluated 70 articles/documents located in electronic databases and nine documents from the grey literature, 35 were included in the systematic review. FINDINGS: In total, 248 hospital-based indicators were classified as infection, safety, quality and mortality domains. Only 10.2 percent were identified in more than one article/document and 47 percent showed how they were calculated/obtained. Although there are scientific papers on developing, validating and hospital indicator assessment, most indicators were obtained from technical reports, government publications or health professional associations. RESEARCH LIMITATIONS/IMPLICATIONS: This review identified several hospital structure, process and outcome quality indicators, which are used by different national and international groups in both research and clinical practice. Comparing performance between healthcare organizations was difficult. Common clinical care standard indicators used by different networks, programs and institutions are essential to hospital quality benchmarking. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first systematic review to identify and describe hospital quality indicators after a comprehensive search in MEDLINE/PubMed, etc., and the grey literature, aiming to identify as many indicators as possible. Few studies evaluate the indicators, and most are found only in the grey literature, and have been published mostly by government agencies. Documents published in scientific journals usually refer to a specific indicator or to constructing an indicator. However, indicators most commonly found are not supported by reliability or validity studies.

6.
Hematol Oncol ; 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30129104

RESUMO

Autologous transplantation continues to be the cornerstone of younger and fit multiple myeloma patients. It is known that frontline induction therapy before transplantation can influence post-transplant results. Therefore, best frontline treatment for transplant-eligible patients should be based on best available evidence to guide therapy. Furthermore, until now due to data scarcity, it was not possible to thoroughly compare lenalidomide to other regimens in this setting. We performed a systematic review and network (mixed treatment comparison) meta-analysis of 21 clinical trial publications, enrolling 6474 patients and comparing 11 different treatment frontline setting regimens regarding survival, response, and safety outcomes. OS analysis showed superiority of CRD (cyclophosphamide-lenalidomide-dexamethasone) over TD-based (thalidomide-dexamethasone, HR = 0.76,0.62-0.90), VAD-based (HR = 0.71,0.52-0.90), and Z-Dex (idarubicin-dexamethasone, HR = 0.37,0.17-0.76) regimens. Concerning PFS, VTD (bortezomib-thalidomide-dexametasone) showed superior results when compared with TD-based (HR = 0.66,0.51-0.84), VAD-based (HR = 0.61,0.46-0.82), Z-Dex (HR = 0.42,0.22-0.78), and high dose dexamethasone (Dex, HR = 0.62,0.41-0.90) regimens. Bortezomib/thalidomide regimens were not superior to lenalidomide, considering these outcomes. Also, concerning complete and overall response, VTD ranked first among other regimens, showing clear superiority over thalidomide-only containing protocols. Safety outcome evaluated infectious, cardiac, gastrointestinal, neurological, thrombotic, and hematological grade 3 to 4 adverse events. Risk of thrombotic events was higher with TAD (thalidomide-doxorubicin-dexamethasone), neurological with PAD (bortezomib-doxorubicin-dexamethasone), infectious with Dex, hematological with Z-Dex, gastrointestinal with VTD, and cardiac with PAD regimens. Our study endorses current recommendations on combined immunomodulatory drugs and proteasome inhibitors frontline regimens (in triplets) in transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients, but also formally demonstrates the favorable performance of lenalidomide in overall and progression-free survival, when compared with bortezomib/thalidomide protocols.

7.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 10(2): 126-133, Agosto/2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-914924

