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1.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248370, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690695

RESUMO

Measures implemented in many countries to contain the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a change in lifestyle with unpredictable consequences on physical and mental health. We aimed at identifying the variables associated with psychological distress during the lockdown between April and May 2020 in the Italian academic population. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional online survey (IO CONTO 2020) within five Italian universities. Among about 240,000 individuals invited to participate through institutional communications, 18 120 filled the questionnaire. Psychological distress was measured by the self-administered Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The covariates collected included demographic and lifestyle characteristics, trust in government, doctors and scientists. Associations of covariates with influenza-like symptoms or positive COVID-19 test and with psychological distress were assessed by multiple regression models at the local level; a meta-analysis of the results was then performed. Severe levels of anxiety or depression were reported by 20% of the sample and were associated with being a student or having a lower income, irrespective of their health condition and worries about contracting the virus. The probability of being severely anxious or depressed also depended on physical activity: compared to those never exercising, the highest OR being for those who stopped during lockdown (1.53; 95% CI, 1.28 to 1.84) and the lowest for those who continued (0.78; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.95). Up to 21% of severe cases of anxiety or depression might have been avoided if during lockdown participants had continued to exercise as before. Socioeconomic insecurity contributes to increase mental problems related to the COVID-19 pandemic and to the measures to contain it. Maintaining or introducing an adequate level of physical activity is likely to mitigate such detrimental effects. Promoting safe practice of physical activity should remain a public health priority to reduce health risks during the pandemic.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Angústia Psicológica , /patogenicidade
2.
Int J Cancer ; 148(11): 2759-2773, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33554339

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is causally linked to several cancers but the evidence for stomach cancer is inconclusive. In our study, the association between long-term alcohol intake and risk of stomach cancer and its subtypes was evaluated. We performed a pooled analysis of data collected at baseline from 491 714 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition and the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for incident stomach cancer in relation to lifetime alcohol intake and group-based life course intake trajectories, adjusted for potential confounders including Helicobacter pylori infection. In all, 1225 incident stomach cancers (78% noncardia) were diagnosed over 7 094 637 person-years; 984 in 382 957 study participants with lifetime alcohol intake data (5 455 507 person-years). Although lifetime alcohol intake was not associated with overall stomach cancer risk, we observed a weak positive association with noncardia cancer (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.00-1.06 per 10 g/d increment), with a HR of 1.50 (95% CI: 1.08-2.09) for ≥60 g/d compared to 0.1 to 4.9 g/d. A weak inverse association with cardia cancer (HR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-1.00) was also observed. HRs of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.10-1.99) for noncardia and 0.51 (95% CI: 0.26-1.03) for cardia cancer were observed for a life course trajectory characterized by heavy decreasing intake compared to light stable intake (Phomogeneity = .02). These associations did not differ appreciably by smoking or H pylori infection status. Limiting alcohol use during lifetime, particularly avoiding heavy use during early adulthood, might help prevent noncardia stomach cancer. Heterogeneous associations observed for cardia and noncardia cancers may indicate etiologic differences.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(3): 507-512, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33335022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has the potential to improve disease outcomes. No screening program for sporadic RCC is in place. Given relatively low incidence, screening would need to focus on people at high risk of clinically meaningful disease so as to limit overdiagnosis and screen-detected false positives. METHODS: Among 192,172 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort (including 588 incident RCC cases), we evaluated a published RCC risk prediction model (including age, sex, BMI, and smoking status) in terms of discrimination (C-statistic) and calibration (observed probability as a function of predicted probability). We used a flexible parametric survival model to develop an expanded model including age, sex, BMI, and smoking status, with the addition of self-reported history of hypertension and measured blood pressure. RESULTS: The previously published model yielded well-calibrated probabilities and good discrimination (C-statistic [95% CI]: 0.699 [0.679-0.721]). Our model had slightly improved discrimination (0.714 [0.694-0.735], bootstrap optimism-corrected C-statistic: 0.709). Despite this good performance, predicted risk was low for the vast majority of participants, with 70% of participants having 10-year risk less than 0.0025. CONCLUSIONS: Although the models performed well for the prediction of incident RCC, they are currently insufficiently powerful to identify individuals at substantial risk of RCC in a general population. IMPACT: Despite the promising performance of the EPIC RCC risk prediction model, further development of the model, possibly including biomarkers of risk, is required to enable risk stratification of RCC.

