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1.
Clin Drug Investig ; 2020 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In recent years, two Italian non-interventional studies evaluated subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) treatment in patients affected by primary antibody deficiency (PAD). The SHIFT study considered patients who were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or SCIG 16% (Vivaglobin®) and then replaced this therapy with weekly treatments of SCIG 20% (Hizentra®). The IBIS study evaluated patients previously taking a weekly SCIG 20% regimen, who instead began therapy with biweekly SCIG 20% to assess the correlation between the dose of immunoglobulin G (IgG) administered and the body mass index (BMI) of patients, determine if there is a need for dosage adjustments on a BMI basis, and identify the predictors of serum IgG trough levels in our cohort. METHODS: In this study, we analyzed the pooled data of 109 PAD patients enrolled in the SHIFT and IBIS studies. Only prospective phases were considered. RESULTS: The total monthly SCIG dose showed comparable trends among weight categories, except for underweight patients. When we considered the monthly SCIG dosage per kilogram of body weight, a significant decreasing trend according to BMI was observed. Data on IgG trough levels were available for 88 patients, with a mean IgG serum level of 8.4 ± 1.6 g/L. A stepwise regression model revealed that the mean monthly dosage of SCIG 20% (p = 0.04248) and the mean monthly dosage of IgG per kilogram of body weight were the only two independent predictors associated with IgG trough levels. No association was found between BMI and IgG trough levels. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the concept that the cumulative monthly dose of SCIG and the dose of SCIG per kilogram of body weight affect IgG trough levels in PAD patients, irrespective of BMI.

2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32032175

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological characteristics of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease (HIBD) have markedly changed since the introduction of the Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine worldwide. The immunization schedule against Haemophilus influenzae type b differs in Europe. METHODS: This is a retrospective observational study which evaluates all the data included in the molecular surveillance register for invasive infectious diseases at the Laboratory of Molecular Diagnosis at Meyer Children's University Hospital from December 2008 to December 2018 with a diagnosis of invasive HIBD in children <5 years of age. RESULTS: We identified 4 cases of HIBD: all the cases presented signs or symptoms of invasive infection and the H. influenzae type b was identified in cerebrospinal fluid, or blood or bronchoalveolar lavage by molecular test. The crude incidence for Hib invasive disease in Tuscany is 0.26/100,000 p-y in children younger than 5 years, significantly different from the incidence rate before the introduction of the Hib vaccination. Vaccination effectiveness can be estimated at 97.9% and the impact of hexavalent (2p+1) vaccine at 99.6%. CONCLUSIONS: This work confirms the high impact of the hexavalent vaccine 2p+1 schedule for HIBD in children <5 years, emphasizing the role of molecular test for HIBD diagnosis and surveillance.

3.
Allergy ; 2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037593

RESUMO

The historical T cell dichotomy (TH 1 versus TH 2) changed by the identification of TH 17 and Treg cells. These populations were linked to a wide range of immunological disorders such as immunodeficiencies, inflammatory and allergic diseases. Subsequently, this dualistic view of T cell biology was overcome by the previously unappreciated plasticity of T cells.

4.
J Chemother ; : 1-5, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037986

RESUMO

We present the first Italian reported case of an invasive meningococcal disease with rifampicin-resistance (Rif-R)secondary to chemoprophylaxis. The case is entered in a cluster of two IMDs registered in Tuscany, Italy, in November 2019 caused by two non-differentiable group-C Neisseria meningitidis belonging to ST-11 clonal-complex. The contact case, differently from the index, harbored H552Y mutation on rpoB gene which is known to confer Rif-R putting a high-cost fee on bacterial fitness. The extremely mild clinical presentation in the contact can constitute an in vivo demonstration of the virulence attenuation observed in vitro for H552Ymutants. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of secondary cases with induced Rif-R and keep a high level of suspicion on contacts who received rifampicin-chemoprophylaxis. Molecular characterization of Rif-R should be performed routinely directly on biological samples and not only on isolates, in order to rapidly detect rare cases of resistance and consequently modify chemoprophylaxis for contacts.