RESUMO

Objetivo: Avaliar a custo-utilidade e o impacto orçamentário (IO) da abiraterona para o tratamento de câncer de próstata resistente à castração, em pacientes previamente tratados com docetaxel. Métodos: Foi construído um modelo de Markov com ciclos mensais sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), em um horizonte temporal de cinco anos e taxa de desconto de 5%. A estimativa de efetividade foi oriunda do principal ensaio clínico dessa condição de saúde. Para dados de utilidade, aplicaram-se estimativas internacionais, enquanto para custos se utilizaram tabelas de remuneração do SUS. Para o IO, a população-alvo foi estimada com base em dados do Departamento de Informática do SUS (DATASUS). Resultados: A abiraterona ocasionou ganho de 1,045 ano de vida ajustado para qualidade (QALY) e 1,609 ano de vida ganho (AVG), enquanto para o placebo esses valores foram de 0,763 e 1,299, respectivamente. O custo total na estratégia abiraterona foi de R$ 83.295 e para o placebo, de R$ 2.895. A relação de custo-efetividade incremental (RCEI) foi de R$ 284.416 por QALY ganho. Em nenhuma das análises de sensibilidade os valores ficaram abaixo de R$ 100.000 por QALY. Mesmo quando variados simultaneamente seis parâmetros, todos no seu limite mais favorável à abiraterona, os resultados seguiram elevados, com RCEI de R$ 98.330 por QALY. O IO foi de R$ 270 milhões em cinco anos no cenário mais conservador (tempo médio de tratamento de 7,4 meses e 10% de novos casos/ano). Conclusão: A abiraterona se mostrou pouco custo-efetiva nesta situação clínica, com RCEI superior a nove vezes o PIB per capita por QALY, sendo os resultados robustos em análise de sensibilidade.


Objective: To evaluate the cost-utility and the budget impact (BI) of abiraterone in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel. Methods: A Markov model was constructed, with monthly cycles, under the perspective of the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS), in a 5-year time horizon, and with a 5% discount rate. The effectiveness estimate was obtained from the pivotal clinical trial for abiraterone in this health condition. For utility data, international estimates were applied; while for costs, SUS reimbursement information were used. In the BI analysis, the target population was estimated with claims data from DATASUS. Results: Abiraterone resulted in a gain of 1.045 quality-adjusted life years (QALY) and 1.609 life years gained (LYG), while for placebo these values were 0.763 and 1.299, respectively. The total cost for the abiraterone strategy was BRL 83,295, and for placebo, BRL 2,895. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was BRL 284,416 per QALY gained. None of the estimates from the sensitivity analysis was below BRL 100,000 per QALY. Even when six parameters were variated simultaneously in the range more favorable to abiraterone, the results were still elevated, with an ICER of BRL 98,330 per QALY. The BI was BRL 270 million in 5 years in the most conservative scenario (average time of the treatment of 7.4 months and 10% of the new cases/year). Conclusion: Abiraterone shows unfavorable cost-effective results for this clinical condition in Brazil, with an ICER above 9 times the per capita per QALY. Results were robust in sensitivity analysis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Análise Custo-Benefício , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração , Acetato de Abiraterona
8.
Clin Breast Cancer ; 18(5): e797-e803, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29778786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current studies have shown that fast weight gain may be more important than body mass index on the incidence of breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between body weight and breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a case-control study nested in a cohort of a breast cancer mammography screening program in Southern Brazil. A trained investigator administered a standardized interview to collect sociodemographic and clinical data, and body weight history (weight at menarche, at marriage, at first and last pregnancy, and at menopause). Current anthropometric measurements were also made. RESULTS: Fifty-seven women with cancer (66.7% postmenopausal) and 159 controls were included. Current age (60.3 ± 10.4 vs. 55.8 ± 8.4 years, P < .01), marital status (49.1% vs. 64.8% with a partner, P = .03), and physical activity (48.2% vs. 32.3% sedentary, P = .01) were significantly different between cases and controls, respectively. Odds ratio showed that age and current waist circumference were associated with postmenopausal cancer. No difference was found in relation to body weight at different stages of life. CONCLUSION: Women with social vulnerability recruited at a mammography screening program in Southern Brazil showed a large weight gain during life, but no significant differences were found in body weight between women with or without breast cancer.

