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1.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34259837

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Findings and limitations of previous studies on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and pancreatic cancer risk support conducting further research in prospective cohorts. METHODS: We conducted a prospective case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Participants were 513 pancreatic cancer cases and 1020 matched controls. Concentrations of 22 POPs were measured in plasma collected at baseline. RESULTS: Some associations were observed at higher concentrations of p, p'-DDT, trans-nonachlor, ß-hexachlorocyclohexane and the sum of six organochlorine pesticides and of 16 POPs. The odds ratio (OR) for the upper quartile of trans-nonachlor was 1.55 (95% confidence interval 1.06-2.26; P for trend = 0.025). Associations were stronger in the groups predefined as most valid (participants having fasted >6 h, with microscopic diagnostic confirmation, normal weight, and never smokers), and as most relevant (follow-up ≥10 years). Among participants having fasted >6 h, the ORs were relevant for 10 of 11 exposures. Higher ORs were also observed among cases with microscopic confirmation than in cases with a clinical diagnosis, and among normal-weight participants than in the rest of participants. Among participants with a follow-up ≥10 years, estimates were higher than in participants with a shorter follow-up (for trans-nonachlor: OR = 2.14, 1.01 to 4.53, P for trend = 0.035). Overall, trans-nonachlor, three PCBs and the two sums of POPs were the exposures most clearly associated with pancreatic cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Individually or in combination, most of the 22 POPs analysed did not or only moderately increased the risk of pancreatic cancer.

2.
Cancer Med ; 10(16): 5614-5628, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196490

RESUMO

Abdominal size is associated positively with the risk of some cancers but the influence of body mass index (BMI) and gluteofemoral size is unclear because waist and hip circumference are strongly correlated with BMI. We examined associations of 33 cancers with A Body Shape Index (ABSI) and hip index (HI), which are independent of BMI by design, and compared these with waist and hip circumference, using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models in UK Biobank. During a mean follow-up of 7 years, 14,682 incident cancers were ascertained in 200,289 men and 12,965 cancers in 230,326 women. In men, ABSI was associated positively with cancers of the head and neck (hazard ratio HR = 1.14; 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.26 per one standard deviation increment), esophagus (adenocarcinoma, HR = 1.27; 1.12-1.44), gastric cardia (HR = 1.31; 1.07-1.61), colon (HR = 1.18; 1.10-1.26), rectum (HR = 1.13; 1.04-1.22), lung (adenocarcinoma, HR = 1.16; 1.03-1.30; squamous cell carcinoma [SCC], HR = 1.33; 1.17-1.52), and bladder (HR = 1.15; 1.04-1.27), while HI was associated inversely with cancers of the esophagus (adenocarcinoma, HR = 0.89; 0.79-1.00), gastric cardia (HR = 0.79; 0.65-0.96), colon (HR = 0.92; 0.86-0.98), liver (HR = 0.86; 0.75-0.98), and multiple myeloma (HR = 0.86; 0.75-1.00). In women, ABSI was associated positively with cancers of the head and neck (HR = 1.27; 1.10-1.48), esophagus (SCC, HR = 1.37; 1.07-1.76), colon (HR = 1.08; 1.01-1.16), lung (adenocarcinoma, HR = 1.17; 1.06-1.29; SCC, HR = 1.40; 1.20-1.63; small cell, HR = 1.39; 1.14-1.69), kidney (clear-cell, HR = 1.25; 1.03-1.50), and post-menopausal endometrium (HR = 1.11; 1.02-1.20), while HI was associated inversely with skin SCC (HR = 0.91; 0.83-0.99), post-menopausal kidney cancer (HR = 0.77; 0.67-0.88), and post-menopausal melanoma (HR = 0.90; 0.83-0.98). Unusually, ABSI was associated inversely with melanoma in men (HR = 0.89; 0.82-0.96) and pre-menopausal women (HR = 0.77; 0.65-0.91). Waist and hip circumference reflected associations with BMI, when examined individually, and provided biased risk estimates, when combined with BMI. In conclusion, preferential positive associations of ABSI or inverse of HI with several major cancers indicate an important role of factors determining body shape in cancer development.

