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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360101

RESUMO

Suicide is a significant public health concern worldwide and in the United States. Despite the far-reaching impact of suicide, risk factors are still not well understood and efforts to accurately assess risk have fallen short. Current research has highlighted how potentially modifiable environmental exposures (i.e., meteorological, pollution, and geographic exposures) can affect suicide risk. A scoping review was conducted to evaluate the strength of the historical and current literature on the environment's effect on suicide and suicide risk. Three databases (i.e., Medline, Embase, and PsychInfo) were reviewed to identify relevant studies and two authors independently reviewed studies considering pre-determined inclusion criteria. A total of 46 meteorological studies were included as well as 23 pollution studies and 12 geographic studies. Descriptive statistics, including counts, percentages, review of studies' sample size (minimum, maximum, median, and interquartile range), were calculated using Excel and SAS 9.4. Overall, strong evidence supports that exposure to sunlight, temperature, air pollution, pesticides, and high altitude increases suicide risk, although effect sizes range from very small to small.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Suicídio , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Poluição do Ar/efeitos adversos , Poluição do Ar/análise , Gerenciamento de Dados , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos
2.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 72: 7-14, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34214935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Irregular discharge is a concern among mental health populations and associated with poor outcomes. Little is known about the relationship between irregular discharge and treatment setting. Because care processes differ between acute inpatient and residential settings, it is important to evaluate irregular discharge in these settings. METHOD: A retrospective study was conducted in patients with mental health conditions admitted to acute inpatient or residential mental health settings in the Department of Veterans Affairs, 2003-2019. Logistic regression and multivariate Cox proportional hazards were used to evaluate factors associated with irregular discharge risk in the first 90- days of admission. RESULTS: Among 1.8 million discharges, 7.4% had an irregular discharge within 90- days of admission. Younger age was a central predictor of risk. Irregular discharge rates were four-fold higher in residential versus acute settings. When accounting for length of stay (LOS) across settings, there was a modest higher risk of irregular discharge from acute versus residential settings (HR = 1.06, 95% Confidence Interval 1.04-1.07). CONCLUSIONS: Patients are at high risk for irregular discharge from acute and residential settings when they are young. LOS is an important determinant of irregular discharge risk.. Interventions are needed to address drivers of irregular discharge.

3.
Psychiatr Serv ; : appips202000537, 2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979200

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Risk for suicide is high after psychiatric hospitalization. The World Health Organization's Brief Intervention and Contact (BIC) program has shown efficacy in preventing suicide. A version adapted for the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) was studied to determine preliminary effects. METHODS: Patients receiving psychiatric hospitalization because of acute risk for self-harm were randomly assigned to the VA BIC or standard care alone. Effect sizes (Hedges' g) for suicidal ideation (primary outcome), social connectedness (measured as thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness), hopelessness, and engagement were calculated at 1 and 3 months. RESULTS: Patients were randomly assigned to the VA BIC (N=10) or standard care (N=9). The VA BIC had a medium or large effect on most measures at 1 month (suicidal ideation, g=0.45). Effects diminished at 3 months, except for thwarted belongingness (g=0.81). CONCLUSIONS: The VA BIC had meaningful effects on suicide-related outcomes. The largest effect was seen in the first month.

4.
Psychiatr Serv ; 72(4): 384-390, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530729

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify geographic variation in mental health service use in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), the authors constructed utilization-based VA mental health service areas (MHSAs) for outpatient treatment and mental health referral regions (MHRRs) for residential and acute inpatient treatment. METHODS: MHSAs are empirically derived geographic groupings of one or more counties containing one or more VA outpatient mental health clinics. For each county within an MHSA, patients received most of their VA-provided outpatient mental health care within that MHSA. MHSAs were aggregated into MHRRs according to where VA users in each MHSA received most of their residential and acute inpatient mental health care. Attribution loyalty was evaluated with the localization index-the fraction of VA users living in each geographic area who used their designated MHSA and MHRR facility. Variation in outpatient mental health visits and in acute inpatient and residential mental health stays was determined for the 2008-2018 period. RESULTS: A total of 441 MHSAs were aggregated to 115 MHRRs (representing 3,909,080 patients with 52,372,303 outpatient mental health visits). The mean±SD localization index was 59.3%±16.4% for MHSAs and 67.8%±12.7% for MHRRs. Adjusted outpatient mental health visits varied from a mean of 0.88 per year in the lowest quintile of MHSAs to 3.14 in the highest. Combined residential and acute inpatient days varied from 0.29 to 1.79 between the lowest and highest quintiles. CONCLUSIONS: MHSAs and MHRRs validly represented mental health utilization patterns in the VA and displayed considerable variation in mental health service provision across different locations.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Veteranos , Hospitais de Veteranos , Humanos , Análise de Pequenas Áreas , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs
6.
Mil Med ; 186(9-10): e956-e961, 2021 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33377975

