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1.
Br J Gen Pract ; 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440469

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Colchicine has been proposed as a COVID-19 treatment. AIM: To determine whether colchicine reduces time to recovery and COVID-19-related admissions to hospital and/or deaths among people in the community. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective, multicentre, open-label, multi-arm, randomised, controlled, adaptive platform trial (PRINCIPLE). METHOD: Adults aged ≥65 years or ≥18 years with comorbidities or shortness of breath, and unwell for ≤14 days with suspected COVID-19 in the community, were randomised to usual care, usual care plus colchicine (500 µg daily for 14 days), or usual care plus other interventions. The co-primary endpoints were time to first self-reported recovery and admission to hospital/death related to COVID-19, within 28 days, analysed using Bayesian models. RESULTS: The trial opened on 2 April 2020. Randomisation to colchicine started on 4 March 2021 and stopped on 26 May 2021 because the prespecified time to recovery futility criterion was met. The primary analysis model included 2755 participants who were SARS-CoV-2 positive, randomised to colchicine (n = 156), usual care (n = 1145), and other treatments (n = 1454). Time to first self-reported recovery was similar in the colchicine group compared with usual care with an estimated hazard ratio of 0.92 (95% credible interval (CrI) = 0.72 to 1.16) and an estimated increase of 1.4 days in median time to self-reported recovery for colchicine versus usual care. The probability of meaningful benefit in time to recovery was very low at 1.8%. COVID-19-related admissions to hospital/deaths were similar in the colchicine group versus usual care, with an estimated odds ratio of 0.76 (95% CrI = 0.28 to 1.89) and an estimated difference of -0.4% (95% CrI = -2.7 to 2.4). CONCLUSION: Colchicine did not improve time to recovery in people at higher risk of complications with COVID-19 in the community.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(15): e2119893119, 2022 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35385354

RESUMO

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 triggering the COVID-19 pandemic ranks as arguably the greatest medical emergency of the last century. COVID-19 has highlighted health disparities both within and between countries and will leave a lasting impact on global society. Nonetheless, substantial investment in life sciences over recent decades has facilitated a rapid scientific response with innovations in viral characterization, testing, and sequencing. Perhaps most remarkably, this permitted the development of highly effective vaccines, which are being distributed globally at unprecedented speed. In contrast, drug treatments for the established disease have delivered limited benefits so far. Innovative and rapid approaches in the design and execution of large-scale clinical trials and repurposing of existing drugs have saved many lives; however, many more remain at risk. In this review we describe challenges and unmet needs, discuss existing therapeutics, and address future opportunities. Consideration is given to factors that have hindered drug development in order to support planning for the next pandemic challenge and to allow rapid and cost-effective development of new therapeutics with equitable delivery.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 22(1): 49, 2022 02 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35152886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a Phase I study treatment with the serum amyloid P component (SAP) depleter miridesap followed by monoclonal antibody to SAP (dezamizumab) showed removal of amyloid from liver, spleen and kidney in patients with systemic amyloidosis. We report results from a Phase 2 study and concurrent immuno-positron emission tomography (PET) study assessing efficacy, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, safety and cardiac uptake (of dezamizumab) following the same intervention in patients with cardiac amyloidosis. METHODS: Both were uncontrolled open-label studies. After SAP depletion with miridesap, patients received ≤ 6 monthly doses of dezamizumab in the Phase 2 trial (n = 7), ≤ 2 doses of non-radiolabelled dezamizumab plus [89Zr]Zr-dezamizumab (total mass dose of 80 mg at session 1 and 500 mg at session 2) in the immuno-PET study (n = 2). Primary endpoints of the Phase 2 study were changed from baseline to follow-up (at 8 weeks) in left ventricular mass (LVM) by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and safety. Primary endpoint of the immuno-PET study was [89Zr]Zr-dezamizumab cardiac uptake assessed via PET. RESULTS: Dezamizumab produced no appreciable or consistent reduction in LVM nor improvement in cardiac function in the Phase 2 study. In the immuno-PET study, measurable cardiac uptake of [89Zr]Zr-dezamizumab, although seen in both patients, was moderate to low. Uptake was notably lower in the patient with higher LVM. Treatment-associated rash with cutaneous small-vessel vasculitis was observed in both studies. Abdominal large-vessel vasculitis after initial dezamizumab dosing (300 mg) occurred in the first patient with immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis enrolled in the Phase 2 study. Symptom resolution was nearly complete within 24 h of intravenous methylprednisolone and dezamizumab discontinuation; abdominal computed tomography imaging showed vasculitis resolution by 8 weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike previous observations of visceral amyloid reduction, there was no appreciable evidence of amyloid removal in patients with cardiac amyloidosis in this Phase 2 trial, potentially related to limited cardiac uptake of dezamizumab as demonstrated in the immuno-PET study. The benefit-risk assessment for dezamizumab in cardiac amyloidosis was considered unfavourable after the incidence of large-vessel vasculitis and development for this indication was terminated. Trial registration NCT03044353 (2 February 2017) and NCT03417830 (25 January 2018).