4.
Front Public Health ; 8: 412, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282805

RESUMO

The study aimed to assess the proportion mediated by the duration of exposure to ergonomic factors at work on the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) and low walking speed. This cross-sectional study was performed on data collected at baseline on 19,704 men and 20,273 women 45-70 years old, currently or previously employed, enrolled in the Constances cohort. SEP was assigned through current or last occupation, categorized in three classes, based on the European Socioeconomic Classification. Walking speed was assessed through one measurement of normal walking for 3 m and dichotomized at the lowest quintile of the sex- and age- (5-year) specific distribution. Self-reported workplace exposure throughout working life to repetitive work, intense physical work, and lifting/carrying heavy loads was used to assess the duration of exposure to each factor, categorized in four classes. Through Poisson regression models, adjusted for BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, hypertension, physical activity, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and a cognitive score, the attenuation in the prevalence ratio (PR) of low walking speed by SEP produced by the inclusion of duration of exposure to each factor was evaluated. The mediating effect of work ergonomic exposures on the relationship between SEP and low walking speed was assessed using the weighted method by Vanderweele. In the fully adjusted model without ergonomic exposures, both men and women in the middle and the lowest SEP had a significantly increased risk of low walking speed compared with those in the highest SEP (men: PR = 1.30 and PR = 1.46, respectively; women: PR = 1.24 and PR = 1.45, respectively). The inclusion in separate regression models of exposure duration to repetitive work, intense physical work, and handling of heavy loads produced modest risk attenuations in both men and women, all smaller or around 10%. Mediation analysis revealed in both sexes significant mediation effects for most ergonomic exposures considered, although also with low mediation effects. Significant differences in walking speed by SEP were observed in this large sample, but the proportion of such differences explained by the duration of exposure to ergonomic factors at work was low using either the risk attenuation or the mediation analysis methods.

5.
Diabetes Care ; 2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203707

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Higher plasma vitamin C levels are associated with lower type 2 diabetes risk, but whether this association is causal is uncertain. To investigate this, we studied the association of genetically predicted plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted genome-wide association studies of plasma vitamin C among 52,018 individuals of European ancestry to discover novel genetic variants. We performed Mendelian randomization analyses to estimate the association of genetically predicted differences in plasma vitamin C with type 2 diabetes in up to 80,983 case participants and 842,909 noncase participants. We compared this estimate with the observational association between plasma vitamin C and incident type 2 diabetes, including 8,133 case participants and 11,073 noncase participants. RESULTS: We identified 11 genomic regions associated with plasma vitamin C (P < 5 × 10-8), with the strongest signal at SLC23A1, and 10 novel genetic loci including SLC23A3, CHPT1, BCAS3, SNRPF, RER1, MAF, GSTA5, RGS14, AKT1, and FADS1. Plasma vitamin C was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per SD 0.88; 95% CI 0.82, 0.94), but there was no association between genetically predicted plasma vitamin C (excluding FADS1 variant due to its apparent pleiotropic effect) and type 2 diabetes (1.03; 95% CI 0.96, 1.10). CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate discordance between biochemically measured and genetically predicted plasma vitamin C levels in the association with type 2 diabetes among European populations. The null Mendelian randomization findings provide no strong evidence to suggest the use of vitamin C supplementation for type 2 diabetes prevention.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33097407

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The overall macronutrient composition of diet, rather than just calorie intake, may influence long-term changes of anthropometry. We investigated relationships between dietary macronutrient composition and long-term changes in weight and waist circumference in participants of the EPIC-Italy - the Italian section of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition - study. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 32,119 participants provided anthropometric measures at recruitment and 12 years later (mean). Diet at recruitment was assessed using validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Weight and waist changes associated with replacing 10% of energy from one macronutrient with 10% of energy from another macronutrient were assessed by multivariable linear regression. Increased energy from total protein at the expense of any other macronutrient was significantly associated with increased weight and waist circumference. Increased starch at the expense of sugar and total protein was associated with significantly decreased weight and waist circumference; when starch replaced total fat, weight significantly decreased. Increased sugar at the expense of starch and total fat was significantly associated with increased weight and waist circumference; but increase at the expense of total protein was significantly associated with decreased weight and waist circumference. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that increasing protein at the expense of fat or carbohydrates, and reducing starch by increasing other macronutrients, might be associated with increased weight and waist gain.