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There is emerging evidence to support that the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health measures may be associated with negative mental health sequelae. Rural populations in particular may fair worse because they share many unique characteristics that may put them at higher risk for adverse outcomes with the pandemic. Yet, rural populations may also be more resilient due to increased sense of community. Little is known about the impact of the pandemic on the mental health and well-being of a rural population pre- and post-pandemic, especially those with serious mental illness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal, mixed-methods study with assessments preceding the pandemic (between October 2019 and March 2020) and during the stay-at-home orders (between April 23, 2020, and May 4, 2020). Changes in hopelessness, suicidal ideation, connectedness, and treatment engagement were assessed using a repeated-measures ANOVA or Friedman test. RESULTS: Among 17 eligible participants, 11 people were interviewed. Overall, there were no notable changes in any symptom scale in the first 3-5 months before the pandemic or during the stay-at-home orders. The few patients who reported worse symptoms were significantly older (mean age: 71.7 years, SD: 4.0). Most patients denied disruptions to treatment, and some perceived telepsychiatry as beneficial. CONCLUSIONS: Rural patients with serious mental illness may be fairly resilient in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic when they have access to treatment and supports. Longer-term outcomes are needed in rural patients with serious mental illness to better understand the impact of the pandemic on this population.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Transtornos Mentais , Psiquiatria , Telemedicina , Idoso , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , População Rural , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 64: 72-79, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279024

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and smoking are highly associated with depression and hypoxia. There is limited knowledge about whether hypoxic conditions interact to cause depression. METHOD: A population-based cohort study was conducted using the Veterans Affairs (VA) Corporate Data Warehouse. Patients must have accessed any healthcare at a VA facility between 2004 and 2014 and had a negative depression screen (Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) score ≤ 2). Patients with COPD or a positive depression screen (PHQ-2 score: 3+) during or prior to the year with a negative depression screen were excluded. Logistic regression with annual observations was used to evaluate depression incidence based on COPD and smoking status. Models were adjusted for demographics and other comorbid conditions. A probability scale was used to examine interactions between COPD and smoking. RESULTS: A total of 3,284,496 patients were included. Patients with COPD and current smokers were at increased risk for developing depression. There were minimal interaction effects between COPD and smoking. The odds of developing depression in a year varied from 1.4% among never smokers without COPD to 2.9.% among current smokers with COPD. CONCLUSION: Smoking and COPD are independent risk factors for depression and interact to cause depression. Further research is needed to confirm whether hypoxia contributes to this association.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Comorbidade , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
J Vasc Surg ; 72(3): 1122-1131, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273226

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients who undergo endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) often require reintervention after the index repair. The long-term rate of reintervention and how this has changed with newer device technology are poorly understood. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the available literature to determine long-term freedom from reintervention after EVAR and the change in reintervention rates over time. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We included randomized controlled trials and observational studies that documented the rate of reintervention after EVAR. We performed a meta-analysis of Kaplan-Meier freedom from reintervention at each year after EVAR. We used linear regression to evaluate change in reintervention rate over time with newer device technology. RESULTS: We included a total of 30 studies (randomized trials, n = 3; observational studies, n = 27) comprising 32,126 patients in this review and meta-analysis. Studies ranged in the implantation date of the EVAR device from 1996 to 2014. The probability of freedom from reintervention was 81% (95% confidence interval [CI], 77%-85%) at 5 years, 70% (95% CI, 65%-76%) at 10 years, and 64% (95% CI, 46%-79%) at 14 years. Linear regression demonstrated an improvement in freedom from reintervention when results were stratified by the year of device implantation. At 1 year, estimated freedom from reintervention improved from 90% in 1998 to 94% in 2008 (n = 26 studies; R2 = 0.11; P = .10). At three years, estimated freedom from reintervention improved from 77% in 1998 to 90% in 2008 (n = 26 studies; R2 = 0.27; P = .006). At 5 years, estimated freedom from reintervention improved from 68% in 1998 to 81% in 2008 (n = 22 studies; R2 =0.12; P = .12). At 7 years, estimated freedom from reintervention improved from 51% in 1998 to 86% in 2011 (n = 22 studies; R2 = 0.40; P = .015). CONCLUSIONS: EVAR patients remain at risk for reintervention indefinitely, and therefore lifelong surveillance is imperative. Encouragingly, reintervention rates have improved over time, with newer devices exhibiting lower rates. Reintervention rate remains an important metric for new devices and registries.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Reoperação , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/mortalidade , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico por imagem , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Reoperação/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Dual Diagn ; 16(2): 228-238, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31852392