Assuntos
Amiloidose/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Ácidos Carboxílicos/uso terapêutico , Cardiomiopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Pirrolidinas/uso terapêutico , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amiloidose/sangue , Amiloidose/diagnóstico por imagem , Amiloidose/imunologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacocinética , Ácidos Carboxílicos/efeitos adversos , Cardiomiopatias/sangue , Cardiomiopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatias/imunologia , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Miocárdio/patologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Pirrolidinas/efeitos adversos , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido , Estados Unidos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Ventricular/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Surgery ; 171(1): 77-87, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34183184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes in children and adolescents with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 are not well characterized. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 80 patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 who commenced tumor surveillance at ≤18 years of age. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients (70%) developed an endocrine tumor by age ≤18 years (median age = 14 years, range = 6-18 years). Primary hyperparathyroidism occurred in >80% of patients, with >70% undergoing parathyroidectomy, in which less-than-subtotal (<3-gland) resection resulted in decreased disease-free outcomes versus subtotal (3-3.5-gland) or total (4-gland) parathyroidectomy (median 27 months versus not reached; P = .005). Pancreaticoduodenal neuroendocrine tumors developed in ∼35% of patients, of whom >70% had nonfunctioning tumors, >35% had insulinomas, and <5% had gastrinomas, with ∼15% having metastases and >55% undergoing surgery. Pituitary tumors developed in >30% of patients, and ∼35% were macroprolactinomas. Tumor occurrence in male patients and female patients was not significantly different. Genetic analyses revealed 38 germline MEN1 mutations, of which 3 were novel. CONCLUSION: Seventy percent of children aged ≤18 years with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 develop endocrine tumors, which include parathyroid tumors for which less-than-subtotal parathyroidectomy should be avoided; pancreaticoduodenal neuroendocrine tumors that may metastasize; and pituitary macroprolactinomas.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Duodenais/epidemiologia , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/epidemiologia , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/complicações , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Neoplasias Duodenais/genética , Neoplasias Duodenais/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/genética , Hiperparatireoidismo Primário/cirurgia , Masculino , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/genética , Neoplasia Endócrina Múltipla Tipo 1/cirurgia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/genética , Neoplasias das Paratireoides/cirurgia , Paratireoidectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
6.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(3): 255-266, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34922649

