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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3914, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477715

RESUMO

YAP1 fusion-positive supratentorial ependymomas predominantly occur in infants, but the molecular mechanisms of oncogenesis are unknown. Here we show YAP1-MAMLD1 fusions are sufficient to drive malignant transformation in mice, and the resulting tumors share histo-molecular characteristics of human ependymomas. Nuclear localization of YAP1-MAMLD1 protein is mediated by MAMLD1 and independent of YAP1-Ser127 phosphorylation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing analyses of human YAP1-MAMLD1-positive ependymoma reveal enrichment of NFI and TEAD transcription factor binding site motifs in YAP1-bound regulatory elements, suggesting a role for these transcription factors in YAP1-MAMLD1-driven tumorigenesis. Mutation of the TEAD binding site in the YAP1 fusion or repression of NFI targets prevents tumor induction in mice. Together, these results demonstrate that the YAP1-MAMLD1 fusion functions as an oncogenic driver of ependymoma through recruitment of TEADs and NFIs, indicating a rationale for preclinical studies to block the interaction between YAP1 fusions and NFI and TEAD transcription factors.

2.
J Comp Neurol ; 527(12): 2009-2029, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30697732

RESUMO

In Bilaterians, commissural neurons project their axons across the midline of the nervous system to target neurons on the opposite side. In mammals, midline crossing at the level of the hindbrain and spinal cord requires the Robo3 receptor which is transiently expressed by all commissural neurons. Unlike other Robo receptors, mammalian Robo3 receptors do not bind Slit ligands and promote midline crossing. Surprisingly, not much is known about Robo3 distribution and mechanism of action in other vertebrate species. Here, we have used whole-mount immunostaining, tissue clearing and light-sheet fluorescent microscopy to study Robo3 expression pattern in embryonic tissue from diverse representatives of amniotes at distinct stages, including squamate (African house snake), birds (chicken, duck, pigeon, ostrich, emu and zebra finch), early postnatal marsupial mammals (fat-tailed dunnart), and eutherian mammals (mouse and human). The analysis of this rich and unique repertoire of amniote specimens reveals conserved features of Robo3 expression in midbrain, hindbrain and spinal cord commissural circuits, which together with subtle but meaningful modifications could account for species-specific evolution of sensory-motor and cognitive capacities. Our results also highlight important differences of precerebellar nuclei development across amniotes.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 752-768, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388402

RESUMO

The nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors play an important role in normal development of multiple organs. Three NFI family members are highly expressed in the brain, and deletions or sequence variants in two of these, NFIA and NFIX, have been associated with intellectual disability (ID) and brain malformations. NFIB, however, has not previously been implicated in human disease. Here, we present a cohort of 18 individuals with mild ID and behavioral issues who are haploinsufficient for NFIB. Ten individuals harbored overlapping microdeletions of the chromosomal 9p23-p22.2 region, ranging in size from 225 kb to 4.3 Mb. Five additional subjects had point sequence variations creating a premature termination codon, and three subjects harbored single-nucleotide variations resulting in an inactive protein as determined using an in vitro reporter assay. All individuals presented with additional variable neurodevelopmental phenotypes, including muscular hypotonia, motor and speech delay, attention deficit disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and behavioral abnormalities. While structural brain anomalies, including dysgenesis of corpus callosum, were variable, individuals most frequently presented with macrocephaly. To determine whether macrocephaly could be a functional consequence of NFIB disruption, we analyzed a cortex-specific Nfib conditional knockout mouse model, which is postnatally viable. Utilizing magnetic resonance imaging and histology, we demonstrate that Nfib conditional knockout mice have enlargement of the cerebral cortex but preservation of overall brain structure and interhemispheric connectivity. Based on our findings, we propose that haploinsufficiency of NFIB causes ID with macrocephaly.

4.
Neuroimage Clin ; 2018 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473430

RESUMO

Cognitive reasoning is thought to require functional interactions between whole-brain networks. Such networks rely on both cerebral hemispheres, with the corpus callosum providing cross-hemispheric communication. Here we used high-field functional magnetic resonance imaging (7 T fMRI), a well validated cognitive task, and brain network analyses to investigate the functional networks underlying cognitive reasoning in individuals with corpus callosum dysgenesis (CCD), an anatomical abnormality that affects the corpus callosum. Participants with CCD were asked to solve cognitive reasoning problems while their brain activity was measured using fMRI. The complexity of these problems was parametrically varied by changing the complexity of relations that needed to be established between shapes within each problem matrix. Behaviorally, participants showed a typical reduction in task performance as problem complexity increased. Task-evoked neural activity was observed in brain regions known to constitute two key cognitive control systems: the fronto-parietal and cingulo-opercular networks. Under low complexity demands, network topology and the patterns of local neural activity in the CCD group closely resembled those observed in neurotypical controls. By contrast, when asked to solve more complex problems, participants with CCD showed a reduction in neural activity and connectivity within the fronto-parietal network. These complexity-induced, as opposed to resting-state, differences in functional network activity help resolve the apparent paradox between preserved network architecture found at rest in CCD individuals, and the heterogeneous deficits they display in response to cognitive task demands [preprint: https://doi.org/10.1101/312629].