RESUMO

Objective: Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a notable concern in the United States (US) and strongly associated with mortality. There is a high prevalence of OUD in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the mortality associated with OUD may be exacerbated in patients with PTSD. Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) for OUD has become standard of care for OUD and has been shown to reduce mortality. However, there has been little study of MAT and mortality in patients with PTSD and OUD. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in U.S. veterans who had newly engaged in PTSD treatment, were diagnosed with OUD and were provided MAT for at least one day between 2004 and 2013. We assessed mortality for one year following the index diagnosis date. We calculated all-cause mortality as well as death by external cause, overdose plus suicide, overdose, and suicide rates per 100,000. We used hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to compare death rates between patients with high versus low adherence to MAT. We evaluated the impact of high versus low exposure to general substance abuse care. We considered a confidence interval that did not cross one to be significant. Results: A total of 5,901 patients met inclusion criteria. Most patients were men and the average age was 43.3 years (SD = 13.8). The all-cause mortality rate was 1,370 per 100,000 patients. High adherence to MAT resulted in a non-significant, decreased risk for death due to all-cause (HR = 0.73, 95% CI [0.47, 1.13]), external cause (HR = 0.71, 95% CI [0.38, 1.35]), and overdose or suicide (HR = 0.66, 95% CI [0.33, 1.35]). Patients with high exposure (≥ 60 days) to general substance abuse care were significantly less likely to die due to external cause (HR = 0.39, 95% CI [0.18, 0.85]) and overdose or suicide (HR = 0.31, 95% CI [0.12, 0.77]). Conclusions: In patients with PTSD and OUD, improved adherence to MAT and greater exposure to general substance abuse care may result in lower mortality. Studies with longer follow-up and larger sample sizes to assess the impact of MAT on suicide are needed to confirm our findings.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/terapia , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Suicídio Consumado/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Comorbidade , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 207(12): 1031-1038, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688286

RESUMO

A prior meta-analysis found that the World Health Organization Brief Intervention and Contact Program (WHO BIC) significantly reduces suicide risk. WHO BIC has not been studied in high-income countries. We piloted an adapted version of WHO BIC on an inpatient mental health unit in the United States. We assessed the feasibility and acceptability. We also evaluated changes in suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and connectedness using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Of 13 eligible patients, 9 patients enrolled. Patients experienced significant improvements in suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and connectedness at 1 and 3 months (Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation, F(2,16) = 14.96, p < 0.01; Beck Hopelessness Scale, F(2,16) = 5.88, p < 0.05; perceived burdensomeness subscale, F(2,16) = 10.97, p < 0.013; and thwarted belongingness subscale, F(2,16) = 4.77, p < 0.03). Patients were highly satisfied. An adapted version of WHO BIC may be feasible to implement in a high-resource setting, but trials need to confirm efficacy.


Assuntos
Hospitalização/tendências , Hospitais Psiquiátricos/tendências , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Tentativa de Suicídio/tendências , Adulto , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia
11.
J Dual Diagn ; 15(4): 217-225, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253073

RESUMO

Objective: Substance use disorders are an important risk factor for suicide. While residential drug treatment programs improve clinical outcomes for substance use disorders, less is known about the role of related health care processes in contributing to suicide risk. These data may help to inform strategies to prevent suicide during and after residential treatment.Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on root-cause analysis (RCA) reports of suicide in veterans occurring within 3 months of discharge from a residential drug treatment program that were reported to a Veterans Affairs facility between 2001 and 2017. Demographic information such as age, gender, and psychiatric comorbidity were abstracted from each report. In addition, an established codebook was used to code root causes from each report. Root causes were grouped into categories in order to characterize the key system and organizational-level processes that may have contributed to the suicide.Results: A total of 39 RCA reports of suicide occurring within 3 months after discharge from a residential drug treatment program were identified. The majority of decedents were men and the average age was 42.9 years (SD = 11.2). The most common method of suicide was overdose (33%) followed by hanging (28%). Most suicides occurred in close proximity to discharge, with 56% (n = 22) occurring within seven days of discharge and 36% (n = 14) occurring within 48 hours of discharge. The most common substances used by decedents prior to admission were alcohol or opiates. RCA teams identified a total of 140 root causes and the majority were due to problems with suicide risk assessment (n = 32, 22.9%). Non-engagement with treatment during (n = 20, 14.3%) and after the residential stay (n = 18, 12.9%) was also highlighted as an important concern. Finally, several reports raised concerns that a discharge prior to treatment completion or a precipitous discharge due to program violation negatively impacted treatment outcomes.Conclusions: Efforts to prevent suicide in the period following discharge from a residential drug treatment program should focus on addressing suicide risk factors during admission and helping patients engage more fully in substance use disorder treatment.