3.
Clin Nutr ; 40(6): 3772-3779, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130023

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Emerging evidence suggests a role of amino acids (AAs) in the development of various diseases including renal failure, liver cirrhosis, diabetes and cancer. However, mechanistic pathways and the effects of dietary AA intakes on circulating levels and disease outcomes are unclear. We aimed to compare protein and AA intakes, with their respective blood concentrations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: Dietary protein and AA intakes were assessed via the EPIC dietary questionnaires (DQ) and 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR). A subsample of 3768 EPIC participants who were free of cancer had blood AA concentrations measured. To investigate how circulating levels relate to their respective intakes, dietary AA intake was examined in quintiles and ANOVA tests were run. Pearson correlations were examined for continous associations between intakes and blood concentrations. RESULTS: Dietary AA intakes (assessed with the DQ) and blood AA concentrations were not strongly correlated (-0.15 ≤ r ≤ 0.17) and the direction of the correlations depended on AA class: weak positive correlations were found for most essential AAs (isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan, and valine) and conditionally essential AAs (arginine and tyrosine), while negative associations were found for non-essential AAs. Similar results were found when using the 24-HDR. When conducting ANOVA tests for essential AAs, higher intake quintiles were linked to higher blood AA concentrations, except for histidine and phenylalanine. For non-essential AAs and glycine, an inverse relationship was observed. Conditionally-essential AAs showed mixed results. CONCLUSIONS: Weak positive correlations and dose responses were found between most essential and conditionally essential AA intakes, and blood concentrations, but not for the non-essential AAs. These results suggest that intake of dietary AA might be related to physiological AA status, particularly for the essential AAs. However, these results should be further evaluated and confirmed in large-scale prospective studies.

4.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34148186

RESUMO

The role of chronic inflammation on breast cancer (BC) risk remains unclear beyond as an underlying mechanism of obesity and physical activity. We aimed to evaluate the association between the inflammatory potential of the diet and risk of BC overall, according to menopausal status and tumour subtypes. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, 318,686 women were followed for 14 years, among whom 13,246 incident BC cases were identified. The inflammatory potential of the diet was characterized by an inflammatory score of the diet (ISD). Multivariable Cox regression models were used to assess the potential effect of the ISD on BC risk by means of hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). ISD was positively associated with BC risk. Each increase of one standard deviation (1-Sd) of the score increased by 4% the risk of BC (HR = 1.04; 95% CI 1.01-1.07). Women in the highest quintile of the ISD (indicating a most pro-inflammatory diet) had a 12% increase in risk compared with those in the lowest quintile (HR = 1.12; 95% CI 1.04-1.21) with a significant trend. The association was strongest among premenopausal women, with an 8% increased risk for 1-Sd increase in the score (HR = 1.08; 95% CI 1.01-1.14). The pattern of the association was quite homogeneous by BC subtypes based on hormone receptor status. There were no significant interactions between ISD and body mass index, physical activity, or alcohol consumption. Women consuming more pro-inflammatory diets as measured by ISD are at increased risk for BC, especially premenopausal women.

5.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 36(8): 781-792, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34036467

RESUMO

Evidence on the effects of meat consumption from different sources on the risk of bladder cancer (BC) is limited and controversial. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the associations between meat consumption and BC risk using a pooled data approach. Individual data from 11 prospective cohorts comprising 2848 BC cases and 515,697 non-cases with a total of 5,498,025 person-years of follow-up was pooled and analysed to investigate the potential associations between total red meat and products, red meat, processed meat, poultry and total fish and BC risk. Hazard ratios (HRs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were estimated using Cox regression models stratified on cohort. Overall, an increased BC risk was found for high intake of organ meat (HR comparing highest with lowest tertile: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.36, p-trend = 0.03). On the contrary, a marginally inverse association was observed for total fish intake and BC risk among men (HR comparing highest with lowest tertile: 0.79, 95% CI 0.65, 0.97, p-trend = 0.04). No associations were observed for other meat sources. Results of this prospective study suggest that organ meat consumption may be associated with BC development. Replication in large-scale prospective studies and investigation of possible causal mechanisms is needed.