5.
Neurotherapeutics ; 2020 Jan 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31975152

RESUMO

Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10-30% of all strokes and affects more than one million people every year worldwide, and it is the stroke subtype associated with the highest rates of mortality and residual disability. So far, clinical trials have mainly targeted primary cerebral injury and have substantially failed to improve clinical outcomes. The understanding of the pathophysiology of early and delayed injury after ICH is, hence, of paramount importance to identify potential targets of intervention and develop effective therapeutic strategies. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) represent a ubiquitous superfamily of structurally related zinc-dependent endopeptidases able to degrade any component of the extracellular matrix. They are upregulated after ICH, in which different cell types, including leukocytes, activated microglia, neurons, and endothelial cells, are involved in their synthesis and secretion. The aim of this review is to summarize the available experimental and clinical evidence about the role of MMPs in brain injury following spontaneous ICH and provide critical insights into the underlying mechanisms.

6.
Int J Rheum Dis ; 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Granulomatous diseases are a heterogeneous group of conditions characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate with a core of macrophages, epithelioid, giant cells and a corona of fibroblasts and lymphocytes. They are associated with a wide range of disorders such as mycobacterial and fungal infections, neoplasms, immunodeficiencies and systemic inflammatory disorders as sarcoidosis. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a previously healthy 9-year-old male child who presented with persistent cough, diffuse lymphadenopathy, enlargement of liver and spleen and protracted fever. Anemia, lymphopenia and reduced platelet count was reported, with an increase of inflammatory markers. High levels of Angiotensin-converting enzyme and chitotriosidases were noted. A PET-CT scan showed increased uptake of 18 F-FDG glucose in multiple lymph nodes in thorax and abdomen and in the spleen. Biopsy of inguinal and bronchial nodes showed nodal granulomatous inflammation. The child was diagnosed with sarcoidosis and treated with corticosteroids with only transient efficacy. Further tests reported panhypogammaglobulinaemia and a reduced pool of B-memory lymphocytes. Thus, the diagnosis was revised to common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). CONCLUSION: Common variable immunodeficiency is a heterogeneous condition with a highly variable clinical phenotype and a strong association with autoimmune disorders. The presence of noncaseating granuloma and pulmonary lesions, along with extrapulmonary features required a step by step approach to differentiate between CVID and sarcoidosis. This enables early introduction of immunoglobulin replacement therapy and decreases the morbidity and mortality of CVID.

7.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-6, 2019 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31885296

RESUMO

Objective: T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) and kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KREC) assays have been used for severe combined immunodeficiencies newborn screening (NBS). We assessed TREC and KREC NBS values in preterm infants and investigated if perinatal characteristics affect their values.Methods: We performed a retrospective study collecting data from TREC and KREC NBS database and from mothers' and infants' medical charts.Results: TREC and KREC values were lower in preterm infants born at 23-31 or 32-36 weeks of gestation than in term infants. Gestational age <28 weeks of gestation, leukopenia, and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy lowered TREC. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy lowered KREC and intrapartum fever >38 °C increased it. Low TREC and KREC values were not associated to the risk of developing early-onset sepsis and late-onset sepsis.Conclusion: TREC and KREC levels are lower in preterm than term infants, but this did not increase the risk of neonatal sepsis.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 17684, 2019 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776384

RESUMO

GM1 ganglioside, a monosialic glycosphingolipid and a crucial component of plasma membranes, accumulates in lysosomal storage disorders, primarily in GM1 gangliosidosis. The development of biomarkers for simplifying diagnosis, monitoring disease progression and evaluating drug therapies is an important objective in research into neurodegenerative lysosomal disorders. With this in mind, we established fluorescent imaging and flow-cytometric methods to track changes in GM1 ganglioside levels in patients with GM1 gangliosidosis and in control cells. We also evaluated GM1 ganglioside content in patients' cells treated with the commercially available Miglustat, a substrate inhibitor potentially suitable for the treatment of late-onset GM1 gangliosidosis. The flow-cytometric method proved to be sensitive, unbiased, and rapid in determining variations in GM1 ganglioside content in human lymphocytes derived from small amounts of fresh blood. We detected a strong correlation between GM1 ganglioside content and the clinical severity of GM1 gangliosidosis. We confirm the ability of Miglustat to act as a substrate reduction agent in the patients' treated cells. As well as being suitable for diagnosing and managing patients with GM1 gangliosidosis this method could be useful in the diagnosis and management of other lysosomal diseases, such as galactosialidosis, Type C Niemann-Pick, and any other disease with pathologic variations of GM1 ganglioside.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 7(4)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554213