Assuntos
Tratamento Domiciliar , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Diagnóstico Duplo (Psiquiatria) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Suicídio/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia
12.
Am J Prev Med ; 57(2): 145-152, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248740

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Published research indicates that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased mortality. However, causes of death among treatment-seeking patients with PTSD remain poorly characterized. The study objective was to describe causes of death among Veterans with PTSD to inform preventive interventions for this treatment population. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted for all Veterans who initiated PTSD treatment at any Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center from fiscal year 2008 to 2013. The primary outcome was mortality within the first year after treatment initiation. In 2018, collected data were analyzed to determine leading causes of death. For the top ten causes, standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated from age- and sex-matched mortality tables of the U.S. general population. RESULTS: A total of 491,040 Veterans were identified who initiated PTSD treatment. Mean age was 48.5 (±16.0) years, 90.7% were male, and 63.5% were of white race. In the year following treatment initiation, 1.1% (5,215/491,040) died. All-cause mortality was significantly higher for Veterans with PTSD compared with the U.S. population (SMR=1.05, 95% CI=1.02, 1.08, p<0.001). Veterans with PTSD had a significant increase in mortality from suicide (SMR=2.52, 95% CI=2.24, 2.82, p<0.001), accidental injury (SMR=1.99, 95% CI=1.83, 2.16, p<0.001), and viral hepatitis (SMR=2.26, 95% CI=1.68, 2.93, p<0.001) versus the U.S. POPULATION: Of those dying from accidental injury, more than half died of poisoning (52.3%, 325/622). CONCLUSIONS: Veterans with PTSD have an elevated risk of death from suicide, accidental injury, and viral hepatitis. Preventive interventions should target these important causes of death.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte/tendências , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais de Veteranos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Endourol ; 33(7): 598-605, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044612

RESUMO

Introduction: The natural progression of asymptomatic kidney stones remains unclear. Such knowledge may promote value-aligned care for patients and reduce potentially unnecessary procedures. We sought to evaluate the natural history of asymptomatic kidney stones in adults undergoing active surveillance. Materials and Methods: Using themes of "Kidney Stone" and "Active Surveillance," we performed a systematic review by searching for studies in MEDLINE, all Cochrane libraries, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, BIOSIS, Scopus, and Web of Science from inception through October 2017-in addition to ClinicalTrials.gov, American Urological Association Annual Meeting abstracts (2014-2017), Google Scholar, and references of included studies and prior reviews. Two blinded reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality. We qualitatively summarized rates of surgical intervention (primary outcome), spontaneous stone passage, symptom development, and stone growth. We assessed the relationship between surveillance duration and rate of surgical intervention with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: Of 7034 unique records, 13 studies met final eligibility criteria. There was substantial variation in reported rates of surgical intervention from 6/85 (7.1%) to 80/301 (26.6%), spontaneous stone passage from 1/32 (3.1%) to 101/347 (29.1%), symptom development from 7/96 (7.3%) to 231/300 (77.0%), and stone growth from 5/96 (5.2%) to 33/50 (66.0%). Mean surveillance duration spanned from 11.3 to 80 months (range 2-180 months). Longer mean duration of surveillance did not correlate with an increase in surgical intervention rate across studies (n = 13, r = 0.01, p = 0.98), and this finding persisted when restricting analysis to observational studies (n = 9, r = 0.12, p = 0.76). Conclusions: Active surveillance appears to be a durable strategy for a majority of patients with asymptomatic kidney stones, as there was no increase in failure of watchful waiting despite increasing duration of surveillance. Higher quality studies are needed to ascertain which patients may benefit most from active surveillance.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Cálculos Renais/terapia , Conduta Expectante , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Litotripsia/estatística & dados numéricos , Nefrolitotomia Percutânea/estatística & dados numéricos , Ureteroscopia/estatística & dados numéricos
14.
Mil Med ; 184(9-10): e555-e560, 2019 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877803

