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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35536696

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Methylation integrates factors present at birth and modifiable across life that can influence pulmonary function. Studies are limited in scope and replication. OBJECTIVES: To conduct large-scale epigenome-wide meta-analyses of blood DNA methylation and pulmonary function. METHODS: Twelve cohorts analyzed associations of methylation at cytosine-phosphate-guanine probes (CpGs), using Illumina450K or EPIC/850K arrays, with FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC. We performed multi-ancestry epigenome-wide meta-analyses (17,503 individuals: 14,761 European; 2,549 African; and 193 Hispanic/Latino ancestries) and interpreted results using integrative epigenomics. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We identified 1,267 CpGs (1,042 genes) differentially methylated (FDR<0.025) in relation to FEV1, FVC, or FEV1/FVC, including 1,240 novel and 73 also related to COPD (1,787 cases). We found 294 CpGs unique to European or African ancestry and 395 CpGs unique to never or ever smokers. The majority of significant CpGs correlated with nearby gene expression in blood. Findings were enriched in key regulatory elements for gene function, including accessible chromatin elements, in both blood and lung. Sixty-nine implicated genes are targets of investigational or approved drugs. One example novel gene highlighted by integrative epigenomic and druggable target analysis is TNFRSF4. Mendelian randomization and colocalization analyses suggest that EWAS signals capture causal regulatory genomic loci. CONCLUSIONS: We identified numerous novel loci differentially methylated in relation to pulmonary function; few were detected in large genome-wide association studies. Integrative analyses highlight functional relevance and potential therapeutic targets. This comprehensive discovery of potentially modifiable, novel lung function loci expands knowledge gained from genetic studies providing insights into lung pathogenesis.

2.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 362, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501457

RESUMO

Deficiency of the immune checkpoint lymphocyte activation gene-3 (LAG3) protein is significantly associated with both elevated HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and myocardial infarction risk. We determined the association of genetic variants within ±500 kb of LAG3 with plasma LAG3 and defined LAG3-associated plasma proteins with HDL-C and clinical outcomes. Whole genome sequencing and plasma proteomics were obtained from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) cohorts as part of the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine program. In situ Hi-C chromatin capture was performed in EBV-transformed cell lines isolated from four MESA participants. Genetic association analyses were performed in MESA using multivariate regression models, with validation in FHS. A LAG3-associated protein network was tested for association with HDL-C, coronary heart disease, and all-cause mortality. We identify an association between the LAG3 rs3782735 variant and plasma LAG3 protein. Proteomics analysis reveals 183 proteins significantly associated with LAG3 with four proteins associated with HDL-C. Four proteins discovered for association with all-cause mortality in FHS shows nominal associations in MESA. Chromatin capture analysis reveals significant cis interactions between LAG3 and C1S, LRIG3, TNFRSF1A, and trans interactions between LAG3 and B2M. A LAG3-associated protein network has significant associations with HDL-C and mortality.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Medicina de Precisão , HDL-Colesterol , Cromatina , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Proteínas de Membrana
3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2022 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35504290

RESUMO

Current publicly available tools that allow rapid exploration of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between markers (e.g., HaploReg and LDlink) are based on whole-genome sequence (WGS) data from 2,504 individuals in the 1000 Genomes Project. Here, we present TOP-LD, an online tool to explore LD inferred with high-coverage (∼30×) WGS data from 15,578 individuals in the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. TOP-LD provides a significant upgrade compared to current LD tools, as the TOPMed WGS data provide a more comprehensive representation of genetic variation than the 1000 Genomes data, particularly for rare variants and in the specific populations that we analyzed. For example, TOP-LD encompasses LD information for 150.3, 62.2, and 36.7 million variants for European, African, and East Asian ancestral samples, respectively, offering 2.6- to 9.1-fold increase in variant coverage compared to HaploReg 4.0 or LDlink. In addition, TOP-LD includes tens of thousands of structural variants (SVs). We demonstrate the value of TOP-LD in fine-mapping at the GGT1 locus associated with gamma glutamyltransferase in the African ancestry participants in UK Biobank. Beyond fine-mapping, TOP-LD can facilitate a wide range of applications that are based on summary statistics and estimates of LD. TOP-LD is freely available online.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35459606