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dysregulated inflammation is associated with poor outcomes in COVID-19. We aimed to assess the efficacy of namilumab (a granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor inhibitor) and infliximab (a tumour necrosis factor inhibitor) in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, to prioritise agents for phase 3 trials. METHODS: In this randomised, multicentre, multi-arm, multistage, parallel-group, open-label, adaptive, phase 2, proof-of-concept trial (CATALYST), we recruited patients (aged ≥16 years) admitted to hospital with COVID-19 pneumonia and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations of 40 mg/L or greater, at nine hospitals in the UK. Participants were randomly assigned with equal probability to usual care or usual care plus a single intravenous dose of namilumab (150 mg) or infliximab (5 mg/kg). Randomisation was stratified by care location within the hospital (ward vs intensive care unit [ICU]). Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was improvement in inflammation, measured by CRP concentration over time, analysed using Bayesian multilevel models. This trial is now complete and is registered with ISRCTN, 40580903. FINDINGS: Between June 15, 2020, and Feb 18, 2021, we screened 299 patients and 146 were enrolled and randomly assigned to usual care (n=54), namilumab (n=57), or infliximab (n=35). For the primary outcome, 45 patients in the usual care group were compared with 52 in the namilumab group, and 29 in the usual care group were compared with 28 in the infliximab group. The probabilities that the interventions were superior to usual care alone in reducing CRP concentration over time were 97% for namilumab and 15% for infliximab; the point estimates for treatment-time interactions were -0·09 (95% CI -0·19 to 0·00) for namilumab and 0·06 (-0·05 to 0·17) for infliximab. 134 adverse events occurred in 30 (55%) of 55 patients in the namilumab group compared with 145 in 29 (54%) of 54 in the usual care group. 102 adverse events occurred in 20 (69%) of 29 patients in the infliximab group compared with 112 in 17 (50%) of 34 in the usual care group. Death occurred in six (11%) patients in the namilumab group compared with ten (19%) in the usual care group, and in four (14%) in the infliximab group compared with five (15%) in the usual care group. INTERPRETATION: Namilumab, but not infliximab, showed proof-of-concept evidence for reduction in inflammation-as measured by CRP concentration-in hospitalised patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Namilumab should be prioritised for further investigation in COVID-19. FUNDING: Medical Research Council.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Infliximab/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2 , Padrão de Cuidado , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(11): e050202, 2021 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34764169

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Severe SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with a dysregulated immune response. Inflammatory monocytes and macrophages are crucial, promoting injurious, proinflammatory sequelae. Immunomodulation is, therefore, an attractive therapeutic strategy and we sought to test licensed and novel candidate drugs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The CATALYST trial is a multiarm, open-label, multicentre, phase II platform trial designed to identify candidate novel treatments to improve outcomes of patients hospitalised with COVID-19 compared with usual care. Treatments with evidence of biomarker improvements will be put forward for larger-scale testing by current national phase III platform trials. Hospitalised patients >16 years with a clinical picture strongly suggestive of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (confirmed by chest X-ray or CT scan, with or without a positive reverse transcription PCR assay) and a C reactive protein (CRP) ≥40 mg/L are eligible. The primary outcome measure is CRP, measured serially from admission to day 14, hospital discharge or death. Secondary outcomes include the WHO Clinical Progression Improvement Scale as a principal efficacy assessment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The protocol was approved by the East Midlands-Nottingham 2 Research Ethics Committee (20/EM/0115) and given urgent public health status; initial approval was received on 5 May 2020, current protocol version (V.6.0) approval on 12 October 2020. The MHRA also approved all protocol versions. The results of this trial will be disseminated through national and international presentations and peer-reviewed publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT2020-001684-89, ISRCTN40580903.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Ensaios Clínicos Fase II como Assunto , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estudos Multicêntricos como Assunto , Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 60(9): 4094-4102, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469568

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Base of thumb OA (BTOA) is a common age-related disease that has a significant negative impact on quality of life, while little is known about the structure and pathways of interface services. Our aim was to assess disease burden, referral pathways, service structure and management pathways in UK interface services. METHODS: A structured questionnaire was carried out with a participating clinician at each centre to detail the local guidelines and management of BTOA. Five patients referred with BTOA were prospectively identified in each of 32 UK interface centres. RESULTS: Most centres (72%) had a local guideline and a standardized treatment regime consisting of education (100%), joint protection (100%), range of motion exercises (84%), strengthening exercises (88%), splintage (100%) and use of assistive devices (78%). No centre routinely offered a steroid injection at the first appointment and no centre had a specific threshold for offering an injection. Injection delivery was variable. Most patients had not been referred previously (82%). Most patients used analgesia (72%), but a minority of patients had been treated with a splint (46%), therapy (43%) and steroid injection (27%) prior to their latest attendance. CONCLUSION: Most BTOA patients newly referred to interface services have been treated with analgesics and have not received comprehensive multimodal intervention. The management of BTOA at interface services is standardized in terms of education, splintage and therapy. However, there is a lack of standardization in terms of both the threshold for, timing of and mode of delivery of injection therapy.


