Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 50
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802383

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) monotherapy appears to be effective in a small cohort of patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer (mTNBC). This supports the exploration of strategies for increasing the efficacy of immunotherapy. To enhance overall response and clinical outcomes, several immune-based combinations are being investigated. AREAS COVERED: The authors present a synopsis of current, state of art immune-based combinations in this setting and reflect on future possibilities. They shed light on recently presented and published clinical trials and ongoing studies. A literature search was conducted in October 2021; in addition, abstracts of international cancer meetings were reviewed. EXPERT OPINION: Clinical trials suggest that ICI monotherapy could be beneficial in a minority of mTNBC patients; conversely, several immune-based combinations have reported notable results in recently presented or published studies. Some of these combination strategies have been approved for mTNBC - as in the case of chemoimmunotherapy in PD-L1 positive patients. Numerous trials are investigating novel ICI-based combinations and their results are eagerly awaited.

2.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; : 1-7, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793275

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have recently entered into the therapeutic scenario of metastatic breast cancer. However, only a proportion of patients benefit from ICIs and immune-based combinations, so the identification of reliable predictors of response remains an unmet need. AREAS COVERED: We discuss potential predictors of response to ICIs in breast cancer, including PD-L1 expression, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), tumor mutational burden (TMB), and several other biomarkers and suggest future directions of research in this setting. A literature search was conducted in October 2021 of Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane library and Scopus databases; in addition, abstract of international cancer meetings were reviewed. EXPERT OPINION: In terms of predictors of response to immunotherapy in TNBC patients, several biomarkers are being evaluated. Valuable data on predictive biomarkers have recently emerged, including host-related factors, immune-related cells, and protein and genetic markers. Data supporting immunotherapy in the metastatic triple-negative breast cancer setting are not concordant, but there have been some positive phase III trials including IMpassion130 and KEYNOTE-355. Phase II and III (neo)adjuvant trials are supportive of this therapeutic strategy. Further investigations are warranted in this challenging area.

4.
Curr Oncol ; 28(5): 3393-3402, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590592

RESUMO

Ampullary carcinomas (ACs) represent a rare entity, accounting for approximately 0.2% of all gastrointestinal solid tumors and 20% of all periampullary cancers (PACs). Unfortunately, few data are available regarding the optimal therapeutic strategy for ACs due to their rarity, and physicians frequently encounter significant difficulties in the management of these malignancies. In this review, we will provide an overview of current evidence on AC, especially focusing on biological features, histological characteristics, and available data guiding present and future therapeutic strategies for these rare, and still barely known, tumors.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Ampola Hepatopancreática , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco , Neoplasias do Ducto Colédoco/terapia , Humanos
5.
Anticancer Drugs ; 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387596

RESUMO

AIM: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) in upper tract urothelial carcinoma. MATERIALS METHODS: Eligible studies were identified using Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane library, Embase and meeting abstracts. Outcomes of interest included: overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) and disease-free survival (DFS). RESULTS: Platinum-based AC was associated with improved DFS, while the benefit in OS and CSS was not statistically significant compared to observation. Conversely, platinum-based AC showed a modest OS benefit in an analysis combing multivariable HRs with estimated HRs from Kaplan-Meier curves. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that platinum-based AC is associated with improved DFS and a modest OS benefit in patients with locally advanced urothelial carcinomas.

6.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; : 1-9, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429006

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the sixth most commonly diagnosed malignancy worldwide, accounting for millions of deaths annually. Despite immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) reported important results, only a minority of HCC patients benefit from these treatments, and the identification of predictive biomarkers of response still remains a highly unmet need. AREAS COVERED: Herein, we provide a timely overview of available evidence on biochemical predictors of response to immunotherapy in advanced HCC patients; we speculate on how PD-L1, TMB, and other emerging biomarkers could assist drug clinical trials in the near future. A literature search was conducted in June 2021 using Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane library, and Scopus databases. EXPERT OPINION: Reliable predictors of response to ICIs are of pivotal importance to allow a proper stratification and selection of HCC patients that could derive more benefit from immunotherapy. Well-designed, multicenter clinical trials specifically focused on predictive biomarkers are warranted in this setting, where most of evidence currently derives from retrospective, single-center studies with small sample size.