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The DASH diet conveys protection against type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) Via plant-based and non-plant-based recommendations. Research has not identified which glucose homeostasis pathways are improved. We examined associations between adherence to a DASH diet and six glucose homeostasis traits, probing whether associations could be attributed to the plant-based (DASH-P) and/or non-plant based (DASH-NP) components. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included data from 295 adults without T2D (age 59.3 ± 9.00 years; 63.46% non-Hispanic White and 36.54% African American, self-reported race ancestry) participating in the Microbiome and Insulin Longitudinal Evaluation Study (MILES). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) yielded fasting plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and insulin secretion, sensitivity, and disposition index. Habitual dietary intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Associations between DASH components and glucose homeostasis traits were examined, controlling for demographics, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and energy intake. For significant associations, the models were repeated with scores for DASH-P and DASH-NP as predictors in the same model. DASH and DASH-P scores were inversely associated with fasting plasma glucose (DASH:ß = -0.036 ± 0.012,P = 0.005; DASH-P: ß = -0.04 ± 0.017,P = 0.002), and positively associated with insulin sensitivity (DASH:ß = 0.022 ± 0.012,P = 0.042; DASH-P: = 0.036 ± 0.015,P = 0.014). The DASH score was also associated with disposition index (ß = 0.026 ± 0.013,P = 0.038), but this association did not reach significance with DASH-P (ß = 0.035 ± 0.018,P = 0.051). No associations were observed with DASH-NP score (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: DASH diet is associated with improvement in specific glucose homeostasis traits, likely arising from increased plant-based foods. Such research may help tailor future dietary advice to specific metabolic risk, and to food groups most effective at improving these.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35468213

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Biomarkers that can accurately predict risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in genetically predisposed children can facilitate interventions to delay or prevent the disease. OBJECTIVE: Determine if a combination of genetic, immunologic, and metabolic features, measured at infancy, can be utilized to predict the likelihood that a child will develop T1D by the age of 6 years. DESIGN: Newborns with HLA typing enrolled in the prospective birth cohort of The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY). SETTING: TEDDY ascertained children in Finland, Germany, Sweden, and the United States. PATIENTS: TEDDY children were either from the general population or from families with T1D with an HLA genotype associated with T1D specific to TEDDY eligibility criteria. From the TEDDY cohort there were 702 children will all data sources measured at 3, 6 and 9 months of age, 11.4% of which progressed to T1D by the age of 6. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Diagnosis of T1D as diagnosed by American Diabetes Association criteria. RESULTS: Machine learning-based feature selection yielded classifiers based on disparate demographic, immunologic, genetic and metabolite features. The accuracy of the model utilizing all available data evaluated by the Area Under a Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve is 0.84. Reducing to only 3- and 9-month measurements did not reduce the AUC significantly. Metabolomics had the largest value when evaluating the accuracy at a low false positive rate. CONCLUSIONS: The metabolite features identified as important for progression to T1D by age 6 point to altered sugar metabolism in infancy. Integrating this information with classic risk factors improves prediction of the progression to T1D in early childhood.

6.
Circulation ; 145(20): 1524-1533, 2022 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35389749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare sequence variation in genes underlying cardiac repolarization and common polygenic variation influence QT interval duration. However, current clinical genetic testing of individuals with unexplained QT prolongation is restricted to examination of monogenic rare variants. The recent emergence of large-scale biorepositories with sequence data enables examination of the joint contribution of rare and common variations to the QT interval in the population. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study of the QTc in 84 630 UK Biobank participants and created a polygenic risk score (PRS). Among 26 976 participants with whole-genome sequencing and ECG data in the TOPMed (Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine) program, we identified 160 carriers of putative pathogenic rare variants in 10 genes known to be associated with the QT interval. We examined QTc associations with the PRS and with rare variants in TOPMed. RESULTS: Fifty-four independent loci were identified by genome-wide association study in the UK Biobank. Twenty-one loci were novel, of which 12 were replicated in TOPMed. The PRS composed of 1 110 494 common variants was significantly associated with the QTc in TOPMed (ΔQTc/decile of PRS=1.4 ms [95% CI, 1.3 to 1.5]; P=1.1×10-196). Carriers of putative pathogenic rare variants had longer QTc than noncarriers (ΔQTc=10.9 ms [95% CI, 7.4 to 14.4]). Of individuals with QTc>480 ms, 23.7% carried either a monogenic rare variant or had a PRS in the top decile (3.4% monogenic, 21% top decile of PRS). CONCLUSIONS: QTc duration in the population is influenced by both rare variants in genes underlying cardiac repolarization and polygenic risk, with a sizeable contribution from polygenic risk. Comprehensive assessment of the genetic determinants of QTc prolongation includes incorporation of both polygenic and monogenic risk.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 109(5): 857-870, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385699