Assuntos
Peixes , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10646, 2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34017024

RESUMO

A diagnosis of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) has been associated with increased risk of hepatobiliary cancers, colorectal cancer and all-cause mortality in several studies, while associations with cardiovascular disease have been inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of published cohort studies on the topic to summarize these associations. PubMed and Embase databases were searched up to January 13th, 2020. Cohort studies on PSC and risk of cancer, cardiovascular disease, or mortality were included. Summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using random effects models. The summary RR (95% CI) comparing persons with PSC to persons without PSC was 584.37 (269.42-1267.51, I2 = 89%, n = 4) for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), 155.54 (125.34-193.02, I2 = 0%, n = 3) for hepatobiliary cancer, 30.22 (11.99-76.17, I2 = 0%, n = 2) for liver cancer, 16.92 (8.73-32.78, I2 = 88%, n = 4) for gastrointestinal cancer, 7.56 (2.42-23.62, I2 = 0%, n = 3) for pancreatic cancer, 6.10 (4.19-8.87, I2 = 14%, n = 7) for colorectal cancer (CRC), 4.13 (2.99-5.71, I2 = 80%, n = 5) for total cancer, 3.55 (2.94-4.28, I2 = 46%, n = 5) for all-cause mortality, and 1.57 (0.25-9.69, I2 = 79%, n = 2) for cardiovascular disease. Strong positive associations were observed between PSC and risk of CCA, hepatobiliary cancer, liver cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, pancreatic cancer, CRC, total cancer, and all-cause mortality, but not for cardiovascular disease.

7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 10688, 2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34021172

RESUMO

Genetic studies have examined body-shape measures adjusted for body mass index (BMI), while allometric indices are additionally adjusted for height. We performed the first genome-wide association study of A Body Shape Index (ABSI), Hip Index (HI) and the new Waist-to-Hip Index and compared these with traditional indices, using data from the UK Biobank Resource for 219,872 women and 186,825 men with white British ancestry and Bayesian linear mixed-models (BOLT-LMM). One to two thirds of the loci identified for allometric body-shape indices were novel. Most prominent was rs72959041 variant in RSPO3 gene, expressed in visceral adipose tissue and regulating adrenal cell renewal. Highly ranked were genes related to morphogenesis and organogenesis, previously additionally linked to cancer development and progression. Genetic associations were fewer in men compared to women. Prominent region-specific associations showed variants in loci VEGFA and HMGA1 for ABSI and KLF14 for HI in women, and C5orf67 and HOXC4/5 for ABSI and RSPO3, VEGFA and SLC30A10 for HI in men. Although more variants were associated with waist and hip circumference adjusted for BMI compared to ABSI and HI, associations with height had previously been reported for many of the additional variants, illustrating the importance of adjusting correctly for height.

8.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(6): 1270-1274, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) accounts for more than 80% of kidney cancers in adults, and obesity is a known risk factor. Regular consumption of sweetened beverages has been linked to obesity and several chronic diseases, including some types of cancer. It is uncertain whether soft drink and juice consumption is associated with risk of RCC. We investigated the associations of soft drink and juice consumption with RCC incidence and mortality in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: A total of 389,220 EPIC participants with median age of 52 years at recruitment (1991-2000) were included. Cox regression yielded adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for RCC incidence and mortality in relation to intakes of juices and total, sugar-sweetened, and artificially sweetened soft drinks. RESULTS: A total of 888 incident RCCs and 356 RCC deaths were identified. In models including adjustment for body mass index and energy intake, there was no higher risk of incident RCC associated with consumption of juices (HR per 100 g/day increment = 1.03; 95% CI, 0.97-1.09), total soft drinks (HR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.98-1.05), sugar-sweetened soft drinks (HR = 0.99; 95% CI, 0.94-1.05), or artificially sweetened soft drinks (HR = 1.02; 95% CI, 0.96-1.08). In these fully adjusted models, none of the beverages was associated with RCC mortality (HR, 95% CI per 100 g/day increment 1.06, 0.97-1.16; 1.03, 0.98-1.09; 0.97, 0.89-1.07; and 1.06, 0.99-1.14, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of juices or soft drinks was not associated with RCC incidence or mortality after adjusting for obesity. IMPACT: Soft drink and juice intakes are unlikely to play an independent role in RCC development or mortality.

