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1.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 195, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312297

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Various vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) affect dogs worldwide, with their diversity and force of infection being usually higher in the tropics. Cross-sectional studies have been conducted to investigate the prevalence of VBPs in dogs, but data from longitudinal studies are scarce. Herein, we assessed the prevalence and the year-crude incidence (YCI) of Leishmania spp. and other VBPs in privately-owned dogs from two geographical regions of Brazil. METHODS: A total of 823 dogs were initially screened for Leishmania spp. by both serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). From the negatives, 307 (103 from São Joaquim de Bicas, Minas Gerais, and 204 from Goiana, Pernambuco) were randomly selected for the longitudinal study. These dogs were tested for various VBPs at baseline, after 8 and 12 months. RESULTS: Out of 823 dogs initially screened, 131 (15.9%) were positive for Leishmania spp. Out of the 307 dogs enrolled in the longitudinal study, 120 (39.1%) were lost for different reasons (e.g. animal death, owner decision, and lost to follow-up). In São Joaquim de Bicas, the baseline prevalence and YCI were as follows: 16.5% and 7.1% for Anaplasma spp.; 81.6% and 100% for Babesia spp.; 0% and 1.3% (only one faint positive) for Dirofilaria immitis; 37.9% and 22.9% for Ehrlichia spp.; 19.5% and 43.8% for Leishmania spp. In Goiana, the baseline prevalence and YCI were as follows: 45.1% and 38.3% for Anaplasma spp.; 79.9% and 96.0% for Babesia spp.; 36.3% and 39.8% for D. immitis; 64.7% and 58.5% for Ehrlichia spp.; 14.7% and 19.6% for Leishmania spp. Anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies were not detected in any of the samples tested herein. The prevalence and YCI of Anaplasma spp., D. immitis and Ehrlichia spp. were significantly higher in Goiana. In contrast, the YCI of Leishmania spp. infection was significantly higher in São Joaquim de Bicas. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed a high prevalence and YCI of various VBPs among privately-owned dogs in two geographical regions of Brazil. Our data also indicate that the risk of infection varies significantly for individual VBPs and between the regions, which may be related to several factors that are still poorly understood.

2.
Int J Parasitol ; 50(3): 171-176, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126240

RESUMO

Prevention of canine Leishmania infantum infection is critical to management of visceral leishmaniasis in people living in endemic areas of Brazil. A bill (PL 1738/11), currently under consideration, proposes to establish a national vaccination policy against canine leishmaniasis in Brazil. However, there is no solid scientific evidence supporting the idea that this could reduce transmission from infected vaccinated dogs to sand flies to a level that would significantly reduce the risk of L. infantum infection or visceral leishmaniasis in humans. Thus, we advocate that insecticide-impregnated collars should the first line protective measure for public health purposes and that vaccines are applied on a case-by-case, optional basis for individual dog protection.

3.
Vet Parasitol ; 274: 108920, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493694

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis caused by the parasite Leishmania infantum and the dog is its main reservoir in rural and urban areas. The diagnosis of infection is mainly based on the presence of anti-Leishmania IgG antibodies in the serum of infected dogs. In this study, the sensitivity and specificity of qualitative rapid tests (RTs) dual path platform (DPP) Bio-Manguinhos, rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) IDEXX, Kalazar Detect and ALERE, as well as quantitative ELISA Bio-Manguinhos and in-house indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) tests were analyzed in sera from infected and uninfected dogs. Serial dilutions of the in-house IFA were compared with RTs and ELISA Bio-Manguinhos. The results showed that none of the tests reached 100% sensitivity and specificity. There was no statistical difference between the analyzed RTs. The most sensitive test was the DPP Bio-Manguinhos (97.9%), while the rapid ELISA IDEXX showed higher specificity (100%). In the treatment setting of infected and/or diseased animals, quantitative tests for monitoring the evolution of antibody titers are required, which indicates the maintenance of in-house IFA in animal handling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the RTs present higher sensitivity in serum samples with superior antibody titers obtained in the in-house IFA. However, the RTs exhibited false negatives in samples with low titers of antibodies. Among the RTs, only the DPP Bio-Manguinhos presented better performance in this situation. Therefore, the use of RTs for the diagnosis of VL in dogs with low titers of antibodies, such as asymptomatic, should be carefully evaluated.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/sangue , Leishmania infantum , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Leishmaniose Visceral/sangue , Leishmaniose Visceral/diagnóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
4.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 17: 100308, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31303228

RESUMO

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonosis and the dog is considered the most important urban reservoir. Cases in cats have been reported, but little is known about Leishmania infection and disease in wild felids and canids kept in captivity in endemic areas. Thus, the serological pattern of wild felids and canids kept in captivity at the Belo Horizonte Zoological Garden was investigated using two primary antigens for conventional ELISA: k39 and rKDDR, as well as three serological rapid kits: Dual Path Platform (DPP®) immunochromatographic test, rKDDR Immunochromatographic assay and ELISA SNAP Leishmania IDEXX®. A total of 21 serum samples, 13 of wild felids and 8 wild canids of varying age and sex were evaluated. The results obtained in the tests were analyzed by agreement using Kappa coefficient, and between ELISA antigens all the analysis performed had showed significant agreement among both of them, as well between the three immunochromatographic tests. The results demonstrated that there is serological evidence of wild animals seropositive for Leishmania antibodies at the Belo Horizonte Zoological Garden, and that all the antigens and rapid tests used can be employed in serological screening for VL in wild felids and canids.