RESUMO

While polygenic risk scores (PRSs) enable early identification of genetic risk for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), predictive performance is limited when the discovery and target populations are not well matched. Hypothesizing that the biological mechanisms of disease are shared across ancestry groups, we introduce a PrediXcan-derived polygenic transcriptome risk score (PTRS) to improve cross-ethnic portability of risk prediction. We constructed the PTRS using summary statistics from application of PrediXcan on large-scale GWASs of lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1] and its ratio to forced vital capacity [FEV1/FVC]) in the UK Biobank. We examined prediction performance and cross-ethnic portability of PTRS through smoking-stratified analyses both on 29,381 multi-ethnic participants from TOPMed population/family-based cohorts and on 11,771 multi-ethnic participants from TOPMed COPD-enriched studies. Analyses were carried out for two dichotomous COPD traits (moderate-to-severe and severe COPD) and two quantitative lung function traits (FEV1 and FEV1/FVC). While the proposed PTRS showed weaker associations with disease than PRS for European ancestry, the PTRS showed stronger association with COPD than PRS for African Americans (e.g., odds ratio [OR] = 1.24 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.43] for PTRS versus 1.10 [0.96-1.26] for PRS among heavy smokers with ≥ 40 pack-years of smoking) for moderate-to-severe COPD. Cross-ethnic portability of the PTRS was significantly higher than the PRS (paired t test p < 2.2 × 10-16 with portability gains ranging from 5% to 28%) for both dichotomous COPD traits and across all smoking strata. Our study demonstrates the value of PTRS for improved cross-ethnic portability compared to PRS in predicting COPD risk.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Transcriptoma , Humanos , Pulmão , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Nat Genet ; 54(3): 263-273, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35256806

RESUMO

Analyses of data from genome-wide association studies on unrelated individuals have shown that, for human traits and diseases, approximately one-third to two-thirds of heritability is captured by common SNPs. However, it is not known whether the remaining heritability is due to the imperfect tagging of causal variants by common SNPs, in particular whether the causal variants are rare, or whether it is overestimated due to bias in inference from pedigree data. Here we estimated heritability for height and body mass index (BMI) from whole-genome sequence data on 25,465 unrelated individuals of European ancestry. The estimated heritability was 0.68 (standard error 0.10) for height and 0.30 (standard error 0.10) for body mass index. Low minor allele frequency variants in low linkage disequilibrium (LD) with neighboring variants were enriched for heritability, to a greater extent for protein-altering variants, consistent with negative selection. Our results imply that rare variants, in particular those in regions of low linkage disequilibrium, are a major source of the still missing heritability of complex traits and disease.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Herança Multifatorial , Alelos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
9.
Diabetes ; 71(4): 610-623, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35316839

RESUMO

Most screening programs to identify individuals at risk for type 1 diabetes have targeted relatives of people living with the disease to improve yield and feasibility. However, ∼90% of those who develop type 1 diabetes do not have a family history. Recent successes in disease-modifying therapies to impact the course of early-stage disease have ignited the consideration of the need for and feasibility of population screening to identify those at increased risk. Existing population screening programs rely on genetic or autoantibody screening, and these have yielded significant information about disease progression and approaches for timing for screening in clinical practice. At the March 2021 Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet Steering Committee meeting, a session was held in which ongoing efforts for screening in the general population were discussed. This report reviews the background of these efforts and the details of those programs. Additionally, we present hurdles that need to be addressed for successful implementation of population screening and provide initial recommendations for individuals with positive screens so that standardized guidelines for monitoring and follow-up can be established.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Autoanticorpos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Humanos , Programas de Rastreamento
10.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 9: 804788, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35265679