7.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021645

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Polyphenols are natural compounds with anticarcinogenic properties in cellular and animal models, but epidemiological evidence determining the associations of these compounds with thyroid cancer (TC) is lacking. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relations between blood concentrations of 36 polyphenols and TC risk in EPIC (the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted on 273 female cases (210 papillary, 45 follicular, and 18 not otherwise specified TC tumors) and 512 strictly matched controls. Blood polyphenol concentrations were analyzed by HPLC coupled to tandem MS after enzymatic hydrolysis. RESULTS: Using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression models, caffeic acid (ORlog2: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.93) and its dehydrogenated metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid (ORlog2: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71, 0.99), were inversely associated with differentiated TC risk. Similar results were observed for papillary TC, but not for follicular TC. Ferulic acid was also inversely associated only with papillary TC (ORlog2: 0.68; 95% CI: 0.51, 0.91). However, none of these relations was significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. No association was observed for any of the remaining polyphenols with total differentiated, papillary, or follicular TC. CONCLUSIONS: Blood polyphenol concentrations were mostly not associated with differentiated TC risk in women, although our study raises the possibility that high blood concentrations of caffeic, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic, and ferulic acids may be related to a lower papillary TC risk.

8.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115924

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is sufficient evidence for a causal association of sinonasal epithelial cancers (SNEC) only for exposure to wood and leather dusts, nickel compounds and employment in isopropyl alcohol production. The aim of this study was to assess whether other occupational hazards are associated with the risk of SNEC for the main histologic types, namely adenocarcinoma (AD) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). METHODS: The study population included 375 incident SNEC cases collected from 1996 to 2014 (79% of all diagnosed SNEC) throughout the Piedmont region by the regional Sinonasal Cancer Registry, and 408 hospital controls. Exposure to 17 occupational agents was assigned through expert assessment based on interviews to the subjects on jobs held throughout their working life. The relationship of SNEC with ever and cumulative exposure to the hazards was assessed through unconditional logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex, area of residence, smoking habit, year of enrolment and coexposures. RESULTS: AD was associated with both ever and cumulative exposure to wood dust, leather dust and organic solvents, and with cumulative exposure to textiles dusts. SCC risk was significantly increased by ever exposure to nickel, chromium and welding fumes, as well as by cumulative exposure to welding fumes, arsenic and organic solvents. A mixed group of other histological types was associated with both ever and cumulative exposure to wood dust and textile dusts. CONCLUSIONS: The associations of SNEC with wood dust, leather dust and nickel were confirmed, while some new associations were observed for other hazards, which merit further investigation.

9.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

10.
Nutrients ; 12(10)2020 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977480

RESUMO

This study aimed to compare calculated nutrient intakes from two different food composition databases using data from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Dietary intake data of the EPIC cohort was recently matched to 150 food components from the U.S. nutrient database (USNDB). Twenty-eight of these nutrients were already included in the EPIC nutrient database (ENDB-based upon country specific food composition tables), and used for comparison. Paired sample t-tests, Pearson's correlations (r), weighted kappa's (κ) and Bland-Altman plots were used to compare the dietary intake of 28 nutrients estimated by the USNDB and the ENDB for 476,768 participants. Small but significant differences were shown between the USNDB and the ENDB for energy and macronutrient intakes. Moderate to very strong correlations (r = 0.60-1.00) were found for all macro- and micronutrients. A strong agreement (κ > 0.80) was found for energy, water, total fat, carbohydrates, sugar, alcohol, potassium and vitamin C, whereas a weak agreement (κ < 0.60) was found for starch, vitamin D and vitamin E. Dietary intakes estimated via the USNDB compare adequately with those obtained via the ENDB for most macro- and micronutrients, although the agreement was weak for starch, vitamin D and vitamin E. The USNDB will allow exposure assessments for 150 nutrients to investigate associations with disease outcomes within the EPIC cohort.