9.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 10(1): 56-63, Abr. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-884395

RESUMO

Objetivo: Realizar uma análise de custo-utilidade de empagliflozina em pacientes com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2) e alto risco cardiovascular. Métodos: O modelo empregado foi uma simulação de eventos discretos, com dados baseados na incidência de eventos cardiovasculares do ensaio clínico EMPA-REG OUTCOME. A população-alvo foi de sujeitos com DM2 e alto risco cardiovascular (histórico de cardiopatia isquêmica, acidente vascular cerebral ou doença vascular periférica). O horizonte temporal foi o de tempo de vida; a taxa de desconto, de 5% ao ano; e a perspectiva, a do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Os dados de utilidade foram obtidos de estudos brasileiros e internacionais. Os custos refletiram valores desembolsados pelo SUS. Foram conduzidas análises de sensibilidade determinísticas nos principais parâmetros e probabilística para avaliar a robustez global dos resultados. Resultados: No caso-base, a empagliflozina gerou 0,66 ano de vida ajustados para qualidade (QALY) a mais, com custo de R$ 19.176 maior, gerando relação de custo-efetividade incremental (RCEI) de R$ 28.960/QALY. As análises de sensibilidade univariadas mostraram oscilações da RCEI entre R$ 23.644 e R$ 38.850/QALY, sendo este valor mais alto de RCEI resultante da variação do valor de utilidade de pacientes com diabetes. Na análise probabilística, os percentis 2,5% e 97,5% foram de R$ 22.336 a R$ 39.571/QALY. Conclusão: O estudo mostrou uma RCEI de R$ 28.960/QALY, estando abaixo do valor de uma vez o produto interno bruto (PIB) per capita (R$ 30.407 em 2016), sendo, portanto, uma tecnologia custo-efetiva, considerando esse limiar. Na análise probabilística, o intervalo de credibilidade mostrou que a RCEI pode oscilar entre 0,73 e 1,30 PIB per capita, sendo, portanto, uma estimativa robusta.


Objective: To perform a cost-utility analysis of empagliflozin in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients with high cardiovascular risk. Methods: The model was a discrete events simulation, with data based on the incidence of cardiovascular events in the EMPA-REG OUTCOME clinical trial. The target population was composed by patients with T2D and high cardiovascular risk (history of ischemic heart disease, stroke or peripheral vascular disease). We used a lifetime horizon, 5% discount rate and the Brazilian Public Healthcare System (SUS) perspective. Utility data were based both on Brazilian and international data. Costs employed reflected reimbursement SUS values. We conducted deterministic sensitivity analysis in main model parameters and a probabilistic sensitivity analysis to globally evaluate robustness of the results. Results: In the base case, empagliflozin generated incremental 0.66 QALY and R$ 19,176, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of R$ 28,960/QALY. Univariate sensitivity analysis showed variations in the ICER between R$ 23,644 and R$ 38,850/QALY, with the diabetes status utility the variable with most influence in the ICER. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, 2.5% and 97.5% percentiles were R$ 22,336 and R$ 39,571/QALY. Conclusion: The study showed an ICER of R$ 28,960/QALY, which is below the value of one GDP per capita in Brazil (R$ 30,407 in 2016), which would therefore be deemed cost-effective under this threshold. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, credible interval ranged between 0.73 and 1.30 per capita GDP, therefore showing robust results.


Assuntos
Humanos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2
10.
Obes Surg ; 27(10): 2733-2739, 2017 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28785975