RESUMO

The effectiveness and impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) against invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) due to serotype 3 (ser3) has been questioned. However, the impact of PCV13 on different clinical presentations of ser3-IPD has not been studied so far. The impact of PCV13 on different clinical presentations of ser3-IPD in a population of Italian children aged 0-8 years was evaluated, comparing pre- and post-PCV13 introduction period. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used for the diagnosis and serotyping of IPD. During the observation period (1 January 2006-1 August 2018), ser3 was detected in 60/284 (21.1%) children under 8 with serotyped IPD. The incidence of sepsis and meningitis was 0.24 per 1,000,000 person-years (p-y) in pre-PCV13 and 0.02 per 1,000,000 p-y in post-PCV13. No cases occurred in vaccinated children. In the post-PCV13 period, case reduction was 13% for all ser3 IPD and 92% for sepsis and meningitis. Vaccination impact may be underestimated due to significant improvement in pneumococcal surveillance in post-PCVC13. Our data suggest a significant impact of PCV13 on meningitis and sepsis due to ser3 and a lower impact against pneumonia. While waiting for increasingly effective anti-pneumococcal vaccines, PCV13, which guarantees protection against the most severe clinical presentations of ser3-IPD, is currently the most effective prevention option available.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 10: 948, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31543816

RESUMO

Background: The concern for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and anti-vaccination movements that lacked scientific evidence-based supports may reduce vaccine uptake in the general population. Thus, the aims of the present study were to characterize AEFI in general population (all age groups), in terms of frequency, preventability, and seriousness and to define predictors of their seriousness in children. Methods: A retrospective study was performed on suspected AEFI reports for children and adults who received any form of vaccinations, collected in Tuscany, Italy, between 1 January and 31 December 2017. Patients' characteristics, suspected vaccines, and AEFI description were collected. Causality and preventability were assessed using WHO and Schumock and Thornton algorithms, respectively. Logistic regression was used to estimate the reporting odds ratios of potential predictors of AEFI seriousness in children. Results: A total of 223 suspected AEFI reports were collected, and the majority of them were defined as non-serious (76.7%). Reports were mostly related to one vaccine, and to a median of two to five strains/toxoids. The total number of simultaneously administered strains/toxoids and the presence of allergens did not correlate with AEFI seriousness. Considering vaccines with a high number of administered doses (≥60,000 doses), the rates estimated for serious AEFI reports were always very low, ranging between 0.01 and 0.2/1,000 doses. Twenty-four vaccines (8,993 doses) were not related to any AEFI. Conclusion: Results of present study showed that AEFI were very rare; the vast majority of them was non-serious and, despite the claims of anti-vaccination movements, the simultaneous administration of vaccines was safe and did not influence the risk of reporting a serious AEFI, particularly in children.

11.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1955, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31507590

RESUMO

This is the first case of NBAS disease detected by NBS for primary immunodeficiency. NBS with KRECs is revealing unknown potentialities detecting conditions that benefit from early recognition like NBAS deficiency. Immune phenotyping should be mandatory in patients with NBAS deficiency since they can exhibit severe immunodeficiency with hypogammaglobulinemia as the most frequent finding. Fever during infections is a known trigger of acute liver failure in this syndrome, so immune dysfunction, should never go unnoticed in NBAS deficiency in order to start adequate therapy and prophylaxis.