11.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 63(10): 1372-1382, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969880

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global experience with splenic flexure cancer is limited because of its low incidence. Both limited (segmental) and extended resections are performed, because agreement on which is the adequate procedure has not been reached. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether segmental resection is as safe and effective as extended resection. DESIGN: This nationwide retrospective cohort study included all consecutive resections of splenic flecure cancer between January 2006 and December 2016 using data from the National Colorectal Cancer Network of the Italian Society of Surgical Oncology following the guidelines set out in the STROBE statement. SETTING: Data were obtained for 31 Italian Referral Centers for Colorectal Surgery. PATIENTS: A total of 1304 patients were submitted to resection of the splenic flexure (n = 791, 60.7%) or extended procedures (extended right and left colectomies; n = 513, 39.3%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluated Clavien-Dindo ≥3 postoperative complications and oncological (number of lymph nodes removed, length of free proximal and distal margins, rate of R0 resections) and survival outcomes. RESULTS: The 2 arms were well balanced in regard to sex, BMI, ASA and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group scores, and disease stage. Limited resection was performed more frequently using a minimally invasive approach (62.1% vs 50.9%, p < 0.001) and with shorter operation times than extended procedures (165 vs 189 minutes, p < 0.001), but the same Clavien-Dindo ≥3 postoperative complications (6.44% vs 6.43%, p = 0.99), 30-day mortality (0.63% vs 0.38%), oncological outcomes, and survival rates (5-year overall survival 0.84 vs 0.83, 5-year progression-free survival 0.85 vs 0.84). LIMITATIONS: There are limitations inherent to the retrospective nature of the study and a potential lack of consistency in treatment across centers over time. Indications as to why a specific operation was chosen were based mostly on surgeons' beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: Segmental resection is a safe and effective treatment option for cancer of the splenic flexure. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B307. LA RESECCIÓN DE COLON SEGMENTARIA ES UNA OPCIÓN DE TRATAMIENTO SEGURA Y EFICAZ PARA EL CÁNCER DE COLON DE LA FLEXIÓN ESPLÉNICA: UN ESTUDIO RETROSPECTIVO A NIVEL NACIONAL DE LA SOCIEDAD ITALIANA DE ONCOLOGÍA QUIRÚRGICA - GRUPO COLABORATIVO RED DE CÁNCER COLORRECTAL: La experiencia global con el cáncer de flexión esplénica es limitada debido a su baja incidencia. Se realizan resecciones limitadas (segmentarias) y extendidas, ya que no se ha llegado a un acuerdo sobre cuál es el procedimiento adecuado.El propósito de este estudio fue investigar si la resección segmentaria es tan segura y efectiva como la resección extendida.Este estudio de cohorte retrospectivo a nivel nacional incluyó todas las resecciones consecutivas de cáncer de flecura esplénica entre enero de 2006 y diciembre de 2016 utilizando datos de la Red Nacional de Cáncer Colorrectal de la Sociedad Italiana de Oncología Quirúrgica siguiendo las pautas establecidas en la declaración STROBE.Se obtuvieron datos para 31 centros de referencia italianos para cirugía colorrectal.Un total de 1304 pacientes fueron sometidos a resección de la flexión esplénica (n = 791, 60.7%) o procedimientos extendidos (colectomías extendidas derecha e izquierda; n = 513, 39.3%).Evaluamos Clavien-Dindo ≥3 complicaciones postoperatorias y oncológicas (número de ganglios linfáticos extirpados, longitud de márgenes proximales y distales libres, tasa de resecciones R0) y resultados de supervivencia.Los dos brazos estaban bien equilibrados en cuanto a sexo, IMC, ASA y puntajes ECOG, y etapa de la enfermedad. La resección limitada se realizó con mayor frecuencia utilizando un enfoque mínimamente invasivo (62.1% versus 50,9%, p < 0.001) y con tiempos de operación más cortos que los procedimientos extendidos (165 min versus 189 min, p <0.001), pero el mismo Clavien-Dindo ≥3 complicaciones postoperatorias (6,44% versus 6,43%, p = 0.99), mortalidad a los 30 días (0,63% versus 0,38%), resultados oncológicos y tasas de supervivencia (5-y OS 0,84 versus 0,83, 5-PFS 0,85 versus 0,84).Existen limitaciones inherentes a la naturaleza retrospectiva del estudio y una posible falta de consistencia en el tratamiento entre centros a lo largo del tiempo. Las indicaciones de por qué se eligió una operación específica se basaron principalmente en crieterios de los cirujanos.La resección segmentaria es una opción de tratamiento segura y efectiva para el cáncer de la flexión esplénica. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B307. (Traducción-Dr. Adrian Ortega).