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In order to address the problem of suicide, healthcare providers and researchers must be able to accurately identify suicide deaths. Common approaches to detecting suicide in the healthcare setting include the National Death Index (NDI) and Root-Cause Analysis (RCA) methodology. No study has directly compared these two methods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Suicide reporting was evaluated within the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system. All suicides were included that occurred within 7 days of discharge from an inpatient mental health unit and were reported to the VA through the NDI record linkage and/or RCA database between 2002 and 2014. The proportion of suicide deaths that were identified by NDI and found in the RCA database were calculated. Potential misclassification by the NDI was evaluated, whereby the RCA database identified a suicide case, but the NDI classified the death as a non-suicide. RESULTS: In the study period, the NDI identified 222 patients who died by suicide within 7 days of discharge, while the RCA database only detected 95 reports of suicide. A comparison of cases across the two methods indicated that the RCA database identified only 35% (N = 78) of NDI detected suicides (N = 222). Conversely, the RCA database detected 13 suicide cases that the NDI had coded as deaths due to accidental poisoning or other causes. Importantly, RCA accounted for 13% (N = 7) of overdose suicides identified in all databases (N = 52). CONCLUSIONS: Combining national and local approaches to detect suicide may help to improve the classification of suicide deaths in the healthcare setting.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Geográfico , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Suicídio , Adulto , Causas de Morte , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise de Causa Fundamental , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estados Unidos , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/organização & administração , United States Department of Veterans Affairs/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Psychiatry Res ; 273: 247-251, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658209

RESUMO

The relationship between three markers of chronic hypoxia (altitude, smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)) and suicide risk has not been well-studied. We conducted a population-based cohort study evaluating the association between chronic hypoxia and suicide risk. Patients entered the cohort in their first year with a documented healthcare encounter and remained in the cohort until their death or the end of the study period. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) methodology was used to assess the association between suicide and three risk markers of chronic hypoxia. Findings were summarized using odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among the 9,620,944 patients in the cohort, there were 22,403 suicide deaths. There was a statistically significant progression of suicide risk as altitude rose in increments of 1000 m (OR: 1.22). There was a strong association between the number of hypoxic conditions and the odds of suicide. Patients with three markers of chronic hypoxia was nearly four times more likely to die by suicide than patients with no markers (OR: 3.96). Chronic hypoxia is a risk factor for suicide and having multiple indicators of hypoxia confers a greater risk for suicide, indicating a dose-response relationship.


Assuntos
Hipóxia/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adulto , Altitude , Doença Crônica , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/psicologia
16.
Laryngoscope ; 129(1): 82-95, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29756330

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing surgery for maxillofacial fractures is standard practice. However, the use of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis remains controversial. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to evaluate the effect of postoperative antibiotic therapy on the incidence of surgical site infection (SSI) in patients with maxillofacial fractures. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library were searched from inception through October 2017. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies evaluating the efficacy of pre-, peri-, and postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing SSI in maxillofacial fractures were included. Data were extracted from studies using a standardized data collection form, with two reviewers independently performing extraction and quality assessment for each study. Risk ratios (RRs) for SSI were pooled using a random-effects model. RESULTS: Among 2,150 potentially eligible citations, 13 studies met inclusion criteria and provided data to be included in a meta-analysis. The addition of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis to a standard preoperative and/or perioperative antibiotic regimen showed no significant difference in the risk of SSI (RR = 1.11 [95% CI: 0.86-1.44], P > .1). There were also no differences in the risk of SSI when restricting the analysis to mandibular fractures (eight studies, RR = 1.22 [95% CI: 0.92-1.62]) or open surgical techniques (eight studies, RR = 1.02 [95% CI: 0.62-1.67]). A sensitivity analysis did not find any significant differences in risk when restricting to RCTs (seven trials, RR = 1.00 [95% CI: 0.61-1.67]) or cohort studies (six studies, RR = 1.21 [95% CI: 0.89-1.63]). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, along with the available evidence, does not support the routine use of postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with maxillofacial fractures. Avoiding the unnecessary use of antibiotic therapy in the postoperative period could have important implications for healthcare costs and patient outcomes. Laryngoscope, 129:82-95, 2019.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antibioticoprofilaxia/estatística & dados numéricos , Traumatismos Maxilofaciais/cirurgia , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle , Antibioticoprofilaxia/métodos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios/métodos , Período Pós-Operatório , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 39(6): 420-429, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401320