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of only Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and body mass index (BMI) of 30-40 kg/m2. A literature search was performed on MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL. The searches were performed in February 2017. English was the target language of the publications. The PICO question was used to determine eligibility for studies to be included: population, patient with BMI 30-40 kg/m2; intervention, RYGB; comparison, control group with medical care alone; and outcome, metabolic outcomes. Only randomized clinical trials (RCT) were selected. The main outcome was T2D remission. Secondary outcomes were metabolic effect of RYGB, such as hypertension and dyslipidemia. A total of five RCTs were included. The studies included a larger proportion of women, and the average time of T2D duration ranged between 6 and 10 years with 43.3% of the patients having a BMI below 35 kg/m2. Despite randomization, the baseline demographics such as age, HbA1c, and duration of diabetes were often less favorable in the surgical group. At the longest follow-up, RYGB significantly improves total and partial type 2 remission, OR 17.48 (95% CI 4.28-71.35) and OR 20.71 (95% CI 5.16-83.12), respectively. HbA1c also reduces at longest follow-up in the surgery group (- 1.83 (95% CI - 2.14; - 1.51)). All these three outcomes revealed high level of evidence according to GRADE evaluation. There is already strong evidence that RYGB improves metabolic outcomes for at least 5 years in patients with class I obesity.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Obesidade/cirurgia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Perda de Peso
11.
Syst Rev ; 6(1): 116, 2017 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28629445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preliminary evidence suggests statins may reduce major perioperative vascular events. However, evidence is limited to observational studies, underpowered trials, and non-comprehensive systematic reviews. This review aims to assess the effects of perioperative statin use on cardiovascular complications in patients submitted to non-cardiac surgery. METHODS: We will search MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS, CENTRAL, Web of Science, and CINAHL for randomized controlled trials assessing the effects of perioperative statin use in adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery and reporting cardiovascular complications. For patients already using statins for hyperlipidemia, a preoperative loading dose of statin is required in the experimental group. We will place no language or publication restriction on our search. Teams of two reviewers will independently assess eligibility and risk of bias, and will extract data from the included trials. Our primary outcome is a combination of cardiovascular mortality or non-fatal myocardial infarction. We will also assess the following outcomes: individual components of the primary outcome, all-cause mortality, total myocardial infarction, elevated troponin in the first seven postoperative days, total stroke, total venous thromboembolism, postoperative atrial fibrillation, elevation of creatine phosphokinase or liver enzymes, and rates of myalgia or rhabdomyolysis. We will conduct meta-analyses using random-effects model and will use trial sequential analysis to establish monitoring boundaries to limit global type I error due to repetitive testing for our primary outcome. We will rate the quality of evidence using the GRADE system. DISCUSSION: The results of this systematic review may help to inform clinical practice and also the design of future large-scale randomized trials. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42016035987.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Assistência Perioperatória/normas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto
12.
Surg Obes Relat Dis ; 13(9): 1619-1627, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28499887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery has been available as part of the Brazilian Public Health System for patients with body mass index>40 kg/m2 (or>35 kg/m2 with co-morbidities) since 1999. However, access to surgery is challenging, with eligible patients waiting up to 7 years before surgery. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare costs and effectiveness of different waiting times before surgery versus prompt surgery. SETTINGS: Public practice. METHODS: A Markov microsimulation model compared 5 different strategies: no surgery, prompt surgery, and delaying surgery for 1, 2, 4, and 7 years. Markov tracker variables and states reflected changes in body mass index, type 2 diabetes status (including remission and relapse), and cardiovascular events. Time horizon was 20 years; discount rate, 5%; and the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System. Effectiveness was calculated as quality adjusted life years. RESULTS: Prompt surgery was the least costly and most effective strategy compared with any delay. Costs increased and effectiveness diminished progressively with the length of delays. Waiting 7 years for surgery was the most expensive and least effective strategy. Prompt surgery maintained dominance in 99.9%, 90.7%, 96.1%, and 94.2% of simulations in probabilistic sensitivity analyses versus 1-, 2-, 4-, and 7-year delays, respectively. Immediate surgery was very cost effective compared with no surgery in the case base. In the scenario with all patients having type 2 diabetes, immediate surgery was dominant to any strategy, including the no surgery group. CONCLUSIONS: Delaying bariatric operations is more expensive and less effective compared with prompt surgery and very cost effective compared with no surgery. Public health systems should pursue strategies to accelerate access to surgery to decrease obesity related complications and mortality of patients, but also to improve cost effectiveness.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Adulto , Cirurgia Bariátrica/economia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/economia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/cirurgia , Feminino , Serviços de Saúde/economia , Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Mórbida/economia , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 8(3): 174-184, 10/02/2017.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-831844