RESUMO

Background: Rare pathogenic variants in cardiomyopathy (CM) genes can predispose to cardiac remodeling or fibrosis. We studied the carrier status for such variants in adults without clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in whom cardiac MRI (CMR)-derived measures of myocardial fibrosis were obtained in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Objectives: To identify CM-associated pathogenic variants and assess their relative prevalence in participants with extensive myocardial fibrosis by CMR. Methods: MESA whole-genome sequencing data was evaluated to capture variants in CM-associated genes (n = 82). Coding variants with a frequency of <0.1% in gnomAD and 1,000 Genomes Project databases and damaging/deleterious effects based on in-silico scoring tools were assessed by ClinVar database and ACMG curation guidelines for evidence of pathogenicity. Cases were participants with high myocardial fibrosis defined as highest quartile of extracellular volume (ECV) or native T1 time in T1-mapping CMR and controls were the remainder of participants. Results: A total of 1,135 MESA participants had available genetic data and phenotypic measures and were free of clinical CVD at the time of CMR. We identified 6,349 rare variants in CM-associated genes in the overall MESA population, of which six pathogenic/likely pathogenic (P/LP) variants were present in the phenotyped subpopulation. The genes harboring P/LP variants in the case group were MYH7, CRYAB, and SCN5A. The prevalence of P/LP rare variants in cases was higher than controls (5 in 420 [1.1%] vs. 1 in 715 [0.1%], p = 0.03). We identified two MYBPC3 Variants of Unknown Significance (VUS)s with borderline pathogenicity in the case group. The left ventricle (LV) volume, mass, ejection fraction (EF), and longitudinal and circumferential strain in participants with the variants were not different compared to the overall cohort. Conclusions: We observed a higher prevalence of rare potentially pathogenic CM associated genetic variants in participants with significant myocardial fibrosis quantified in CMR as compared to controls without significant fibrosis. No cardiac structural or functional differences were found between participants with or without P/LP variants.

11.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 4516, 2022 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296692

RESUMO

The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study enrolled 8676 children, 3-4 months of age, born with HLA-susceptibility genotypes for islet autoimmunity (IA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D). Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed in 1119 children in a nested case-control study design. Telomere length was estimated from WGS data using five tools: Computel, Telseq, Telomerecat, qMotif and Motif_counter. The estimated median telomere length was 5.10 kb (IQR 4.52-5.68 kb) using Computel. The age when the blood sample was drawn had a significant negative correlation with telomere length (P = 0.003). European children, particularly those from Finland (P = 0.041) and from Sweden (P = 0.001), had shorter telomeres than children from the U.S.A. Paternal age (P = 0.019) was positively associated with telomere length. First-degree relative status, presence of gestational diabetes in the mother, and maternal age did not have a significant impact on estimated telomere length. HLA-DR4/4 or HLA-DR4/X children had significantly longer telomeres compared to children with HLA-DR3/3 or HLA-DR3/9 haplogenotypes (P = 0.008). Estimated telomere length was not significantly different with respect to any IA (P = 0.377), IAA-first (P = 0.248), GADA-first (P = 0.248) or T1D (P = 0.861). These results suggest that telomere length has no major impact on the risk for IA, the first step to develop T1D. Nevertheless, telomere length was shorter in the T1D high prevalence populations, Finland and Sweden.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Ilhotas Pancreáticas , Autoanticorpos , Autoimunidade/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Telômero/genética
12.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0264341, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35202437