7.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(11): 1245-1251, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431725

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immunotherapy has recently taken on an extremely important role in medical oncology, as first- or later-line treatment in several tumor types, and recent years have seen the emerging of clinical trials assessing immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) in unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). AREAS COVERED: Herein, we provide an overview of recently published studies exploring the dual immune checkpoint blockade or the combination of ICIs plus biological treatments as first-line treatment in HCC patients with advanced disease, especially focusing on the biological rationale behind these therapeutic strategies, and ongoing active and recruiting clinical trials. EXPERT OPINION: Results of studies on monotherapy with ICIs have suggested that this strategy could be beneficial only in a minority of patients; conversely, the recently published IMbrave150 study has reported an overall survival benefit in HCC receiving the combination of atezolizumab plus bevacizumab compared to sorafenib as first-line treatment. A wide number of clinical trials is evaluating ICI-based combinations in advanced HCC, a strategy which is supported by robust preclinical and early-phase clinical data, and results of these studies are highly awaited.

9.
Future Oncol ; 17(33): 4583-4606, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431316

RESUMO

Metastatic uveal melanoma (MUM) is the most common form of noncutaneous melanoma. It is different from its cutaneous counterpart and is characterized by a very poor prognosis. Despite groundbreaking improvements in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma, there have been few advances in the treatment of MUM, and standard treatments for MUM have not been defined. We performed a systematic review focusing our attention on all interventional studies, ongoing or already published, concerning the treatment of MUM. We present results from studies of chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy and liver-directed therapies. Although the results in this setting have been disappointing until now, trials investigating novel immunotherapeutic strategies alone and in combination with targeted agents and liver-directed therapies are ongoing.

10.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; : 1-8, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167433

RESUMO

Introduction: While sorafenib monotherapy represented the mainstay of medical treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients for more than a decade, novel agents and combination therapies have recently produced unprecedented paradigm shifts. The combination of lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab is now being evaluated as a front-line treatment in advanced HCC patients; early phase clinical trials have already reported promising results.Areas covered: This paper reviews the combination of lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab for the treatment of advanced HCC. The preclinical rationale and completed and ongoing trials are examined and later, the authors reflect on biomarkers of predictive of response to immune-based combinations and future treatment decision-making on the basis of tolerability and clinical benefits provided by these novel therapeutics. A literature search was conducted in April 2021 of Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane library and Scopus databases; moreover, abstracts of international cancer meetings were reviewed.Expert opinion: The landscape of new agents and combinations continues to expand. Recently, immune-based combinations have reported important results in advanced HCC, as witnessed by the landmark IMbrave150 trial. Based on the promising results of early phase clinical trials, lenvatinib plus pembrolizumab has the potential to represent a novel treatment option in this setting.

11.
Cancer Treat Res Commun ; 27: 100356, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799004

RESUMO

Cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) are a heterogenous group of hepatobiliary tumors with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. In the last decade, the advent of genomic profiling has led to the identification of several putative actionable aberrations in CCAs, and genomic characterization is playing an increasing role in the management of these malignancies. Thus, a wide number of targetable mutations are currently under investigation, and early studies on this approach in CCAs have been recently presented or published. Among these, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations have been reported in approximately 15-20% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) patients, while these aberrations are considered to be less frequent in perihilar CCA (pCCA), distal CCA (dCCA), and gallbladder cancer. Of note, the recent findings of the ClarIDHy phase III trial add to mounting evidence showing the potential advantages of molecularly targeted therapies in CCA, on the basis of a benefit in previously treated IDH1-mutant patients receiving ivosidenib versus placebo. However, although the results of this trial showed a statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival and overall survival for IDH-mutant CCAs treated with ivosidenib, several questions regarding the real impact of IDH inhibitors in this setting remain open. In this review, we will provide an overview on the biological rationale behind the use of IDH inhibitors in CCA patients and current clinical implications of these molecularly targeted agents. The recently published results of the ClarIDHy - as well as ongoing clinical trials in this setting - are highlighted and critically discussed.

12.
Future Oncol ; 17(20): 2671-2681, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880963

RESUMO

Aims: Quality of life (QoL) assessment is frequently not included among the end points of clinical trials (CTs) on renal cell carcinoma. Herein we aimed to describe the assessment and reporting of QoL in Phase II and Phase III CTs published between 2010 and 2020. Methods: A total of 25 CTs were included; 76% of trials included were conducted in metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients, while 20% of studies evaluated adjuvant systemic treatments. Results: In 13/25 publications, QoL was not listed among the end points, with secondary publications dedicated to QoL present in a minority of cases. Conclusions: QoL was not included among the end points of a large percentage of CTs. Implementing the inclusion of QoL represents an urgent need.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(7)2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916206