RESUMO

Objetivos: Resumir os principais pontos da Diretriz de Avaliação Econômica em Saúde (AES) do Ministério da Saúde. Métodos: As diretrizes para AES no Brasil foram desenvolvidas por intermédio de múltiplas rodadas de trabalho iterativas por grupo multidisciplinar de especialistas em economia da saúde e foram submetidas à consulta pública. Resultados: O problema deve ser definido por meio de uma questão de pesquisa estruturada. O estudo pode ser baseado em dados primários ou em modelagem, em que o primeiro aumenta a validade interna dos resultados e o segundo, a capacidade de generalização do estudo. Quando o trabalho for baseado em modelagem e focado em doença crônica, o modelo de Markov pode ser usualmente empregado, quando não houver necessidades que apontem para simulação de eventos discretos (como competição dos indivíduos por recursos escassos) ou modelos de transmissão dinâmica (em vacinação e/ou doenças infecciosas com alta transmissão entre indivíduos). O horizonte temporal preferencial é o de tempo de vida, e a taxa de desconto padrão é de 5% para custo e efetividade. Os custos devem representar a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), podendo ser estimados por macrocusteio ou microcusteio. Sempre que possível, os resultados devem ser apresentados no formato de custo por ano de vida salvo ajustado para qualidade, para facilitar comparações com outros estudos. Análises de sensibilidade devem ser extensamente empregadas, de forma a avaliar o impacto da incerteza nos resultados produzidos. Conclusões: Espera-se que, com a padronização da metodologia proposta na Diretriz, a produção de AES no país tenha incremento na sua qualidade e reprodutibilidade.


Objectives: To summarize the main points from the Brazilian's Ministry of Health Economic Evaluations (HEE) guideline. Methods: The guideline was developed through multiple rounds of iterative work, conducted by a multidisciplinary team of specialists in health economics, and where submitted to public consultation. Results: The decision problem should be defined through a structured research question. The study can be either primary data or model-based; in the first case, there is greater internal validity, while the second generates a superior generalizability. When the study is model-based and focused on a chronic disease, a Markov model can be usually employed, except for situations that points towards the need of a discrete event simulation (such as competition of individuals for scarce resources) or a dynamic transition model (for example, vaccination models and infectious diseases with high transmission rates between individuals). The preferred time horizon is the lifetime one, and the default discount rate is 5% for both costs and effectiveness. Costs should represent the Unified Health System (SUS) perspective and can be estimated through either gross-costing or micro-costing. Results should be presented as costs per quality adjusted life years (QALYs) whenever possible, to facilitate comparison with other studies. Sensitivity analyses should be widely employed, in order to evaluate the impact of uncertainty in the results produced by the model. Conclusions: It is expected that, with the standardization proposed in this guideline, the HEE production in Brazil has gains in quality and reproducibility.


Assuntos
Humanos , Análise Custo-Benefício , Economia da Saúde , Avaliação em Saúde , Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
15.
Arq Gastroenterol ; 53(2): 123-6, 2016 Apr-Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27305421

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: - Terlipressin and noradrenaline are the best studied treatments for hepatorenal syndrome, and there is no evidence of superiority of one over the other regarding to efficacy. While the former drug is more costly, the latter requires admission into an intensive care unit. OBJECTIVE: - The aim of this study was to perform an economic evaluation, comparing treatments for hepatorenal syndrome with terlipressin and noradrenaline. METHODS: - For the economic evaluation, a cost-minimization analysis was performed. Direct medical costs of the two treatment strategies were compared under the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System as the third-party payer. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed. RESULTS: - The costs of treatments with terlipressin or noradrenaline were 287.77 and 2,960.45 International Dollars (Int$) respectively. Treatment using terlipressin would save Int$2,672.68 for the Public Health System for each hospital admission related to hepatorenal syndrome. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, it was verified that the cost of the treatment with noradrenaline could vary between Int$2,326.53 and Int$3,644.16, while costs related to the treatment using terlipressin are not variable. CONCLUSION: - The treatment strategy using terlipressin was more economical than that using noradrenaline under the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System as the third-party payer.