9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 114(1): 338-347, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33829249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin B6 insufficiency has been linked to increased risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. The circulating concentration of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is a commonly used measure of vitamin B6 status. Ratios of substrates indicating PLP coenzymatic function and metabolism may be useful complementary measures to further explore the role of vitamin B6 in health. OBJECTIVES: We explored the sensitivity of 5 outcomes, namely PLP concentration, homocysteine:cysteine (Hcy:Cys), cystathionine:cysteine (Cysta:Cys), the 3´-hydroxykynurenine ratio (HKr), and the 4-pyridoxic acid ratio (PAr) to vitamin B6 intake as well as personal and lifestyle characteristics. MEDTHODS: Dietary intake and biomarker data were collected from participants from 3 nested case-control studies within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Bayesian regression models assessed the associations of the 5 biomarker outcomes with vitamin B6 intake and personal and lifestyle covariates. Analogous models examined the relations of Hcy:Cys, Cysta:Cys, and HKr with PLP. RESULTS: In total, 4608 participants were included in the analyses. Vitamin B6 intake was most strongly associated with PLP, moderately associated with Hcy:Cys, Cysta:Cys, and HKr, and not associated with PAr (fold change in marker given a doubling of vitamin B6 intake: PLP 1.60 [95% credible interval (CrI): 1.50, 1.71]; Hcy:Cys 0.87 [95% CrI: 0.84, 0.90]; Cysta:Cys 0.89 [95% CrI: 0.84, 0.94]; HKr 0.88 [95% CrI: 0.85, 0.91]; PAr 1.00 [95% CrI: 0.95, 1.05]). PAr was most sensitive to age, and HKr was least sensitive to BMI and alcohol intake. Sex and menopause status were strongly associated with all 5 markers. CONCLUSIONS: We found that 5 different markers, capturing different aspects of vitamin B6-related biological processes, varied in their associations with vitamin B6 intake and personal and lifestyle predictors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , Vitamina B 6/sangue , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Deficiência de Vitamina B 6
10.
J Thorac Oncol ; 16(6): 968-979, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722709

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lung cancer survivors are at high risk of developing a second primary lung cancer (SPLC). However, SPLC risk factors have not been established and the impact of tobacco smoking remains controversial. We examined the risk factors for SPLC across multiple epidemiologic cohorts and evaluated the impact of smoking cessation on reducing SPLC risk. METHODS: We analyzed data from 7059 participants in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) diagnosed with an initial primary lung cancer (IPLC) between 1993 and 2017. Cause-specific proportional hazards models estimated SPLC risk. We conducted validation studies using the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (N = 3423 IPLC cases) and European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (N = 4731 IPLC cases) cohorts and pooled the SPLC risk estimates using random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 163 MEC cases (2.3%) developed SPLC. Smoking pack-years (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.18 per 10 pack-years, p < 0.001) and smoking intensity (HR = 1.30 per 10 cigarettes per day, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with increased SPLC risk. Individuals who met the 2013 U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's screening criteria at IPLC diagnosis also had an increased SPLC risk (HR = 1.92; p < 0.001). Validation studies with the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial and European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition revealed consistent results. Meta-analysis yielded pooled HRs of 1.16 per 10 pack-years (pmeta < 0.001), 1.25 per 10 cigarettes per day (pmeta < 0.001), and 1.99 (pmeta < 0.001) for meeting the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force's criteria. In MEC, smoking cessation after IPLC diagnosis was associated with an 83% reduction in SPLC risk (HR = 0.17; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for SPLC. Smoking cessation may reduce the risk of SPLC. Additional strategies for SPLC surveillance and screening are warranted.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Segunda Neoplasia Primária , Humanos , Pulmão , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar Tabaco
11.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 56, 2021 Mar 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685459