12.
Front Immunol ; 10: 1908, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31456805

RESUMO

Severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCIDs) are a group of inborn errors of the immune system, usually associated with severe or life-threatening infections. Due to the variability of clinical phenotypes, the diagnostic complexity and the heterogeneity of the genetic basis, they are often difficult to recognize, leading to a significant diagnostic delay (DD). Aim of this study is to define presenting signs and natural history of SCID in a large cohort of patients, prior to hematopoietic stem cell or gene therapies. To this purpose, we conducted a 30-year retro-prospective multicenter study within the Italian Primary Immunodeficiency Network. One hundred eleven patients, diagnosed as typical or atypical SCID according to the European Society for Immune Deficiencies criteria, were included. Patients were subsequently classified based on the genetic alteration, pathogenic mechanism and immunological classification. A positive relationship between the age at onset and the DD was found. SCID patients with later onset were identified only in the last decade of observation. Syndromic SCIDs represented 28% of the cohort. Eight percent of the subjects were diagnosed in Intensive Care Units. Fifty-three percent had an atypical phenotype and most of them exhibited a discordant genotype-immunophenotype. Pre-treatment mortality was higher in atypical and syndromic patients. Our study broadens the knowledge of clinical and laboratory manifestations and genotype/phenotype correlation in patients with SCID and may facilitate the diagnosis of both typical and atypical forms of the disease in countries where newborn screening programs have not yet been implemented.

13.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 69(5): 595-598, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335836

RESUMO

Treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic adults with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection and with viremia levels <6 million IU/mL could be effectively treated with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir for 8 weeks. The aim of this pilot, prospective, open-label, multicenter study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this shortened treatment course in adolescents (≥12 years). The efficacy endpoint was sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment. Safety was assessed by adverse events and clinical/laboratory data. Fourteen consecutive adolescents (median age 16.5 years, Q1 14.1-Q3 17.4; female 57.1%), vertically infected, were enrolled and treated (June 2018-January 2019). Overall, the end of treatment response and sustained virological response 12 weeks after the end of treatment were 100%. No grade 3 to 4 adverse event or a serious adverse event was observed. Further studies are needed to confirm the optimal efficacy of the shortened 8-week treatment with sofosbuvir/ledipasvir for treatment-naïve, noncirrhotic adolescents with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection and pretreatment viremia level < 6 million IU/mL.

14.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 33: 2058738419840241, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30957643

RESUMO

Pathogenesis of mycobacterial infection has been extensively studied determining the fundamental role of host immunocompetence in disease progression. Cellular adaptive immunity, in particular CD4+ cells, has shown to be crucial in the host defence. A role of cytotoxic lymphocytes and humoral immunity has also been established. However, few studies have been performed in low endemic countries on immunological correlates of tuberculosis in paediatric patients. The present study aims to fill this gap analysing the distribution and the absolute values of the main lymphocyte subpopulations (CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ and CD16+/CD56+) in the different stages of tubercular infection in human immunodeficiency virus-negative children living in low tubercular endemic countries. Results obtained in children with latent tuberculosis, active tuberculosis and healthy controls were compared. Moreover, quantitative analysis of interferon-γ levels of mitogen-induced response was carried out within the different study groups. The aim of this analysis was to enforce the comprehension of immune modifications subsequent to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The major finding of our study was CD3+ and CD4+ absolute and percentage depletion in children with active tuberculosis versus healthy controls. Moreover, severe forms of active tuberculosis showed a marked reduction in the CD4+ percentage in the context of a systemic impairment which affects globally the absolute count of all peripheral lymphocyte subsets tested. A relative increase of natural killer cells was proved in infected patients, whereas no differences in B cells among the study groups were detected. Mitogen-induced interferon-γ levels were significantly higher in children with latent tuberculosis when compared to active tuberculosis and healthy controls, demonstrating effective immune activation in those patients able to control the infection.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD19/sangue , Complexo CD3/sangue , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Antígeno CD56/sangue , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Receptores de IgG/sangue , Tuberculose/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Tuberculose/diagnóstico
15.
Vaccine ; 37(20): 2704-2711, 2019 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981627