Assuntos
Articulações Carpometacarpais/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite/terapia , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Polegar/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
9.
Lancet ; 398(10303): 843-855, 2021 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A previous efficacy trial found benefit from inhaled budesonide for COVID-19 in patients not admitted to hospital, but effectiveness in high-risk individuals is unknown. We aimed to establish whether inhaled budesonide reduces time to recovery and COVID-19-related hospital admissions or deaths among people at high risk of complications in the community. METHODS: PRINCIPLE is a multicentre, open-label, multi-arm, randomised, controlled, adaptive platform trial done remotely from a central trial site and at primary care centres in the UK. Eligible participants were aged 65 years or older or 50 years or older with comorbidities, and unwell for up to 14 days with suspected COVID-19 but not admitted to hospital. Participants were randomly assigned to usual care, usual care plus inhaled budesonide (800 µg twice daily for 14 days), or usual care plus other interventions, and followed up for 28 days. Participants were aware of group assignment. The coprimary endpoints are time to first self-reported recovery and hospital admission or death related to COVID-19, within 28 days, analysed using Bayesian models. The primary analysis population included all eligible SARS-CoV-2-positive participants randomly assigned to budesonide, usual care, and other interventions, from the start of the platform trial until the budesonide group was closed. This trial is registered at the ISRCTN registry (ISRCTN86534580) and is ongoing. FINDINGS: The trial began enrolment on April 2, 2020, with randomisation to budesonide from Nov 27, 2020, until March 31, 2021, when the prespecified time to recovery superiority criterion was met. 4700 participants were randomly assigned to budesonide (n=1073), usual care alone (n=1988), or other treatments (n=1639). The primary analysis model includes 2530 SARS-CoV-2-positive participants, with 787 in the budesonide group, 1069 in the usual care group, and 974 receiving other treatments. There was a benefit in time to first self-reported recovery of an estimated 2·94 days (95% Bayesian credible interval [BCI] 1·19 to 5·12) in the budesonide group versus the usual care group (11·8 days [95% BCI 10·0 to 14·1] vs 14·7 days [12·3 to 18·0]; hazard ratio 1·21 [95% BCI 1·08 to 1·36]), with a probability of superiority greater than 0·999, meeting the prespecified superiority threshold of 0·99. For the hospital admission or death outcome, the estimated rate was 6·8% (95% BCI 4·1 to 10·2) in the budesonide group versus 8·8% (5·5 to 12·7) in the usual care group (estimated absolute difference 2·0% [95% BCI -0·2 to 4·5]; odds ratio 0·75 [95% BCI 0·55 to 1·03]), with a probability of superiority 0·963, below the prespecified superiority threshold of 0·975. Two participants in the budesonide group and four in the usual care group had serious adverse events (hospital admissions unrelated to COVID-19). INTERPRETATION: Inhaled budesonide improves time to recovery, with a chance of also reducing hospital admissions or deaths (although our results did not meet the superiority threshold), in people with COVID-19 in the community who are at higher risk of complications. FUNDING: National Institute of Health Research and United Kingdom Research Innovation.