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although a potential inverse association between vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk has been reported, epidemiological evidence is inconsistent. This research aimed to elucidate the association between vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk by conducting a pooled analysis of data from prospective cohort studies. METHODS: Vegetable intake in relation to bladder cancer risk was examined by pooling individual-level data from 13 cohort studies, comprising 3203 cases among a total of 555,685 participants. Pooled multivariate hazard ratios (HRs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified by cohort for intakes of total vegetable, vegetable subtypes (i.e. non-starchy, starchy, green leafy and cruciferous vegetables) and individual vegetable types. In addition, a diet diversity score was used to assess the association of the varied types of vegetable intake on bladder cancer risk. RESULTS: The association between vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk differed by sex (P-interaction = 0.011) and smoking status (P-interaction = 0.038); therefore, analyses were stratified by sex and smoking status. With adjustment of age, sex, smoking, energy intake, ethnicity and other potential dietary factors, we found that higher intake of total and non-starchy vegetables were inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer among women (comparing the highest with lowest intake tertile: HR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.64-0.98, P = 0.037 for trend, HR per 1 SD increment = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.81-0.99; HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63-0.97, P = 0.034 for trend, HR per 1 SD increment = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.79-0.98, respectively). However, no evidence of association was observed among men, and the intake of vegetable was not found to be associated with bladder cancer when stratified by smoking status. Moreover, we found no evidence of association for diet diversity with bladder cancer risk. CONCLUSION: Higher intakes of total and non-starchy vegetable are associated with reduced risk of bladder cancer for women. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these results reflect causal processes and potential underlying mechanisms.

12.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33755122

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of obesity and weight change in breast-cancer development is complex and incompletely understood. We investigated long-term weight change and breast-cancer risk by body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years, menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and hormone-receptor status. METHODS: Using data on weight collected at three different time points from women who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, we investigated the association between weight change from age 20 years until middle adulthood and risk of breast cancer. RESULTS: In total, 150 257 women with a median age of 51 years at cohort entry were followed for an average of 14 years (standard deviation = 3.9) during which 6532 breast-cancer cases occurred. Compared with women with stable weight (±2.5 kg), long-term weight gain >10 kg was positively associated with postmenopausal breast-cancer risk in women who were lean at age 20 [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.42; 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.65] in ever HRT users (HR = 1.23; 1.04-1.44), in never HRT users (HR = 1.40; 1.16-1.68) and in oestrogen-and-progesterone-receptor-positive (ER+PR+) breast cancer (HR = 1.46; 1.15-1.85). CONCLUSION: Long-term weight gain was positively associated with postmenopausal breast cancer in women who were lean at age 20, both in HRT ever users and non-users, and hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer.