RESUMO

Background: The majority of patients for elective surgery and with a history of penicillin allergy are placed on alternative prophylactic antibiotic therapies, which have been associated with the emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens and increased morbidity and mortality rates. However, self-reporting of penicillin allergy alone may overestimate the prevalence of penicillin allergy in the population. Objective: To assess the effects of preoperative antibiotic allergy testing protocols in reducing the use of non-beta-lactam antibiotics. Methods: We searched medical literature data bases through July of 2018. Two reviewers independently extracted data from published studies and assessed the risk of bias in cohort studies by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We collected information related to study design, methodology, demographics, interventions, and outcomes. We pooled odds ratios for the rate of prescribing non-beta-lactam antibiotics by using a fixed-effects model. Results: Of 905 citations screened for eligibility, nine studies met inclusion criteria for qualitative analysis. Studies reported that the rates of non-beta-lactam use after preoperative skin testing ranged from 6 to 30%. In addition, four of the nine studies had sufficient control data to be included in a meta-analysis. These four studies found that preoperative testing protocols significantly decreased the rates of prescribing non-beta-lactam antibiotics compared with usual care (odds ratio 3.64 [95% confidence interval, 2.67-4.98]; p < 0.0001). Seven studies reported on adverse drug reactions after preoperative skin testing and found that the rate of such reactions was rare. Conclusion: Preoperative antibiotic allergy testing protocols seemed to be a safe and effective tool in reducing the use of non-beta-lactam antibiotics during surgery.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/epidemiologia , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/prevenção & controle , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Assistência Perioperatória , Testes Cutâneos , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Incidência , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Penicilinas/uso terapêutico
18.
J Am Coll Radiol ; 15(11): 1587-1602, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181090

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Studies suggest that quality improvement (QI) projects in health care lack scientific rigor, but the actual frequency of use of proven scientific QI methodology is unknown. The purposes of this study are to (1) conduct a systematic review of QI projects in radiology journals on the frequency of use of iterative cycles, a marker of proven QI methodology, and (2) assess association of the use of iterative cycles with characteristics of these projects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched English-language radiology journals on MEDLINE between 2008 and 2015 for published QI studies. Three reviewers appraised studies and extracted data. Use of iterative cycles was identified, and results were summarized qualitatively. χ2 Analysis evaluated associations of iterative cycles with other data elements. RESULTS: Of 3,134 potentially eligible citations, 44 studies met inclusion criteria. Only 46% of these used iterative cycles to refine intervention. Use of iterative cycles were associated with projects designed to improve process, QI expert support, reporting of unintended effect of intervention, and explicitly stated use of iterative cycles. General lack of scientific rigor was represented by failure to report baseline data (9%), describe unintended effects (66%), and discuss limitations (36%). CONCLUSIONS: Our systematic review found fewer than half of the QI projects in radiology journals used iterative cycles to refine intervention, a scientific strategy central to many proven improvement methodologies. Use of iterative approach was associated with projects designed to improve processes, QI expert support, report of unintended effect, and explicitly stated use of iterative cycles.


Assuntos
Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Radiologia/normas , Humanos
19.
Psychosomatics ; 59(6): 561-566, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30064731

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that psychiatric and substance use issues in general hospital inpatients result in increased length of stay and associated costs. Additional studies have demonstrated that proactive consultation models in psychiatry can effectively address these problems. Selecting patients for proactive interventions is less well studied. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop an automated, electronic medical record-based screening tool to select patients who might benefit from proactive psychiatric consultation. METHODS: An automated daily report was developed using information stored in electronic medical record and billing systems. Discrete data fields populating the report included diagnoses, orders, and nursing care plans. RESULTS: Over a 9-month period, the report identified 2177 patients (19% of the total nonpsychiatric adult admissions) as potentially benefitting from proactive psychiatric interventions. Of these, 367 were confirmed as likely to benefit from intervention; 139 (38%) were randomized to the proactive psychiatric consultation group. Of those patients randomized to "treatment as usual," a subset later required psychiatric consultation, which was requested an average of 4 days after the time they were flagged by the report. CONCLUSIONS: The use of an electronic medical record-based automated report is feasible to select patients for proactive psychiatric interventions on admission and throughout the hospital stay. Early identification of patients may decrease length of stay and improve patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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