12.
Brain Behav Immun ; 90: 303-310, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32919037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that the inflammatory reaction, an adaptive response triggered by a variety of harmful stimuli and conditions involved in the risk and development of many chronic diseases, is a potential pathway through which the socioeconomic environment is biologically embedded. Difficulty in interpreting the role of the inflammatory system in the embodiment dynamic arises because of heterogeneity across studies that use a limited but varied number of inflammatory markers. There is no consensus in the literature as to which inflammatory markers beyond the C-reactive protein and to a lesser extent interleukin 6 are related to the social environment. Accordingly, we aimed to investigate the association between educational attainment, and several markers of inflammation - C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin 6, interleukin 1ß and tumor necrosis factor α- in 6 European cohort studies. METHODS: Up to 17,470 participants from six European cohort studies with data on educational attainment, health behaviors and lifestyle factors, and at least two different inflammatory markers. Four sub-datasets were drawn with varying numbers of participants to allow pairwise comparison of the social patterning of C-reactive protein and any other inflammatory markers. To evaluate within each sub-dataset the importance of the context and cohort specificities, linear regression-based analyses were performed separately for each cohort and combined in a random effect meta-analysis to determine the relationship between educational attainment and inflammation. RESULTS: We found that the magnitude of the relationship between educational attainment and five inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin 6 and 1ß and tumor necrosis factor α) was variable. By far the most socially patterned biomarker was C-reactive protein, followed by fibrinogen and to lesser extent interleukin 6, where a low educational attainment was associated with higher inflammation even after adjusting for health behaviours and body mass index. No association was found with interleukin 1ß and tumor necrosis factor α. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests different educational patterning of inflammatory biomarkers. Further large-scale research is needed to explore social differences in the inflammatory cascade in greater detail and the extent to which these differences contribute to social inequalities in health.

13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13814, 2020 08 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796953

RESUMO

Sustained B-cell activation is an important mechanism contributing to B-cell lymphoma (BCL). We aimed to validate four previously reported B-cell activation markers predictive of BCL risk (sCD23, sCD27, sCD30, and CXCL13) and to examine their possible mediating effects on the association between anthropometric and lifestyle factors and major BCL subtypes. Pre-diagnostic serum levels were measured for 517 BCL cases and 525 controls in a nested case-control study. The odds ratios of BCL were 6.2 in the highest versus lowest quartile for sCD23, 2.6 for sCD30, 4.2 for sCD27, and 2.6 for CXCL13. Higher levels of all markers were associated with increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), follicular lymphoma (FL), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Following mutual adjustment for the other immune markers, sCD23 remained associated with all subtypes and CXCL13 with FL and DLBCL. The associations of sCD23 with CLL and DLBCL and CXCL13 with DLBCL persisted among cases sampled > 9 years before diagnosis. sCD23 showed a good predictive ability (area under the curve = 0.80) for CLL, in particular among older, male participants. sCD23 and CXCL13 showed a mediating effect between body mass index (positive) and DLBCL risk, while CXCL13 contributed to the association between physical activity (inverse) and DLBCL. Our data suggest a role of B-cell activation in BCL development and a mediating role of the immune system for lifestyle factors.

14.
Spinal Cord ; 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753723

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of quality of life (QoL) among family caregivers of people with spinal cord injuries (SCI), considering caregiver and care recipient characteristics, and to evaluate the predictive value of caregiver burden (CB) on the QoL of family caregivers. SETTING: Multicenter study in four spinal units across Italy. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the data obtained during the validation of the Italian version of the Caregiver Burden Inventory in Spinal Cord Injuries (CBI-SCI) questionnaire. In all, 176 family caregivers completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Short Form-36, the CBI-SCI, and the Modified Barthel Index. A first linear regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of each domain of caregiver QoL. A second linear regression analysis including CBI-SCI was then performed to evaluate the predictive value of CB on caregiver QoL. RESULTS: Participants reported reduced physical and mental QoL. Significant predictors of lower scores in physical dimensions of QoL were older age and female gender. Contextual factors following SCI, such as economic difficulties and the presence of a formal caregiver, significantly predicted emotional QoL in family caregivers. Identified predictors explained 13-32% of variance. CB was a significant predictor (p < 0.001) when added to all proposed models, increasing the explained variance from 7 to 26%. CONCLUSION: Neither the clinical characteristics of, nor the relationship with care recipients predicted a worse caregiver QoL, whereas the CB did. The CB was a strong predictor of QoL among family caregivers and should be kept to a minimum to promote caregiver well-being.