13.
Int J Cancer ; 148(11): 2759-2773, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554339

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is causally linked to several cancers but the evidence for stomach cancer is inconclusive. In our study, the association between long-term alcohol intake and risk of stomach cancer and its subtypes was evaluated. We performed a pooled analysis of data collected at baseline from 491 714 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for incident stomach cancer in relation to lifetime alcohol intake and group-based life course intake trajectories, adjusted for potential confounders including Helicobacter pylori infection. In all, 1225 incident stomach cancers (78% noncardia) were diagnosed over 7 094 637 person-years; 984 in 382 957 study participants with lifetime alcohol intake data (5 455 507 person-years). Although lifetime alcohol intake was not associated with overall stomach cancer risk, we observed a weak positive association with noncardia cancer (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06 per 10 g/d increment), with a HR of 1.50 (95% CI: 1.08-2.09) for ≥60 g/d compared to 0.1 to 4.9 g/d. A weak inverse association with cardia cancer (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-1.00) was also observed. HRs of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.99) for noncardia and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.26-1.03) for cardia cancer were observed for a life course trajectory characterized by heavy decreasing intake compared to light stable intake (Phomogeneity = .02). These associations did not differ appreciably by smoking or H pylori infection status. Limiting alcohol use during lifetime, particularly avoiding heavy use during early adulthood, might help prevent noncardia stomach cancer. Heterogeneous associations observed for cardia and noncardia cancers may indicate etiologic differences.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Infecções por Helicobacter/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Austrália/etnologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Feminino , Infecções por Helicobacter/complicações , Helicobacter pylori/patogenicidade , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 16(1): e0236904, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Observational studies have reported either null or weak protective associations for coffee consumption and risk of breast cancer. METHODS: We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to evaluate the relationship between coffee consumption and breast cancer risk using 33 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with coffee consumption from a genome-wide association (GWA) study on 212,119 female UK Biobank participants of White British ancestry. Risk estimates for breast cancer were retrieved from publicly available GWA summary statistics from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) on 122,977 cases (of which 69,501 were estrogen receptor (ER)-positive, 21,468 ER-negative) and 105,974 controls of European ancestry. Random-effects inverse variance weighted (IVW) MR analyses were performed along with several sensitivity analyses to assess the impact of potential MR assumption violations. RESULTS: One cup per day increase in genetically predicted coffee consumption in women was not associated with risk of total (IVW random-effects; odds ratio (OR): 0.91, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.80-1.02, P: 0.12, P for instrument heterogeneity: 7.17e-13), ER-positive (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.79-1.02, P: 0.09) and ER-negative breast cancer (OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.75-1.03, P: 0.12). Null associations were also found in the sensitivity analyses using MR-Egger (total breast cancer; OR: 1.00, 95% CI: 0.80-1.25), weighted median (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.89-1.05) and weighted mode (OR: 1.00, CI: 0.93-1.07). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this large MR study do not support an association of genetically predicted coffee consumption on breast cancer risk, but we cannot rule out existence of a weak association.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Café/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Bases de Dados Factuais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Fatores de Risco
15.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 1, 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33390155

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nutrition and lifestyle have been long established as risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Modifiable lifestyle behaviours bear potential to minimize long-term CRC risk; however, translation of lifestyle information into individualized CRC risk assessment has not been implemented. Lifestyle-based risk models may aid the identification of high-risk individuals, guide referral to screening and motivate behaviour change. We therefore developed and validated a lifestyle-based CRC risk prediction algorithm in an asymptomatic European population. METHODS: The model was based on data from 255,482 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study aged 19 to 70 years who were free of cancer at study baseline (1992-2000) and were followed up to 31 September 2010. The model was validated in a sample comprising 74,403 participants selected among five EPIC centres. Over a median follow-up time of 15 years, there were 3645 and 981 colorectal cancer cases in the derivation and validation samples, respectively. Variable selection algorithms in Cox proportional hazard regression and random survival forest (RSF) were used to identify the best predictors among plausible predictor variables. Measures of discrimination and calibration were calculated in derivation and validation samples. To facilitate model communication, a nomogram and a web-based application were developed. RESULTS: The final selection model included age, waist circumference, height, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, vegetables, dairy products, processed meat, and sugar and confectionary. The risk score demonstrated good discrimination overall and in sex-specific models. Harrell's C-index was 0.710 in the derivation cohort and 0.714 in the validation cohort. The model was well calibrated and showed strong agreement between predicted and observed risk. Random survival forest analysis suggested high model robustness. Beyond age, lifestyle data led to improved model performance overall (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.307 (95% CI 0.264-0.352)), and especially for young individuals below 45 years (continuous net reclassification improvement = 0.364 (95% CI 0.084-0.575)). CONCLUSIONS: LiFeCRC score based on age and lifestyle data accurately identifies individuals at risk for incident colorectal cancer in European populations and could contribute to improved prevention through motivating lifestyle change at an individual level.