Assuntos
Budesonida/administração & dosagem , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Idoso , Teorema de Bayes , COVID-19/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(10): 1130-1140, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties of azithromycin suggest therapeutic potential against COVID-19. Randomised data in mild-to-moderate disease are not available. We assessed whether azithromycin is effective in reducing hospital admission in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. METHODS: This prospective, open-label, randomised superiority trial was done at 19 hospitals in the UK. We enrolled adults aged at least 18 years presenting to hospitals with clinically diagnosed, highly probable or confirmed COVID-19 infection, with fewer than 14 days of symptoms, who were considered suitable for initial ambulatory management. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to azithromycin (500 mg once daily orally for 14 days) plus standard care or to standard care alone. The primary outcome was death or hospital admission from any cause over the 28 days from randomisation. The primary and safety outcomes were assessed according to the intention-to-treat principle. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04381962) and recruitment is closed. FINDINGS: 298 participants were enrolled from June 3, 2020, to Jan 29, 2021. Three participants withdrew consent and requested removal of all data, and three further participants withdrew consent after randomisation, thus, the primary outcome was assessed in 292 participants (145 in the azithromycin group and 147 in the standard care group). The mean age of the participants was 45·9 years (SD 14·9). 15 (10%) participants in the azithromycin group and 17 (12%) in the standard care group were admitted to hospital or died during the study (adjusted OR 0·91 [95% CI 0·43-1·92], p=0·80). No serious adverse events were reported. INTERPRETATION: In patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19 managed without hospital admission, adding azithromycin to standard care treatment did not reduce the risk of subsequent hospital admission or death. Our findings do not support the use of azithromycin in patients with mild-to-moderate COVID-19. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, University of Oxford and Pfizer.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Padrão de Cuidado/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Med (N Y) ; 1(1): 90-102, 2020 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294881

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) currently has few effective treatments. Given the uncertainty surrounding the effectiveness and uptake of a vaccine, it is important that the search for treatments continue. An exaggerated inflammatory state is likely responsible for much of the morbidity and mortality in COVID-19. Elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, have been shown to be associated with increased COVID-19 mortality. In patients with rheumatoid arthritis, TNF blockade reduces not only biologically active TNF but other pro-inflammatory cytokines important in COVID-19 hyperinflammation. Observational data from patients already on anti-TNF therapy show a reduced rate of COVID-19 poor outcomes and death compared with other immune-suppressing therapies. Anti-TNF has a long history of safe use, including in special at-risk populations, and is widely available. The case to adequately assess anti-TNF as a treatment for COVID-19 is compelling.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Inibidores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/uso terapêutico , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33369643

RESUMO

AIM: Base of thumb osteoarthritis (BTOA) is a common age-related disease which has a significant negative impact upon quality of life, while little is known about structure and pathways of interface services. Our aim was to assess disease burden, referral pathways, service structure and management pathways in UK interface services. PATIENTS & METHODS: A structured questionnaire was carried out with a participating clinician at each centre to detail the local guidelines and management of BTOA. Five patients referred with BTOA were prospectively identified in each of 32 United Kingdom (UK) interface centres. RESULTS: Most centres (72%) had a local guideline and a standardised treatment regime consisting of education (100%), joint protection (100%), range of motion exercises (84%), strengthening exercises (88%), splintage (100%) and use of assistive devices (78%). No centre routinely offered a steroid injection at the first appointment and no centre had a specific threshold for offering an injection. Injection delivery was variable. Most patients had not been referred previously (82%). Most patients used analgesia (72%) but a minority of patients had been treated with a splint (46%), therapy (43%) and steroid injection (27%) prior to their latest attendance. CONCLUSION: Most BTOA patients newly referred to interface services have been treated with analgesics and have not received comprehensive multimodal intervention. The management of BTOA at interface services is standardised in terms of education, splintage and therapy. However, there is a lack of standardisation in terms of both the threshold for, timing and mode of delivery of injection therapy.