RESUMO

Genetically regulated gene expression has helped elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying complex traits. Improved high-throughput technology allows similar interrogation of the genetically regulated proteome for understanding complex trait mechanisms. Here, we used the Trans-omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Multi-omics pilot study, which comprises data from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), to optimize genetic predictors of the plasma proteome for genetically regulated proteome-wide association studies (PWAS) in diverse populations. We built predictive models for protein abundances using data collected in TOPMed MESA, for which we have measured 1,305 proteins by a SOMAscan assay. We compared predictive models built via elastic net regression to models integrating posterior inclusion probabilities estimated by fine-mapping SNPs prior to elastic net. In order to investigate the transferability of predictive models across ancestries, we built protein prediction models in all four of the TOPMed MESA populations, African American (n = 183), Chinese (n = 71), European (n = 416), and Hispanic/Latino (n = 301), as well as in all populations combined. As expected, fine-mapping produced more significant protein prediction models, especially in African ancestries populations, potentially increasing opportunity for discovery. When we tested our TOPMed MESA models in the independent European INTERVAL study, fine-mapping improved cross-ancestries prediction for some proteins. Using GWAS summary statistics from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study, which comprises ∼50,000 Hispanic/Latinos, African Americans, Asians, Native Hawaiians, and Native Americans, we applied S-PrediXcan to perform PWAS for 28 complex traits. The most protein-trait associations were discovered, colocalized, and replicated in large independent GWAS using proteome prediction model training populations with similar ancestries to PAGE. At current training population sample sizes, performance between baseline and fine-mapped protein prediction models in PWAS was similar, highlighting the utility of elastic net. Our predictive models in diverse populations are publicly available for use in proteome mapping methods at https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4837327.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Modelos Genéticos , Proteínas/genética , Proteoma/genética , Aterosclerose/etnologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1472, 2022 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35087136

RESUMO

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Iron and heme metabolism, implicated in ventilatory control and OSA comorbidities, was associated with OSA phenotypes in recent admixture mapping and gene enrichment analyses. However, its causal contribution was unclear. In this study, we performed pathway-level transcriptional Mendelian randomization (MR) analysis to investigate the causal relationships between iron and heme related pathways and OSA. In primary analysis, we examined the expression level of four iron/heme Reactome pathways as exposures and four OSA traits as outcomes using cross-tissue cis-eQTLs from the Genotype-Tissue Expression portal and published genome-wide summary statistics of OSA. We identify a significant putative causal association between up-regulated heme biosynthesis pathway with higher sleep time percentage of hypoxemia (p = 6.14 × 10-3). This association is supported by consistency of point estimates in one-sample MR in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis using high coverage DNA and RNA sequencing data generated by the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine project. Secondary analysis for 37 additional iron/heme Gene Ontology pathways did not reveal any significant causal associations. This study suggests a causal association between increased heme biosynthesis and OSA severity.


Assuntos
Heme/biossíntese , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/epidemiologia , Idoso , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Ferro/metabolismo , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polissonografia , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/sangue , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/genética , Regulação para Cima
16.
Gastroenterology ; 162(6): 1705-1715, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35031300

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A genome-wide significant association between anti-Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) IgG titers and Toll-like receptor (TLR1/6/10) locus on 4p14 was demonstrated for individuals of European ancestry, but not uniformly replicated. We re-investigated this association in an updated genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analysis for populations with low gastric cancer incidence, address potential causes of cohort heterogeneity, and explore functional implications of genetic variation at the TLR1/6/10 locus. METHODS: The dichotomous GWAS (25% individuals exhibiting highest anti-H pylori IgG titers vs remaining 75%) included discovery and replication sampls of, respectively, n = 15,685 and n = 9676, all of European ancestry. Longitudinal analysis of serologic data was performed on H pylori-eradicated subjects (n = 132) and patients under surveillance for premalignant gastric lesions (n = 107). TLR1/6/10 surface expression, TLR1 mRNA, and cytokine levels were measured in leukocyte subsets of healthy subjects (n = 26) genotyped for TLR1/6/10 variants. RESULTS: The association of the TLR1/6/10 locus with anti-H pylori IgG titers (rs12233670; ß = -0.267 ± SE 0.034; P = 4.42 × 10-15) presented with high heterogeneity and failed replication. Anti-H pylori IgG titers declined within 2-4 years after eradication treatment (P = 0.004), and decreased over time in patients with premalignant gastric lesions (P < 0.001). Variation at the TLR1/6/10 locus affected TLR1-mediated cytokine production and TLR1 surface expression on monocytes (P = 0.016) and neutrophils (P = 0.030), but not mRNA levels. CONCLUSIONS: The association between anti-H pylori IgG titers and TLR1/6/10 locus was not replicated across cohorts, possibly owing to dependency of anti-H pylori IgG titers on therapy, clearance, and antibody decay. H pylori-mediated immune cell activation is partly mediated via TLR1 signaling, which in turn is affected by genetic variation.