5.
Parasit Vectors ; 6(1): 8, 2013 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23311342

RESUMO

On 26 October 2012, veterinary medicine clinicians and researchers, members of Brasileish - Study Group about Animal Leishmaniasis - met at the Regional Council of Veterinary Medicine of Minas Gerais, in the city Belo Horizonte, in order to discuss many aspects of the situation of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Brazil. In the face of recent national and international scientific evidence, we, the members of Brasileish, have elaborated some recommendations for the management and control of CVL in Brazil.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Vetores de Doenças , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Cães , Leishmania/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/prevenção & controle , Medicina Veterinária
6.
Braz. j. vet. res. anim. sci ; 50(2): 121-128, 2013.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-696350

RESUMO

Caracterizou-se retrospectivamente, a partir do ano de 1997 até março de 2008, a ocorrência de casos de leishmaniose, visceral ou tegumentar, dentre os cães dermatopatas atendidos em serviço especializado de hospital-escola veterinário de Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo. Para o diagnóstico em 427 animais, foram utilizados testes sorológicos (Ensaio Imunoenzimático Indireto, Imunofluorescência Indireta e/ou Fixação de Complemento), parasitológicos diretos e moleculares (Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase), que resultaram na confirmação de 117 (27,4%) casos positivos. Da amostragem, 96 (82,1%) eram cães de raça definida, os demais 21 (17,9%) não dispunham de plena definição racial, sendo 57 (48,7%) fêmeas e 60 (51,3%) machos. Quanto à faixa etária, 26 (22,2%) apresentavam idade inferior a 36 meses, 48 (41%) entre 36 e 84 meses e 43 (36,8%) ultrapassavam o sétimo ano de vida. Considerou-se 64 (54,7%) cães como oligossintomáticos, 44 (37,6%) sintomáticos e os nove (7,7%) remanescentes como assintomáticos. As principais alterações clínicas observadas foram, em ordem decrescente, lesões tegumentares, linfonodomegalia, anemia, disorexia, prostração e esplenomegalia. Quanto às alterações hematológicas, a mais importante foi a linfopenia relativa e absoluta. Dos animais positivos para a enfermidade, 96 (82,1%) correspondeu a casuística alóctone ao Município de São Paulo.


The occurrence of visceral or cutaneous canine leishmaniasis cases among dermatophatic dogs admitted to the veterinary teaching hospital School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Husbandry - University of São Paulo from 1997 to 2008 was retrospectively characterized. For the diagnosis of 427 animals, serological (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, Indirect Immunofluorescence and/or Complement Fixation), parasitological and molecular (Polymerase Chain Reaction) tests were performed, which resulted in 117 (27.4%) confirmed positive cases. Of these, 96 (82.1%) were pure breed dogs and the others 21 (17.9%) were cross breed, being 57 (48.7%) females and 60 (51.3%) males. In terms of age, 26 (22.2%) were younger than 36 months, 48 (41%) were between 36 and 84 months, and 43 (36.8%) were older than seven years old. Sixty-four (54.7%) dogs were considered oligosymptomatic, 44 (37.6%) symptomatic, and the remaining nine (7.7%) asymptomatic. The main clinical findings were, in descending order, dermal lesions, lymphadenopathy, anemia, dysorexia, prostration and splenomegaly. As for hematological disorders, relative and absolute lymphopenia was the most important findings. Ninety-six (82.1%) of the positive animals correspond to allochthonus cases from São Paulo municipality.


Assuntos
Animais , Epidemiologia/tendências , Hematologia/tendências , Leishmaniose/patologia , Cães/classificação
7.
Trends Parasitol ; 28(12): 531-8, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22995719

RESUMO

Canine leishmaniosis is a potentially life-threatening disease which is spreading geographically in the Old and New Worlds, where different diagnostic procedures, treatments, and control strategies are currently in place. This Opinion article outlines the similarities and differences between canine leishmaniosis in the Old and New Worlds, with emphasis on South America and Europe. Finally, it calls the attention of veterinary and public health authorities to standardize and improve practices for diagnosing, treating, and preventing the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Cães , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Insetos Vetores/fisiologia , Leishmania/genética , Leishmania/fisiologia , Leishmaniose/diagnóstico , Leishmaniose/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose/parasitologia , Leishmaniose/prevenção & controle , América do Sul/epidemiologia
8.
Vet Parasitol ; 174(1-2): 150-4, 2010 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20832944