15.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 2020 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global experience with splenic flexure cancer is limited due to its low incidence. Both limited (segmental) and extended resections are performed, as agreement on which is the adequate procedure has not been reached. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether segmental resection is as safe and effective as extended resection. DESIGN: This nationwide retrospective cohort study included all consecutive resections of splenic flecure cancer between January 2006 and December 2016 using data from the National Colorectal Cancer Network of the Italian Society of Surgical Oncology following the guidelines set out in the STROBE statement. SETTING: Data were obtained for 31 Italian Referral Centers for Colorectal Surgery. PATIENTS: A total of 1304 patients were submitted to resection of the splenic flexure (n=791, 60.7%) or extended procedures (extended right and left colectomies; n=513, 39.3%). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: We evaluated Clavien-Dindo ≥3 postoperative complications and oncological (number of lymph nodes removed, length of free proximal and distal margins, rate of R0 resections) and survival outcomes. RESULTS: The two arms were well-balanced in regards to sex, BMI, ASA and ECOG scores, and disease stage. Limited resection was performed more frequently using a minimally invasive approach (62.1% vs. 50.9%, p<0.001) and with shorter operation times than extended procedures (165 min vs. 189 min, p<0.001), but the same Clavien-Dindo ≥3 postoperative complications (6.44% vs. 6.43%, p=0.99), 30-day mortality (0.63% vs. 0.38%), oncological outcomes, and survival rates (5-y OS 0.84 vs. 0.83, 5-y PFS 0.85 vs. 0.84). LIMITATIONS: There are limitations inherent to the retrospective nature of the study and a potential lack of consistency in treatment across centers over time. Indications as to why a specific operation was chosen were mostly based on surgeons' beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: Segmental resection is a safe and effective treatment option for cancer of the splenic flexure. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B307.

16.
BMJ ; 370: m2194, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641421

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of plasma vitamin C and carotenoids, as indicators of fruit and vegetable intake, with the risk of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Prospective case-cohort study. SETTING: Populations from eight European countries. PARTICIPANTS: 9754 participants with incident type 2 diabetes, and a subcohort of 13 662 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort of 340 234 participants: EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incident type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: In a multivariable adjusted model, higher plasma vitamin C was associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.76 to 0.89). A similar inverse association was shown for total carotenoids (hazard ratio per standard deviation 0.75, 0.68 to 0.82). A composite biomarker score (split into five equal groups), comprising vitamin C and individual carotenoids, was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes with hazard ratios 0.77, 0.66, 0.59, and 0.50 for groups 2-5 compared with group 1 (the lowest group). Self-reported median fruit and vegetable intake was 274 g/day, 396 g/day, and 508 g/day for participants in categories defined by groups 1, 3, and 5 of the composite biomarker score, respectively. One standard deviation difference in the composite biomarker score, equivalent to a 66 (95% confidence interval 61 to 71) g/day difference in total fruit and vegetable intake, was associated with a hazard ratio of 0.75 (0.67 to 0.83). This would be equivalent to an absolute risk reduction of 0.95 per 1000 person years of follow up if achieved across an entire population with the characteristics of the eight European countries included in this analysis. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate an inverse association between plasma vitamin C, carotenoids, and their composite biomarker score, and incident type 2 diabetes in different European countries. These biomarkers are objective indicators of fruit and vegetable consumption, and suggest that diets rich in even modestly higher fruit and vegetable consumption could help to prevent development of type 2 diabetes.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/sangue , Carotenoides/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Frutas , Verduras , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Dieta , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(11): 1057-1067, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710289

RESUMO

Citrus intake has been suggested to increase the risk of skin cancer. Although this relation is highly plausible biologically, epidemiologic evidence is lacking. We aimed to examine the potential association between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. EPIC is an ongoing multi-center prospective cohort initiated in 1992 and involving ~ 520,000 participants who have been followed-up in 23 centers from 10 European countries. Dietary data were collected at baseline using validated country-specific dietary questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards regression models to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During a mean follow-up of 13.7 years, 8448 skin cancer cases were identified among 270,112 participants. We observed a positive linear dose-response relationship between total citrus intake and skin cancer risk (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.03-1.18 in the highest vs. lowest quartile; Ptrend = 0.001), particularly with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) (HR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.20, Ptrend = 0.007) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.47, Ptrend = 0.01). Citrus fruit intake was positively associated with skin cancer risk (HR = 1.08, 95% CI 1.01-1.16, Ptrend = 0.01), particularly with melanoma (HR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.02-1.48; Ptrend = 0.01), although with no heterogeneity across skin cancer types (Phomogeneity = 0.21). Citrus juice was positively associated with skin cancer risk (Ptrend = 0.004), particularly with BCC (Ptrend = 0.008) and SCC (Ptrend = 0.004), but not with melanoma (Phomogeneity = 0.02). Our study suggests moderate positive linear dose-response relationships between citrus intake and skin cancer risk. Studies with available biomarker data and the ability to examine sun exposure behaviors are warranted to clarify these associations and examine the phototoxicity mechanisms of furocoumarin-rich foods.