RESUMO

Etiology and serotyping of parapneumonic effusion (PPE) and the impact of vaccination was evaluated over a 12-year period, before and after the PCV13 introduction (2011) for Italian children From 0 to 16 years of age. Five hundred and two children were evaluated; 226 blood and 356 pleural fluid samples were obtained and tested using Realtime-PCR and culture. In the pre-PCV13 era S. pneumoniae was the most frequent pathogen identified (64/90; 71.1%) with a large predominance of serotypes 1 (42.4%), 3 (23.7%), 7F (5.1%) and 19A (11.9%). The impact of vaccination, calculated on children 0-8 years of age, demonstrated a significant reduction of PPE: with an incidence rate of 2.82 (95%CL 2.32-3.41) in the pre-PCV13 era and an age-standardized rate (ASR) of 0.66 (95% CL 0.37-1.99) in the post-PCV13 era, p < 0.0001. No increase in non-PCV13 serotypes was recorded. S. pneumoniae remained the most frequent pathogen identified in the post-PCV13 era in unvaccinated children with an unchanged serotype distribution: respectively 26/66 (39.4%), 25/66 (37.9%), 5/66 (7.6%), and 4/66 (6.1%) for 1, 3, 7F and 19A. On the other hand 7F and 19A disappeared in vaccinated children and serotype 1 and 3 decreased by 91.8% and 31.5%, respectively. Realtime PCR was significantly more sensitive than culture both in pleural fluid (79.7% vs 12.5%) and in blood (17.8% vs 7.4%). In conclusion, our findings indicate that routine immunization with PCV13 has significantly reduced the burden of childhood PPE in vaccinated children, without increasing PPE due to other bacteria and without serotype shift. Moreover, the impact of PCV13 may be underestimated due to the increase in pneumococcal surveillance in Italy. Data has also shown that Real-time PCR is an essential tool to better define the etiology of PPE and to monitor vaccination plans. Longer studies will be necessary to evaluate the role of herd protection in PPE prevention.

16.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(7): 2369-2376, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) may develop severe thrombocytopenic purpura and hemolytic anemia. There are no reliable predictors for the development of hematologic autoimmunity (HA) in these patients. OBJECTIVE: To describe the peculiar B and T subpopulation defects in patients with 22q11DS who have developed HA and test if these defects precede the development of HA. METHODS: We performed a case-control multicenter study. Patients with HA were compared with a control population of 22q11.2DS without HA (non-HA). A complete immunological evaluation was performed at diagnosis and at the last follow-up including extensive T and B phenotypes. RESULTS: Immunophenotype at the last follow-up was available in 23 HA and 45 non-HA patients. HA patients had significantly decreased percentage of naïve CD4+ cells (26.8% vs 43.2%, P = .003) and recent thymic emigrants (48.6% vs 80.5%, P = .046); decreased class-switched B cells (2.0% vs 5.9%, P = .04) and increased naive B cells (83.5% vs 71.4%, P = .02); increased CD16+/56+ both in absolute number (312 vs 199, P = .009) and percentage (20.0% vs 13.0%, P = .03). Immunophenotype was performed in 36 patients (11 HA and 25 non-HA) at diagnosis. Odds ratio (OR) of immune cytopenia were estimated for both CD4 naïve ≤30% (OR 14.0, P = .002) and switched memory B cells ≤2% (OR 44.0, P = .01). The estimated survival curves reached statistical significance, respectively, P = .0001 and P = .002. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with 22q11.2DS, those with HA have characteristic lymphocyte anomalies that appear considerably before HA onset. Systematic immunophenotyping of patients with 22q11.2DS at diagnosis is advisable for early identification of patients at risk for this severe complication.