Assuntos
Infecções por Helicobacter , Helicobacter pylori , Neoplasias Gástricas , Receptor 1 Toll-Like/genética , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Citocinas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Infecções por Helicobacter/diagnóstico , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Helicobacter/genética , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G , Neoplasias Gástricas/genética
17.
Stroke ; 53(3): 875-885, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Stroke is the leading cause of death and long-term disability worldwide. Previous genome-wide association studies identified 51 loci associated with stroke (mostly ischemic) and its subtypes among predominantly European populations. Using whole-genome sequencing in ancestrally diverse populations from the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) Program, we aimed to identify novel variants, especially low-frequency or ancestry-specific variants, associated with all stroke, ischemic stroke and its subtypes (large artery, cardioembolic, and small vessel), and hemorrhagic stroke and its subtypes (intracerebral and subarachnoid). METHODS: Whole-genome sequencing data were available for 6833 stroke cases and 27 116 controls, including 22 315 European, 7877 Black, 2616 Hispanic/Latino, 850 Asian, 54 Native American, and 237 other ancestry participants. In TOPMed, we performed single variant association analysis examining 40 million common variants and aggregated association analysis focusing on rare variants. We also combined TOPMed European populations with over 28 000 additional European participants from the UK BioBank genome-wide array data through meta-analysis. RESULTS: In the single variant association analysis in TOPMed, we identified one novel locus 13q33 for large artery at whole-genome-wide significance (P<5.00×10-9) and 4 novel loci at genome-wide significance (P<5.00×10-8), all of which need confirmation in independent studies. Lead variants in all 5 loci are low-frequency but are more common in non-European populations. An aggregation of synonymous rare variants within the gene C6orf26 demonstrated suggestive evidence of association for hemorrhagic stroke (P<3.11×10-6). By meta-analyzing European ancestry samples in TOPMed and UK BioBank, we replicated several previously reported stroke loci including PITX2, HDAC9, ZFHX3, and LRCH1. CONCLUSIONS: We represent the first association analysis for stroke and its subtypes using whole-genome sequencing data from ancestrally diverse populations. While our findings suggest the potential benefits of combining whole-genome sequencing data with populations of diverse genetic backgrounds to identify possible low-frequency or ancestry-specific variants, they also highlight the need to increase genome coverage and sample sizes.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medicina de Precisão , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
18.
Stroke ; 53(3): 788-797, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34743536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is a novel age-related risk factor for cardiovascular disease-related morbidity and mortality. The association of CHIP with risk of incident ischemic stroke was reported previously in an exploratory analysis including a small number of incident stroke cases without replication and lack of stroke subphenotyping. The purpose of this study was to discover whether CHIP is a risk factor for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. METHODS: We utilized plasma genome sequence data of blood DNA to identify CHIP in 78 752 individuals from 8 prospective cohorts and biobanks. We then assessed the association of CHIP and commonly mutated individual CHIP driver genes (DNMT3A, TET2, and ASXL1) with any stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke. RESULTS: CHIP was associated with an increased risk of total stroke (hazard ratio, 1.14 [95% CI, 1.03-1.27]; P=0.01) after adjustment for age, sex, and race. We observed associations with CHIP with risk of hemorrhagic stroke (hazard ratio, 1.24 [95% CI, 1.01-1.51]; P=0.04) and with small vessel ischemic stroke subtypes. In gene-specific association results, TET2 showed the strongest association with total stroke and ischemic stroke, whereas DMNT3A and TET2 were each associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke. CONCLUSIONS: CHIP is associated with an increased risk of stroke, particularly with hemorrhagic and small vessel ischemic stroke. Future studies clarifying the relationship between CHIP and subtypes of stroke are needed.