18.
Front Public Health ; 8: 118, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478023

RESUMO

Funded by the European Commission Horizon 2020 programme, the Lifepath research consortium aimed to investigate the effects of socioeconomic inequalities on the biology of healthy aging. The main research questions included the impact of inequalities on health, the role of behavioral and other risk factors, the underlying biological mechanisms, the efficacy of selected policies, and the general implications of our findings for theories and policies. The project adopted a life-course and comparative approach, considering lifetime effects from childhood and adulthood, and pooled data on up to 1.7 million participants of longitudinal cohort studies from Europe, USA, and Australia. These data showed that socioeconomic circumstances predicted mortality and functional decline as strongly as established risk factors currently targeted by global prevention programmes. Analyses also looked at socioeconomically patterned biological markers, allostatic load, and DNA methylation using richly phenotyped cohorts, unraveling their association with aging processes across the life-course. Lifepath studies suggest that socioeconomic circumstances are embedded in our biology from the outset-i.e., disadvantage influences biological systems from molecules to organs. Our findings have important implications for policy, suggesting that (a) intervening on unfavorable socioeconomic conditions is complementary and as important as targeting well-known risk factors, such as tobacco and alcohol consumption, low fruit and vegetable intake, obesity and a sedentary lifestyle, and that (b) effects of preventive interventions in early life integrate interventions in adulthood. The report has an executive summary that refers to the different sections of the main paper.

19.
JMIR Med Inform ; 8(6): e16678, 2020 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442149

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is one of the most critical age-related conditions in older adults. It is often recognized as a syndrome of physiological decline in late life, characterized by a marked vulnerability to adverse health outcomes. A clear operational definition of frailty, however, has not been agreed so far. There is a wide range of studies on the detection of frailty and their association with mortality. Several of these studies have focused on the possible risk factors associated with frailty in the elderly population while predicting who will be at increased risk of frailty is still overlooked in clinical settings. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to develop predictive models for frailty conditions in older people using different machine learning methods based on a database of clinical characteristics and socioeconomic factors. METHODS: An administrative health database containing 1,095,612 elderly people aged 65 or older with 58 input variables and 6 output variables was used. We first identify and define six problems/outputs as surrogates of frailty. We then resolve the imbalanced nature of the data through resampling process and a comparative study between the different machine learning (ML) algorithms - Artificial neural network (ANN), Genetic programming (GP), Support vector machines (SVM), Random Forest (RF), Logistic regression (LR) and Decision tree (DT) - was carried out. The performance of each model was evaluated using a separate unseen dataset. RESULTS: Predicting mortality outcome has shown higher performance with ANN (TPR 0.81, TNR 0.76, accuracy 0.78, F1-score 0.79) and SVM (TPR 0.77, TNR 0.80, accuracy 0.79, F1-score 0.78) than predicting the other outcomes. On average, over the six problems, the DT classifier has shown the lowest accuracy, while other models (GP, LR, RF, ANN, and SVM) performed better. All models have shown lower accuracy in predicting an event of an emergency admission with red code than predicting fracture and disability. In predicting urgent hospitalization, only SVM achieved better performance (TPR 0.75, TNR 0.77, accuracy 0.73, F1-score 0.76) with the 10-fold cross validation compared with other models in all evaluation metrics. CONCLUSIONS: We developed machine learning models for predicting frailty conditions (mortality, urgent hospitalization, disability, fracture, and emergency admission). The results show that the prediction performance of machine learning models significantly varies from problem to problem in terms of different evaluation metrics. Through further improvement, the model that performs better can be used as a base for developing decision-support tools to improve early identification and prediction of frail older adults.

20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(16): 2291-2293, 2020 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442294

RESUMO

Exposure to agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system was not associated with a risk increase of COVID-19 infection in 2 Italian matched case-control studies, 1 nested in hypertensive patients and the other in patients with cardiovascular diseases or diabetes.

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