Assuntos
Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndrome Hepatorrenal/economia , Lipressina/análogos & derivados , Norepinefrina/economia , Saúde Pública/economia , Vasoconstritores/economia , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Síndrome Hepatorrenal/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lipressina/economia , Lipressina/uso terapêutico , Norepinefrina/uso terapêutico , Terlipressina , Resultado do Tratamento , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico
16.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(6): 573-579, Dec. 2015. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-769533

RESUMO

Abstract Background: Due to the importance of coronary artery disease (CAD), continuous investigation of the risk factors (RFs) is needed. Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of RFs for CAD in cities in Rio Grande do Sul State, and compare it with that reported in a similar study conducted in the same cities in 2002. Methods: Cross-sectional study on 1,056 healthy adults, investigating the prevalence and absolute and relative frequencies of the following RFs for CAD: obesity, systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), dyslipidemias, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, diabetes mellitus, and family history, as well as age and sex. Data was collected in 19 cities, host of the Offices of the Regional Coordinators of Health, as in the 2002 study. Results: Twenty-six percent of the sample consisted of older adults and 57% were women. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 44%, history family 50%, smoking 23%, overweight/obesity 68%, dyslipidemia (high cholesterol levels) 43%, SAH 40%, and diabetes 11%. When compared to the 2002 study, the prevalence of active smoking and sedentary behavior decreased, whereas the prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity increased. Obesity is the most prevalent RF in women, and SAH the most prevalent in men. Conclusions: The prevalence of RFs for CAD in Rio Grande do Sul State remains high. Hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia are still prevalent and require major prevention programs. Smoking and physical inactivity have decreased in the state, suggesting the efficacy of related campaigns.


Resumo Fundamento: Diante da importância da doença arterial coronariana (DAC), é necessário pesquisar continuamente seus fatores de risco (FR). Objetivo: Conhecer a prevalência dos FR da DAC em cidades do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul (RS), e compará-la com a encontrada em pesquisa semelhante realizada nas mesmas cidades em 2002. Métodos: Estudo transversal de uma amostra de 1056 indivíduos adultos, em que se pesquisou a prevalência e frequências absolutas e relativas dos seguintes FR para a DAC: obesidade, hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS), dislipidemias, tabagismo, sedentarismo, diabetes mellitus, e antecedentes familiares de cardiopatia isquêmica, além de idade e gênero. A coleta de dados foi realizada em 19 cidades sede das Coordenadorias Regionais de Saúde do RS, como feito em 2002. Resultados: A amostra foi constituída de 26% de idosos e 57% de mulheres. As prevalências dos FR foram de 44% de sedentarismo, 50% de antecedentes familiares, 23% de tabagismo, 68% de sobrepeso/obesidade, 43% de dislipidemia (colesterol elevado), 40% de HAS, e 11% de diabetes. Quando comparado ao estudo de 2002, verificou-se que a população de fumantes ativos e sedentários diminuiu, e a de hipertensos, dislipidêmicos e obesos aumentou. A obesidade é o FR mais prevalente em mulheres, e a HAS o mais prevalente em homens. Conclusão: A prevalência dos FR da DAC no RS continua alta. Fatores como hipertensão, obesidade, dislipidemia continuam elevados e demandam maiores programas de prevenção. O hábito de fumar e a inatividade física têm diminuído no estado, sugerindo a eficácia das campanhas relacionadas.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Complicações do Diabetes , Dislipidemias/complicações , Hipertensão/complicações , Obesidade/complicações , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos
17.
Trials ; 16: 60, 2015 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25888343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient education on pharmacological therapy may increase medication adherence and decrease hospitalizations. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of pharmaceutical care at emergency department discharge in patients with hypertension and/or diabetes. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a randomized controlled trial. Participants will be recruited from a public emergency department at Restinga district in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil. A total of 380 patients will be randomly assigned into 2 groups at the moment of emergency department discharge after receiving medical orientations: an intervention group, consisting of a structured individual counseling session by a pharmacist in addition to written orientations, or a control group, consisting only of written information about the disease. Outcomes will be assessed in an ambulatory visit 2 months after the randomization. The primary outcome is the proportion of patients with high medication adherence assessed using the Morisky-Green Test and the Brief Medication Questionnaire. The secondary outcomes are reduction of blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, fasting plasma glucose, quality of life and number of visits to the emergency department. DISCUSSION: Pharmaceutical care interventions have shown to be feasible and effective in increasing medication adherence in both hospital outpatient and community pharmacy settings. However, there have been no previous assessments of the effectiveness of pharmacy care interventions initiated in patients discharged from emergency departments. Our hypothesis is that pharmaceutical counseling is also effective in this population. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT01978925 (11 November 2013) and Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials U1111-1149-8922 (5 November 2013).