17.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0212922, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a highly lethal disease. Diagnosis is commonly performed by culture or Realtime-PCR (qPCR). AIMS: Our aim was to evaluate, retrospectively, whether culture positivity correlates with higher bacterial load and fatal outcome. Our secondary aim was to compare culture and qPCR sensitivity. METHODS: The National Register for Molecular Surveillance was used as data source. Cycle threshold (CT), known to be inversely correlated with bacterial load, was used to compare bacterial load in different samples. RESULTS: Three-hundred-thirteen patients were found positive for Neisseria meningitidis by qPCR, or culture, or both; 41 died (case fatality rate 13.1%); 128/143 (89.5%) blood samples and 138/144 (95.8%) CSF were positive by qPCR, 37/143 (25.9%) blood samples and 45/144 (31.2%) CSF were also positive in culture. qPCR was 3.5 times (blood) or 3.1 times (CSF) more sensitive than culture in achieving a laboratory diagnosis of IMD (OR 24.4; 95% CI 12.2-49.8; p < .10-4; Cohen's κ 0.08 for blood and OR 49.0; 95% CI 19.1-133.4; p<10-4; Cohen's κ 0.02; for CSF). Positivity of culture did not correlate with higher bacterial loads in blood (mean CT 27.7±5.71, and CT 28.1±6.03, p = 0.739 respectively in culture positive or negative samples) or in CSF (mean CT 23.1±4.9 and 24.7±5.4 respectively in positive or negative CSF samples, p = 0.11).CT values in blood from patients who died were significantly lower than in patients who survived (respectively mean 18.0, range 14-23 and mean 29.6, range 16-39; p<10-17). No deaths occurred in patients with CT in blood over 23. Positive blood cultures were found in 10/25 (40%) patients who died and in 32/163 (19.6%) patients who survived, p = 0.036, OR 2.73; 95% CL 1.025-7.215), however 60% of deaths would have remained undiagnosed with the use of culture only. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion our study demonstrated that qPCR is significantly (at least 3 times) more sensitive than culture in the laboratory confirmation of IMD. The study also demonstrated that culture negativity is not associated with lower bacterial loads and with less severe cases. On the other side, in patients with sepsis, qPCR can predict fatal outcome since higher bacterial load, evaluated by qPCR, appears strictly associated with most severe cases and fatal outcome. The study also showed that molecular techniques such as qPCR can provide a valuable addition to the proportion of diagnosed and serotyped cases of IMD.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana/métodos , Meningite Meningocócica/diagnóstico , Neisseria meningitidis/isolamento & purificação , Sepse/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Reações Falso-Negativas , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Meningite Meningocócica/microbiologia , Meningite Meningocócica/mortalidade , Neisseria meningitidis/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Sepse/microbiologia , Sepse/mortalidade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 47(1): 113-120, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291514

RESUMO

Intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is the treatment of choice for most patients with acute ischemic stroke. According to the recently updated guidelines, IVT should be administered in absence of absolute exclusion criteria. We aimed to assess the proportion of ischemic strokes potentially eligible and actually treated with IVT, and to explore the reasons for not administering IVT. We prospectively collected and analyzed data from 1184 consecutive ischemic stroke patients admitted to the 22 Stroke Units (SUs) of the Veneto region from September 18th to December 10th 2017. Patients were treated with IVT according to the current Italian guidelines. For untreated patients, the reasons for not administering IVT were reported by each center in a predefined model including absolute and/or relative exclusion criteria and other possible reasons. Out of 841 (71%) patients who presented within 4.5 h of stroke onset, 704 (59%) had no other absolute exclusion criteria and were therefore potentially eligible for IVT according to the current guidelines. However, only 323 (27%) patients were eventually treated with IVT. Among 861 (73%) untreated patients, 480 had at least one absolute exclusion criterion, 283 only relative exclusion criteria, 56 only other reasons, and 42 a combination of relative exclusion criteria and other reasons. Our study showed that only 46% (323/704) of the potentially eligible patients were actually treated with IVT in the SUs of the Veneto region. All healthcare professionals involved in the acute stroke pathway should make an effort to bridge this gap between eligibility and reality.


Assuntos
Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Administração Intravenosa , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
19.
Hepatol Commun ; 2(11): 1289-1292, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411074

RESUMO

BLURB FOR ETOC: Editorial to Leung et al. "Ombitasvir/Paritaprevir/Ritonavir With or Without Dasabuvir and With or Without Ribavirin for Adolescents With HCV Genotype 1 or 4".

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