RESUMO

In recent years, cases of feline visceral leishmaniasis (FVL) have been described in different countries. In urban areas, domestic cats are suggested as possible alternative reservoirs of Leishmania (L.) infantum, the causal agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). This paper reports the first case of infection of Lutzomyia longipalpis by L. infantum of a naturally infected cat from Brazil through xenodiagnosis. The presence of a cat with FVL and its infectivity to the natural vector in Belo Horizonte city, an endemic area of VL in Brazil, suggests the need for further studies to determine the rate of occurrence of FVL among domestic cats and the infectivity ratio of L. longipalpis in endemic areas, and what is the role of these animals in the epidemiology of the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Psychodidae/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil , Gatos , Feminino , Masculino
9.
Histol Histopathol ; 25(7): 877-87, 2010 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20503176

RESUMO

Although 90% of clinical cases of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) occur in the northeastern region of Brazil, the incidence of cases in recent years has increased in southeastern states such as Minas Gerais (MG), where the disease has been reported in several cities, including Belo Horizonte, the state capital. Some studies have shown a strong correlation between the incidence of AVL and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Belo Horizonte. A study of 108 dogs with parasite Leishmania chagasi detected by immuno-histochemistry in healthy ear skin was obtained from two distinct geographical areas: 55 from a metropolitan area of the municipality (Santa Luzia, MG) and 53 dogs from a central area of Belo Horizonte. In parallel, a group of 10 beagles were experimentally infected with L. chagasi. Considering the clinical aspects of all naturally infected dogs, symptomatic dogs were more frequent than asymptomatic ones, especially animals from the metropolitan area compared with the central area (79.6% and 20.3%, respectively). A chronic exudate was observed in the ear of 51 out of 55 dogs naturally infected from the metropolitan area (92.7%) and 45 out of 53 dogs naturally infected from the central area (84.9%). Importantly, asymptomatic dogs from the central area harbor more parasites in the skin than the asymptomatic ones from the metropolitan area. In addition, a profound difference was noted in the intensity of the inflammatory reaction and parasite load in the skin of experimental infected dogs.


Assuntos
Orelha/parasitologia , Leishmania/parasitologia , Pele/parasitologia , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cães , Orelha/patologia , Orelha Externa/parasitologia , Orelha Externa/patologia , Feminino , Incidência , Leishmania donovani/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/patologia , Masculino , Pele/patologia
10.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 117(1-2): 183-6, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19345025

RESUMO

The goal of the present study was to characterize the semen quality of dogs naturally infected with Leishmaniachagasi, and treated with Allopurinol and Amphotericin B. Eight naturally infected and eight non-infected dogs were selected. Following semen collection, progressive motility, vigor, concentration and sperm morphology were evaluated. The seminal patterns in the treated animals were evaluated at the beginning (d0) and at days 30 (d30), 60 (d60) and 150 (d150) of treatment. The progressive motility at d0 (35.7+/-22.3%) was less than that of the control group (77.8+/-7.1%) (P<0.05). The vigor was similar to the control group throughout the treatment (P>0.05). The number of sperm/mL, sperm/ejaculate and sperm/kg of body weight was similar among groups (P>0.05). The percentages of normal spermatozoa of infected and treated animals were similar throughout the treatment and to the control group (69.1+/-8.7%) at d60 (37.5+/-11.2%) and d150 (48.3+/-10.8%) (P>0.05), but smaller at d0 (22.7+/-10.5%) and d30 (28.8+/-15.9%) (P<0.05). A greater percentage of acrosome damage was observed in the control group (3.1+/-2.3%) compared to the d60 (0.1+/-0.2%) (P<0.05). The infected dogs had a greater percentage of principal piece defects at d60 (37.0+/-6.3%) than the control group (16.8+/-7.3%) (P<0.05); and greater percentages of detached normal heads at d0 (28.7+/-19.7%) and d30 (18.5+/-18.5%) than the control group (0.4+/-0.5%) (P<0.05). This reduction in semen quality of the infected animals is suggestive of an epididymal dysfunction. Due to this poor semen quality, caution is recommended when using infected male dogs for reproductive purposes.


Assuntos
Alopurinol/uso terapêutico , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antiprotozoários/uso terapêutico , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Espermatozoides/anormalidades , Acrossomo/ultraestrutura , Animais , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças do Cão/fisiopatologia , Cães , Epididimo/fisiopatologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/complicações , Leishmaniose Visceral/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Motilidade Espermática , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Doenças Testiculares/parasitologia , Doenças Testiculares/fisiopatologia
11.
Vet Parasitol ; 166(1-2): 159-62, 2009 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19733439

RESUMO

Dogs are the most important reservoir of Leishmania (L.) infantum, the causal agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil. Vectorial infection is the main route of transmission of the parasites. This paper reports the first case of vertical transmission of L. infantum in Brazil, confirmed by PCR and immunohistochemistry techniques in samples from spleen and liver of two stillborn pups from a bitch naturally infected with L. infantum in Belo Horizonte city, endemic area of VL. This result confirms the existence of transplacental transmission of Leishmania between dogs, and suggests the need for further studies to determine the rate of occurrence of this fact in endemic areas and what is their role in the epidemiology of the disease.


Assuntos
Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Leishmania infantum/fisiologia , Leishmaniose Visceral/veterinária , Animais , Brasil , Cães , Feminino , Imuno-Histoquímica , Leishmaniose Visceral/transmissão , Fígado/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Baço/parasitologia , Natimorto/veterinária
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