Assuntos
Protocolos Clínicos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Adesão à Medicação , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Tamanho da Amostra
18.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 104(1): 32-44, 01/2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-741128

RESUMO

Background: Statins have proven efficacy in the reduction of cardiovascular events, but the financial impact of its widespread use can be substantial. Objective: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of three statin dosing schemes in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) perspective. Methods: We developed a Markov model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of low, intermediate and high intensity dose regimens in secondary and four primary scenarios (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% ten-year risk) of prevention of cardiovascular events. Regimens with expected low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction below 30% (e.g. simvastatin 10mg) were considered as low dose; between 30-40%, (atorvastatin 10mg, simvastatin 40mg), intermediate dose; and above 40% (atorvastatin 20-80mg, rosuvastatin 20mg), high-dose statins. Effectiveness data were obtained from a systematic review with 136,000 patients. National data were used to estimate utilities and costs (expressed as International Dollars - Int$). A willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold equal to the Brazilian gross domestic product per capita (circa Int$11,770) was applied. Results: Low dose was dominated by extension in the primary prevention scenarios. In the five scenarios, the ICER of intermediate dose was below Int$10,000 per QALY. The ICER of the high versus intermediate dose comparison was above Int$27,000 per QALY in all scenarios. In the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves, intermediate dose had a probability above 50% of being cost-effective with ICERs between Int$ 9,000-20,000 per QALY in all scenarios. Conclusions: Considering a reasonable WTP threshold, intermediate dose statin therapy is economically attractive, and should be a priority intervention in prevention of cardiovascular events in Brazil. .


Fundamento: Estatinas tem eficácia comprovada na redução de eventos cardiovasculares, mas o impacto financeiro de seu uso disseminado pode ser substancial. Objetivo: Conduzir análise de custo-efetividade de três esquemas de doses de estatinas na perspectiva do SUS. Métodos: Foi desenvolvido modelo de Markov para avaliar a razão de custo-efetividade incremental (RCEI) de regimes de dose baixa, intermediária e alta, em prevenção secundária e quatro cenários de prevenção primária (risco em 10 anos de 5%, 10%, 15% e 20%). Regimes com redução de LDL abaixo de 30% (ex: sinvastatina 10mg) foram considerados dose baixa; entre 30-40% (atorvastatina 10mg, sinvastatina 40mg), dose intermediária; e acima de 40% (atorvastatina 20-80 mg, rosuvastatina 20 mg), dose alta. Dados de efetividade foram obtidos de revisão sistemática com aproximadamente 136.000 pacientes. Dados nacionais foram usados para estimar utilidades e custos (expressos em dólares internacionais - Int$). Um limiar de disposição a pagar (LDP) igual ao produto interno bruto per capita nacional (aproximadamente Int$11.770) foi utilizado. Resultados: A dose baixa foi dominada por extensão nos cenários de prevenção primária. Nos cinco cenários, a RCEI da dose intermediária ficou abaixo de Int$10.000 por QALY. A RCEI de dose alta ficou acima de Int$27.000 por QALY em todos os cenários. Nas curvas de aceitabilidade de custo-efetividade, dose intermediária teve probabilidade de ser custo-efetiva acima de 50% com RCEIs entre Int$9.000-20.000 por QALY em todos os cenários. Conclusões: Considerando um LDP razoável, uso de estatinas em doses intermediárias é economicamente atrativo, e deveria ser intervenção prioritária na redução de eventos cardiovasculares no Brasil. .