Assuntos
Hematopoiese Clonal/fisiologia , AVC Hemorrágico/epidemiologia , AVC Isquêmico/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Hematopoiese Clonal/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Dioxigenases/genética , Feminino , AVC Hemorrágico/genética , AVC Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Incidência , AVC Isquêmico/genética , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Risco
19.
Blood ; 139(3): 357-368, 2022 01 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855941

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with age and smoking, but other determinants of the disease are incompletely understood. Clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP) is a common, age-related state in which somatic mutations in clonal blood populations induce aberrant inflammatory responses. Patients with CHIP have an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease, but the association of CHIP with COPD remains unclear. We analyzed whole-genome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing data to detect CHIP in 48 835 patients, of whom 8444 had moderate to very severe COPD, from four separate cohorts with COPD phenotyping and smoking history. We measured emphysema in murine models in which Tet2 was deleted in hematopoietic cells. In the COPDGene cohort, individuals with CHIP had risks of moderate-to-severe, severe, or very severe COPD that were 1.6 (adjusted 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-2.2) and 2.2 (adjusted 95% CI, 1.5-3.2) times greater than those for noncarriers. These findings were consistently observed in three additional cohorts and meta-analyses of all patients. CHIP was also associated with decreased FEV1% predicted in the COPDGene cohort (mean between-group differences, -5.7%; adjusted 95% CI, -8.8% to -2.6%), a finding replicated in additional cohorts. Smoke exposure was associated with a small but significant increased risk of having CHIP (odds ratio, 1.03 per 10 pack-years; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05 per 10 pack-years) in the meta-analysis of all patients. Inactivation of Tet2 in mouse hematopoietic cells exacerbated the development of emphysema and inflammation in models of cigarette smoke exposure. Somatic mutations in blood cells are associated with the development and severity of COPD, independent of age and cumulative smoke exposure.


Assuntos
Hematopoiese Clonal , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
20.
Circulation ; 145(5): 357-370, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plasma proteins are critical mediators of cardiovascular processes and are the targets of many drugs. Previous efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of the plasma proteome have been limited by a focus on individuals of European descent and leveraged genotyping arrays and imputation. Here we describe whole genome sequence analysis of the plasma proteome in individuals with greater African ancestry, increasing our power to identify novel genetic determinants. METHODS: Proteomic profiling of 1301 proteins was performed in 1852 Black adults from the Jackson Heart Study using aptamer-based proteomics (SomaScan). Whole genome sequencing association analysis was ascertained for all variants with minor allele count ≥5. Results were validated using an alternative, antibody-based, proteomic platform (Olink) as well as replicated in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and the HERITAGE Family Study (Health, Risk Factors, Exercise Training and Genetics). RESULTS: We identify 569 genetic associations between 479 proteins and 438 unique genetic regions at a Bonferroni-adjusted significance level of 3.8×10-11. These associations include 114 novel locus-protein relationships and an additional 217 novel sentinel variant-protein relationships. Novel cardiovascular findings include new protein associations at the APOE gene locus including ZAP70 (sentinel single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs7412-T, ß=0.61±0.05, P=3.27×10-30) and MMP-3 (ß=-0.60±0.05, P=1.67×10-32), as well as a completely novel pleiotropic locus at the HPX gene, associated with 9 proteins. Further, the associations suggest new mechanisms of genetically mediated cardiovascular disease linked to African ancestry; we identify a novel association between variants linked to APOL1-associated chronic kidney and heart disease and the protein CKAP2 (rs73885319-G, ß=0.34±0.04, P=1.34×10-17) as well as an association between ATTR amyloidosis and RBP4 levels in community-dwelling individuals without heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results provide evidence for the functional importance of variants in non-European populations, and suggest new biological mechanisms for ancestry-specific determinants of lipids, coagulation, and myocardial function.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Proteoma/metabolismo , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
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