13.
Trials ; 21(1): 718, 2020 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Azithromycin is an orally active synthetic macrolide antibiotic with a wide range of anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiviral properties. It is a safe, inexpensive, generic licenced drug available worldwide and manufactured to scale and is a potential candidate therapy for pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Azithromycin was widely used to treat severe SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, but to date, no randomised data are available in any coronavirus infections. Other ongoing trials are exploring short courses of azithromycin either in early disease, within the first 7 days of symptoms, when azithromycin's antiviral properties may be important, or late in disease when anti-bacterial properties may reduce the risk of secondary bacterial infection. However, the molecule's anti-inflammatory properties, including suppression of pulmonary macrophage-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukins-1ß, -6, -8, and -18 and cytokines G-CSF and GM-CSF may provide a distinct therapeutic benefit if given in as a prolonged course during the period of progression from moderate to severe disease. METHODS: ATOMIC2 is a phase II/III, multi-centre, prospective, open-label, two-arm randomised superiority clinical trial of azithromycin versus standard care for adults presenting to hospital with COVID-19 symptoms who are not admitted at initial presentation. We will enrol adults, ≥ 18 years of age assessed in acute hospitals in the UK with clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 infection where management on an ambulatory care pathway is deemed appropriate. Participants will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to usual care or to azithromycin 500 mg orally daily for 14 days with telephone follow-up at days 14 and 28. The primary objective is to compare the proportion with either death or respiratory failure requiring invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation over 28 days from randomisation. Secondary objectives include mortality/respiratory failure in those with a PCR-confirmed diagnosis; all-cause mortality; progression to pneumonia; progression to severe pneumonia; peak severity of illness and mechanistic analysis of blood and nasal biomarkers. DISCUSSION: This trial will determine the clinical utility of azithromycin in patients with moderately severe, clinically diagnosed COVID-19 and could be rapidly applicable worldwide. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04381962 . Registered on 11 May 2020. EudraCT identifier 2020-001740-26 . Opened for accrual on 29 May 2020.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , COVID-19 , Humanos , Pandemias , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
15.
Br J Pharmacol ; 177(8): 1853-1864, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31877231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Miridesap, a depleter of serum amyloid P component (SAP), forms an essential component of a novel approach to remove systemic amyloid deposits; low oral bioavailability necessitates that it is given parenterally. We sought to identify and clinically characterise a pro-drug that preserves the pharmacological properties of miridesap while having adequate oral bioavailability and physical stability. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We utilised a preclinical screening cascade focused on appropriate physicochemical properties, physical and gut stability, and conversion to miridesap in liver microsomes and blood. GSK3039294 (GSK294) had the desired in vitro profile and progressed to preclinical in vivo pharmacokinetic and safety assessments. Based on a favourable profile, it was tested in healthy participants after single and repeat dosing. KEY RESULTS: GSK294 was highly soluble and stable in simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, stable in intestinal microsomes, and permeable in Madine Darby Canine Kidney type II cells. GSK294 was rapidly hydrolysed to miridesap and its mono pro-drug ester in blood and liver microsomes. GSK294 showed good oral bioavailability of miridesap in rats and dogs. Following administration of GSK294 600 mg QD for 7 days in humans, pharmacodynamically active concentrations of miridesap were achieved with substantial and sustained depletion of plasma SAP. The study was terminated due to observations of arrhythmia, the relation of which to GSK294 remains unclear. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Using a preclinical screening cascade, we identified a pro-drug for a palindromic molecule with unique pharmacology (miridesap). The pro-drug depleted circulating SAP with a time course and extent similar to that of parenterally administered miridesap.


Assuntos
Pró-Fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Ácidos Carboxílicos , Cães , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Pirrolidinas , Ratos , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/metabolismo
17.
JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr ; 42(5): 949-959, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Camicinal is a novel, nonmacrolide, motilin receptor agonist that accelerates gastric emptying in critically ill patients with established feed intolerance. The primary question was whether the preemptive administration of camicinal increased the provision of enteral nutrition (EN) to critically ill patients with risk factors that predisposed to feed intolerance. METHODS: This was an international, multicenter, parallel-group, blinded, randomized controlled trial. Patients at risk for feed intolerance, defined as receiving moderate to high doses of vasopressors or opiates, or admitted because of multiple traumatic injuries or with brain injury, received either enteral camicinal 50 mg or placebo daily for a maximum of 7 days, along with EN administered according to a standardized feeding protocol. The primary outcome was the daily adequacy of enteral feed delivered, as assessed by percentage of goal volume (delivered/prescribed × 100) before development of intolerance. RESULTS: Eighty-four patients participated. The administration of camicinal did not result in a statistically significant clinical difference in the daily average percentage goal volume delivered (camicinal vs placebo: 77% [95% confidence interval: 71, 83] vs 68% (58, 78); mean difference 9% [-5, 23]; P = 0.21). Similarly, there were no differences in the percentage goal calories (76% [65, 88] vs 68% [60, 77]) and protein (76% [66, 86] vs 70% [61, 80]) administered, or the incidence of feed intolerance (15% vs 14%). CONCLUSION: The incidence of feed intolerance was low in both groups. In this cohort the preemptive administration of enteral camicinal did not significantly augment the provision of goal EN.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal/terapia , Nutrição Enteral/métodos , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Receptores dos Hormônios Gastrointestinais/agonistas , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/agonistas , Adulto , Idoso , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Intolerância Alimentar/epidemiologia , Intolerância Alimentar/terapia , Esvaziamento Gástrico/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Intubação Gastrointestinal , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Necessidades Nutricionais , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Placebos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(422)2018 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29298867