16.
Br J Cancer ; 124(6): 1049-1056, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235315

RESUMO

Growing data from epidemiological studies highlight the association between excess body fat and cancer incidence, but good indicative evidence demonstrates that intentional weight loss, as well as increasing physical activity, offers much promise as a cost-effective approach for reducing the cancer burden. However, clear gaps remain in our understanding of how changes in body fat or levels of physical activity are mechanistically linked to cancer, and the magnitude of their impact on cancer risk. It is important to investigate the causal link between programmes that successfully achieve short-term modest weight loss followed by weight-loss maintenance and cancer incidence. The longer-term impact of weight loss and duration of overweight and obesity on risk reduction also need to be fully considered in trial design. These gaps in knowledge need to be urgently addressed to expedite the development and implementation of future cancer-control strategies. Comprehensive approaches to trial design, Mendelian randomisation studies and data-linkage opportunities offer real possibilities to tackle current research gaps. In this paper, we set out the case for why non-pharmacological weight-management trials are urgently needed to support cancer-risk reduction and help control the growing global burden of cancer.

17.
Br J Cancer ; 124(6): 1057-1065, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33235316

RESUMO

Earlier diagnosis and more effective treatments mean that the estimated number of cancer survivors in the United Kingdom is expected to reach 4 million by 2030. However, there is an increasing realisation that excess body fatness (EBF) is likely to influence the quality of cancer survivorship and disease-free survival. For decades, the discussion of weight management in patients with cancer has been dominated by concerns about unintentional weight loss, low body weight and interventions to increase weight, often re-enforced by the existence of the obesity paradox, which indicates that high body weight is associated with survival benefits for some types of cancer. However, observational evidence provides strong grounds for testing the hypothesis that interventions for promoting intentional loss of body fat and maintaining skeletal muscle in overweight and obese cancer survivors would bring important health benefits in terms of survival outcomes and long-term impact on treatment-related side effects. In this paper, we outline the need for studies to improve our understanding of the health benefits of weight-loss interventions, such as hypocaloric healthy-eating plans combined with physical activity. In particular, complex intervention trials that are pragmatically designed are urgently needed to develop effective, clinically practical, evidence-based strategies for reducing EBF and optimising body composition in people living with and beyond common cancers.

18.
Int J Cancer ; 148(3): 646-653, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761610

RESUMO

The epidemiological literature reports inconsistent associations between consumption or circulating concentrations of micronutrients and breast cancer risk. We investigated associations between genetically predicted concentrations of 11 micronutrients (beta-carotene, calcium, copper, folate, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, vitamin B6 , vitamin B12 and zinc) and breast cancer risk using Mendelian randomization (MR). A two-sample MR study was conducted using 122 977 women with breast cancer and 105 974 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. MR analyses were conducted using the inverse variance-weighted approach, and sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the impact of potential violations of MR assumptions. A value of 1 SD (SD: 0.08 mmol/L) higher genetically predicted concentration of magnesium was associated with a 17% (odds ratio [OR]: 1.17, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-1.25, P value = 9.1 × 10-7 ) and 20% (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 1.08-1.34, P value = 3.2 × 10-6 ) higher risk of overall and ER+ve breast cancer, respectively. An inverse association was observed for a SD (0.5 mg/dL) higher genetically predicted phosphorus concentration and ER-ve breast cancer (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.72-0.98, P value = .03). There was little evidence that any other nutrient was associated with breast cancer. The results for magnesium were robust under all sensitivity analyses and survived correction for multiple comparisons. Higher circulating concentrations of magnesium and potentially phosphorus may affect breast cancer risk. Further work is required to replicate these findings and investigate underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Micronutrientes/sangue , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Mama/sangue , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Magnésio/sangue , Epidemiologia Molecular , Fósforo/sangue , Receptores de Estrogênio/genética
19.
Int J Cancer ; 148(3): 609-625, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734650