RESUMO

Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed and/or amplified in approximately 15-20% of gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) patients. In 2010, the landmark ToGA trial established the combination of trastuzumab plus chemotherapy as the first-line standard of care for HER2-positive GC patients with advanced disease. However, subsequent studies on HER2 targeted therapies in this setting failed to meet their primary endpoints, and not all HER2-positive GC patients benefit from targeted approaches. More recently, novel HER2-directed treatments have been investigated, including trastuzumab deruxtecan (T-Dxd); following the results of the DESTINY-Gastric01 study, T-Dxd received its first U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval on 15 January 2021 for the treatment of adults with unresectable, locally advanced, or metastatic GC who have received a prior trastuzumab-based regimen. In this review, we discuss the current HER2-targeted treatments for GC in the advanced disease setting, mainly focusing on emerging new treatments and future research directions.

14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(8)2021 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916915

RESUMO

Gastric cancer (GC) represents the fifth most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide, with a poor prognosis in patients with advanced disease despite many improvements in systemic treatments in the last decade. In fact, GC has shown resistance to several treatment options, and thus, notable efforts have been focused on the research and identification of novel therapeutic targets in this setting. The tumor microenvironment (TME) has emerged as a potential therapeutic target in several malignancies including GC, due to its pivotal role in cancer progression and drug resistance. Therefore, several agents and therapeutic strategies targeting the TME are currently under assessment in both preclinical and clinical studies. The present study provides an overview of available evidence of the inflammatory TME in GC, highlighting different types of tumor-associated cells and implications for future therapeutic strategies.


Assuntos
Inflamação/complicações , Inflamação/metabolismo , Neoplasias Gástricas/etiologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/metabolismo , Microambiente Tumoral , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/imunologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Gástricas/patologia , Neoplasias Gástricas/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento , Microambiente Tumoral/genética , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/imunologia , Macrófagos Associados a Tumor/patologia
15.
Pathol Res Pract ; 222: 153440, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Androgen Receptor Splice Variant 7 (AR-V7) has been associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Herein, we performed a meta-analysis aimed at systematically exploring the association between metastatic sites and AR-V7 expression in CRPC patients across prospective clinical trials. METHODS: We retrieved all the relevant prospective clinical trials through PubMed/Medline, Cochrane library, and EMBASE; additionally, proceedings of the main international oncological meetings were also searched for relevant abstracts. Outcomes of interest included metastatic sites (lymph node metastases, any site metastases, visceral metastases, and bone metastases) in AR-V7 positive and AR-V7 negative CRPC patients. Odds Ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Overall, 14 eligible prospective studies involving a total of 1944 CRPC patients (AR-V7 positive: 467; AR-V7 negative: 1477) were included in the analysis. According to our results, no differences between AR-V7 positive and AR-V7 negative CRPC patients were observed in terms of lymph node (OR 1.01; 95 % CI 0.49-2.09) and visceral metastases (OR 1.23; 95 % CI 0.89-1.71). Conversely, AR-V7 positive CRPC patients presented higher rate of any site metastases (OR 2.22; 95 % CI 1.58-3.12) and bone metastases (OR 2.03; 95 % CI 1.42-2.9) compared to AR-V7 negative subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis, the first in literature to be specifically focused on this topic so far, suggest that AR-V7 positivity may be associated with any site metastases and bone metastases; conversely, no association has been highlighted between AR-V7 expression and lymph node or visceral metastases. Although this meta-analysis should be interpreted with caution due to some limitations, our findings confirm that AR-V7 status could designate a unique and peculiar subtype of PC. Further studies aimed at improving and standardizing AR-V7 detection in clinical trials on CRPC patients are warranted.

16.
Immunotherapy ; 13(8): 637-644, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33820447

RESUMO

Advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients present poor prognosis. However, recent years have seen the advent of several novel treatments in this setting, where the role of immune checkpoint inhibitors has been investigated. Among these, the PD-L1 inhibitor atezolizumab in combination with bevacizumab has reported unprecedented results in treatment-naive patients with unresectable disease, with the recently published IMbrave150 Phase III trial showing the superiority of the combination over sorafenib monotherapy, and after having attended more than a decade of 'stagnation', the HCC medical community has a new standard of care. Herein, we examine the development and the impact of atezolizumab in advanced HCC, summarizing the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics and recent evidence from Phase I to III clinical trials.