RESUMO

Systemic amyloidosis is a fatal disorder caused by pathological extracellular deposits of amyloid fibrils that are always coated with the normal plasma protein, serum amyloid P component (SAP). The small-molecule drug, miridesap, [(R)-1-[6-[(R)-2-carboxy-pyrrolidin-1-yl]-6-oxo-hexanoyl]pyrrolidine-2-carboxylic acid (CPHPC)] depletes circulating SAP but leaves some SAP in amyloid deposits. This residual SAP is a specific target for dezamizumab, a fully humanized monoclonal IgG1 anti-SAP antibody that triggers immunotherapeutic clearance of amyloid. We report the safety, pharmacokinetics, and dose-response effects of up to three cycles of miridesap followed by dezamizumab in 23 adult subjects with systemic amyloidosis (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01777243). Amyloid load was measured scintigraphically by amyloid-specific radioligand binding of 123I-labeled SAP or of 99mTc-3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid. Organ extracellular volume was measured by equilibrium magnetic resonance imaging and liver stiffness by transient elastography. The treatment was well tolerated with the main adverse event being self-limiting early onset rashes after higher antibody doses related to whole body amyloid load. Progressive dose-related clearance of hepatic amyloid was associated with improved liver function tests. 123I-SAP scintigraphy confirmed amyloid removal from the spleen and kidneys. No adverse cardiac events attributable to the intervention occurred in the six subjects with cardiac amyloidosis. Amyloid load reduction by miridesap treatment followed by dezamizumab has the potential to improve management and outcome in systemic amyloidosis.


Assuntos
Amiloidose/tratamento farmacológico , Anticorpos/uso terapêutico , Componente Amiloide P Sérico/imunologia , Amiloidose/imunologia , Anticorpos/imunologia , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Placa Amiloide/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Amiloide/imunologia , Cintilografia
20.
Mov Disord ; 33(2): 329-332, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29278279

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Delayed gastric emptying may impair l-dopa absorption, contributing to motor fluctuations. We evaluated the effect of camicinal (GSK962040), a gastroprokinetic, on the absorption of l-dopa and symptoms of PD. METHODS: Phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Participants were randomized to receive camicinal 50 mg once-daily (n = 38) or placebo (n = 20) for 7 to 9 days. RESULTS: l-dopa exposure was similar with coadministration of camicinal compared to placebo. Median time to maximum l-dopa concentration was reduced, indicating more rapid absorption of l-dopa. Camicinal resulted in significant reduction in OFF time (-2.31 hours; 95% confidence interval: -3.71, -0.90), significant increase in ON time (+1.88 hours; 95% confidence interval: 0.28, 3.48) per day, and significant decrease in mean total MDS-UPDRS score (-12.5; 95% confidence interval: -19.67, -5.29). Camicinal treatment was generally well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: PD symptom improvement with camicinal occurred in parallel with more rapid absorption of l-dopa. This study provides evidence of an improvement of the motor response to l-dopa in people with PD treated with camicinal 50 mg once-daily compared with placebo, which will require further evaluation. © 2017 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperidinas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise de Variância , Antiparkinsonianos/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Levodopa/farmacocinética , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piperazinas/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/farmacocinética , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
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