Assuntos
Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Custo-Benefício , Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Atorvastatina , Brasil , Fluorbenzenos/administração & dosagem , Fluorbenzenos/economia , Ácidos Heptanoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Heptanoicos/economia , Modelos Econômicos , Prevenção Primária/economia , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/economia , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/economia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rosuvastatina Cálcica , Prevenção Secundária/economia , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem , Sinvastatina/economia , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/economia
19.
Hematol Oncol ; 33(4): 212-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25363800

RESUMO

Previous meta-analyses suggested that acute myeloid leukaemia induction regimens containing idarubicin (IDA) or high-dose daunorubicin (HDD) induce higher rates of complete remission (CR) than conventional-dose daunorubicin (CDD), with a possible benefit in overall survival. However, robust comparisons between these regimens are still lacking. We conducted a mixed treatment comparison meta-analysis regarding these three regimens. Mixed treatment comparison is a statistical method of data summarization that aggregates data from both direct and indirect effect estimates. Literature search strategy included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Scielo and LILACS, from inception until August 2013 and resulted in the inclusion of 17 trials enrolling 7258 adult patients. HDD [relative risk (RR) 1.13; 95% credible interval (CrI) 1.02-1.26] and IDA (RR 1.13; 95% CrI 1.05-1.23) showed higher CR rates than CDD. IDA also led to lower long-term overall mortality rates when compared with CDD (RR 0.93, 95% CrI 0.86-0.99), whereas HDD and CDD were no different (RR 0.94, 95% CrI 0.85-1.02). HDD and IDA comparison did not reach statistically significant differences in CR (RR 1.00; 95% CrI 0.89-1.11) and in long-term mortality (RR 1.01, 95% CrI 0.91-1.11). IDA and HDD are consistently superior to CDD in inducing CR, and IDA was associated with lower long-term mortality. On the basis of these findings, we recommend incorporation of IDA and HDD instead of the traditional CDD as standard treatments for acute myeloid leukaemia induction. The lack of HDD benefit on mortality, when compared with CDD in this study, should be cautiously addressed, because it may have been susceptible to underestimation because of statistical power limitations.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Daunorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Idarubicina/uso terapêutico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Daunorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Idarubicina/administração & dosagem , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Indução de Remissão
20.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 104(1): 32-44, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25409878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Statins have proven efficacy in the reduction of cardiovascular events, but the financial impact of its widespread use can be substantial. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of three statin dosing schemes in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) perspective. METHODS: We developed a Markov model to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of low, intermediate and high intensity dose regimens in secondary and four primary scenarios (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% ten-year risk) of prevention of cardiovascular events. Regimens with expected low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction below 30% (e.g. simvastatin 10mg) were considered as low dose; between 30-40%, (atorvastatin 10mg, simvastatin 40 mg), intermediate dose; and above 40% (atorvastatin 20-80 mg, rosuvastatin 20mg), high-dose statins. Effectiveness data were obtained from a systematic review with 136,000 patients. National data were used to estimate utilities and costs (expressed as International Dollars - Int$). A willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold equal to the Brazilian gross domestic product per capita (circa Int$11,770) was applied. RESULTS: Low dose was dominated by extension in the primary prevention scenarios. In the five scenarios, the ICER of intermediate dose was below Int$10,000 per QALY. The ICER of the high versus intermediate dose comparison was above Int$27,000 per QALY in all scenarios. In the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves, intermediate dose had a probability above 50% of being cost-effective with ICERs between Int$ 9,000-20,000 per QALY in all scenarios. CONCLUSIONS: Considering a reasonable WTP threshold, intermediate dose statin therapy is economically attractive, and should be a priority intervention in prevention of cardiovascular events in Brazil.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/economia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Análise Custo-Benefício , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atorvastatina , Brasil , Feminino , Fluorbenzenos/administração & dosagem , Fluorbenzenos/economia , Ácidos Heptanoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Heptanoicos/economia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Prevenção Primária/economia , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/economia , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/economia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rosuvastatina Cálcica , Prevenção Secundária/economia , Sinvastatina/administração & dosagem , Sinvastatina/economia , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Sulfonamidas/economia
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