17.
Immunotherapy ; 13(9): 783-793, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906376

RESUMO

Aim: Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based combinations have become the new standard of primary systemic treatment for metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients. We performed a meta-analysis aimed at evaluating ICIs plus tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) combinations across International Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Database Consortium (IMDC) risk groups. Materials & methods: All the relevant randomized clinical trials were retrieved through Cochrane library, PubMed/Med and EMBASE; three Phase III randomized clinical trials were included. Results: ICI-TKI combinations significantly decreased the risk of death in IMDC poor- and intermediate-risk patients. Conversely, a nonstatistically significant benefit was observed in favorable-risk patients. Conclusion: Our results suggest that IMDC poor-risk patients benefit most from ICI-TKI combinations, while a proportion of metastatic renal cell carcinoma patients could respond to targeted agent monotherapy.

18.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs ; 30(4): 343-350, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645367

RESUMO

Introduction: The prognosis of patients with advanced biliary tract cancer (BTC) remains dismal, with a 5-year overall survival rate of less than 10%. Although immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have revolutionized the treatment landscape of several hematological and solid tumors, controversial results have been reported in BTC. In this setting, the anti-PD-L1 inhibitor durvalumab is currently under investigation in several clinical trials as monotherapy, or in combination with other pharmacological agents.Areas covered: We offer an overview of immunotherapies for BTC, discuss recently published or presented data on durvalumab pharmacology, safety, and efficacy in the treatment of BTC and consider future research directions for the agent in this setting.Expert opinion: The promising antitumor activity shown by durvalumab in early trials warrants further investigation because it may provide more effective, much needed treatment options. The results of clinical trials of this PD-L1 inhibitor, as a monotherapy or in combination, are eagerly awaited. Future efforts should focus on the identification and development of reliable biomarkers of response to durvalumab in BTC, clarifying the role of PD-L1 expression, microsatellite instability (MSI), mismatch repair (MMR), tumor mutational burden (TMB) and other emerging predictors.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/genética , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/patologia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Prognóstico
19.
Eur Urol Focus ; 2021 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714725

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have reported unprecedented results in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients, as monotherapy or in combination with other anticancer agents. However, little information is available regarding the association between different clinicopathological features and survival in this setting. OBJECTIVE: We performed a meta-analysis aimed at exploring the predictive value of routinely collected clinicopathological data in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating ICIs plus tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in treatment-naïve patients with mRCC. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We retrieved all the relevant RCTs through PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE; additionally, proceedings of the main international oncological meetings were also searched for relevant abstracts. Eligible studies included RCTs assessing first-line ICI-TKI versus sunitinib in treatment-naïve mRCC patients; the primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), measured as hazard ratio (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Overall, three phase III RCTs involving 1769 patients with advanced or metastatic RCC were included. Compared with sunitinib, the ICI-TKI combination significantly decreased the risk of death in patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG-PS) 0 (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.57-0.76) and ECOG-PS 1 (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.54-0.77). Similarly, the combination was associated with prolonged OS in patients who were <65 yr old (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.49-0.67), in mRCC patients ≥65 yr old (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.90), as well as in male (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56-0.78) and female (HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.52-0.83) patients. CONCLUSIONS: According to our results, the magnitude of benefit of the ICI-TKI combination over sunitinib monotherapy in treatment-naïve mRCC patients was consistent across the clinicopathological subgroups. Despite the limitations affecting the analysis, we believe that the results of the current meta-analysis could assist clinicians and researchers in the design and interpretation of future clinical trials on combination therapies in this setting. PATIENT SUMMARY: First-line combinations of an immune checkpoint inhibitor plus a tyrosine kinase inhibitor improved survival in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients. This survival benefit was consistent across all subgroups of mRCC patients irrespective of clinicopathological features such as patient performance status, age <65 and ≥65 yr, and male and female gender.

20.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 15(5): 567-574, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787429

RESUMO

Background: Despite recent advances in the understanding of the molecular landscape of biliary tract cancer (BTC), advanced disease continues to carry a poor prognosis, and the benefit from systemic treatments remains modest. However, BTCs have emerged as malignancies harboring specific potentially druggable aberrations, and thus, several molecularly targeted treatments have been recently tested. Among these, fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) inhibitors have shown interesting results in previously treated BTC patients with advanced diseaseAreas covered: In this review, we aimed to provide an overview of available evidence on FGFR inhibitors in elderly patients with metastatic BTC, especially focusing on subgroup analyses of recently published trials exploring this novel therapeutic approach in these aggressive malignancies.Expert opinion: The FGFR1, FGFR2, and FGFR3 inhibitor pemigatinib has been recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in metastatic BTCs harboring FGFR2 fusion or other rearrangement. However, few data are available regarding the use of FGFR inhibitors in elderly BTCs, a patient population that remains seriously under-represented in clinical trials.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...