RESUMO

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development entails changes in liver metabolism. Current knowledge on metabolic perturbations in HCC is derived mostly from case-control designs, with sparse information from prospective cohorts. Our objective was to apply comprehensive metabolite profiling to detect metabolites whose serum concentrations are associated with HCC development, using biological samples from within the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (>520 000 participants), where we identified 129 HCC cases matched 1:1 to controls. We conducted high-resolution untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics on serum samples collected at recruitment prior to cancer diagnosis. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was applied controlling for dietary habits, alcohol consumption, smoking, body size, hepatitis infection and liver dysfunction. Corrections for multiple comparisons were applied. Of 9206 molecular features detected, 220 discriminated HCC cases from controls. Detailed feature annotation revealed 92 metabolites associated with HCC risk, of which 14 were unambiguously identified using pure reference standards. Positive HCC-risk associations were observed for N1-acetylspermidine, isatin, p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, tyrosine, sphingosine, l,l-cyclo(leucylprolyl), glycochenodeoxycholic acid, glycocholic acid and 7-methylguanine. Inverse risk associations were observed for retinol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, glycerophosphocholine, γ-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman and creatine. Discernible differences for these metabolites were observed between cases and controls up to 10 years prior to diagnosis. Our observations highlight the diversity of metabolic perturbations involved in HCC development and replicate previous observations (metabolism of bile acids, amino acids and phospholipids) made in Asian and Scandinavian populations. These findings emphasize the role of metabolic pathways associated with steroid metabolism and immunity and specific dietary and environmental exposures in HCC development.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/diagnóstico , Metabolômica/métodos , Idoso , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Gut ; 70(6): 1053-1060, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32855306

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) prioritisation to mitigate the impact of delays in the colorectal cancer (CRC) urgent diagnostic (2-week-wait (2WW)) pathway consequent from the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: We modelled the reduction in CRC survival and life years lost resultant from per-patient delays of 2-6 months in the 2WW pathway. We stratified by age group, individual-level benefit in CRC survival versus age-specific nosocomial COVID-19-related fatality per referred patient undergoing colonoscopy. We modelled mitigation strategies using thresholds of FIT triage of 2, 10 and 150 µg Hb/g to prioritise 2WW referrals for colonoscopy. To construct the underlying models, we employed 10-year net CRC survival for England 2008-2017, 2WW pathway CRC case and referral volumes and per-day-delay HRs generated from observational studies of diagnosis-to-treatment interval. RESULTS: Delay of 2/4/6 months across all 11 266 patients with CRC diagnosed per typical year via the 2WW pathway were estimated to result in 653/1419/2250 attributable deaths and loss of 9214/20 315/32 799 life years. Risk-benefit from urgent investigatory referral is particularly sensitive to nosocomial COVID-19 rates for patients aged >60. Prioritisation out of delay for the 18% of symptomatic referrals with FIT >10 µg Hb/g would avoid 89% of these deaths attributable to presentational/diagnostic delay while reducing immediate requirement for colonoscopy by >80%. CONCLUSIONS: Delays in the pathway to CRC diagnosis and treatment have potential to cause significant mortality and loss of life years. FIT triage of symptomatic patients in primary care could streamline access to colonoscopy, reduce delays for true-positive CRC cases and reduce nosocomial COVID-19 mortality in older true-negative 2WW referrals. However, this strategy offers benefit only in short-term rationalisation of limited endoscopy services: the appreciable false-negative rate of FIT in symptomatic patients means most colonoscopies will still be required.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Diagnóstico Tardio , Sangue Oculto , Medição de Risco/métodos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Colonoscopia/métodos , Colonoscopia/normas , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Procedimentos Clínicos , Diagnóstico Tardio/efeitos adversos , Diagnóstico Tardio/estatística & dados numéricos , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Imunoquímica/métodos , Controle de Infecções/métodos , Tábuas de Vida , Mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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