5.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(38): 9622-9627, 2018 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181276

RESUMO

The brain of mammals differs from that of all other vertebrates, in having a six-layered neocortex that is extensively interconnected within and between hemispheres. Interhemispheric connections are conveyed through the anterior commissure in egg-laying monotremes and marsupials, whereas eutherians evolved a separate commissural tract, the corpus callosum. Although the pattern of interhemispheric connectivity via the corpus callosum is broadly shared across eutherian species, it is not known whether this pattern arose as a consequence of callosal evolution or instead corresponds to a more ancient feature of mammalian brain organization. Here we show that, despite cortical axons using an ancestral commissural route, monotremes and marsupials share features of interhemispheric connectivity with eutherians that likely predate the origin of the corpus callosum. Based on ex vivo magnetic resonance imaging and tractography, we found that connections through the anterior commissure in both fat-tailed dunnarts (Marsupialia) and duck-billed platypus (Monotremata) are spatially segregated according to cortical area topography. Moreover, cell-resolution retrograde and anterograde interhemispheric circuit mapping in dunnarts revealed several features shared with callosal circuits of eutherians. These include the layered organization of commissural neurons and terminals, a broad map of connections between similar (homotopic) regions of each hemisphere, and regions connected to different areas (heterotopic), including hyperconnected hubs along the medial and lateral borders of the cortex, such as the cingulate/motor cortex and claustrum/insula. We therefore propose that an interhemispheric connectome originated in early mammalian ancestors, predating the evolution of the corpus callosum. Because these features have been conserved throughout mammalian evolution, they likely represent key aspects of neocortical organization.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Conectoma , Corpo Caloso/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Neocórtex/fisiologia , Animais , Corpo Caloso/citologia , Corpo Caloso/diagnóstico por imagem , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Feminino , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Neocórtex/citologia , Neocórtex/diagnóstico por imagem , Vias Neurais/fisiologia
8.
Curr Opin Neurobiol ; 53: 57-65, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29894898

RESUMO

Long-range projection neurons of the neocortex form the major tracts of the mammalian brain and are crucial for sensory-motor, associative and executive functions. Development of such circuits involves neuronal proliferation, specification and migration, as well as axonal elongation, navigation and targeting, where growing axons encounter multiple guidance cues and integrate these signals to execute guidance decisions. The complexity of axon guidance mechanisms in the formation of long-range neuronal projections has suggested that they might be under control of transcription factors, which are DNA-binding proteins that regulate the expression of downstream genes. Here we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the control of axon guidance by transcriptional regulation, as well as future directions for the elucidation of the mechanisms and pathological relevance of this process.

9.
Cell Rep ; 22(5): 1105-1114, 2018 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29386099

RESUMO

Avoidance of environmental dangers depends on nociceptive topognosis, or the ability to localize painful stimuli. This is proposed to rely on somatotopic maps arising from topographically organized point-to-point connections between the body surface and the CNS. To determine the role of topographic organization of spinal ascending projections in nociceptive topognosis, we generated a conditional knockout mouse lacking expression of the netrin1 receptor DCC in the spinal cord. These mice have an increased number of ipsilateral spinothalamic connections and exhibit aberrant activation of the somatosensory cortex in response to unilateral stimulation. Furthermore, spinal cord-specific Dcc knockout animals displayed mislocalized licking responses to formalin injection, indicating impaired topognosis. Similarly, humans with DCC mutations experience bilateral sensation evoked by unilateral somatosensory stimulation. Collectively, our results constitute functional evidence of the importance of topographic organization of spinofugal connections for nociceptive topognosis.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 306, 2018 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358753

RESUMO

Mounting evidence suggests that neuronal activity influences myelination, potentially allowing for experience-driven modulation of neural circuitry. The degree to which neuronal activity is capable of regulating myelination at the individual axon level is unclear. Here we demonstrate that stimulation of somatosensory axons in the mouse brain increases proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) within the underlying white matter. Stimulated axons display an increased probability of being myelinated compared to neighboring non-stimulated axons, in addition to being ensheathed with thicker myelin. Conversely, attenuating neuronal firing reduces axonal myelination in a selective activity-dependent manner. Our findings reveal that the process of selecting axons for myelination is strongly influenced by the relative activity of individual axons within a population. These observed cellular changes are consistent with the emerging concept that adaptive myelination is a key mechanism for the fine-tuning of neuronal circuitry in the mammalian CNS.

11.
Hum Mutat ; 39(1): 23-39, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29068161

RESUMO

The deleted in colorectal cancer (DCC) gene encodes the netrin-1 (NTN1) receptor DCC, a transmembrane protein required for the guidance of commissural axons. Germline DCC mutations disrupt the development of predominantly commissural tracts in the central nervous system (CNS) and cause a spectrum of neurological disorders. Monoallelic, missense, and predicted loss-of-function DCC mutations cause congenital mirror movements, isolated agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC), or both. Biallelic, predicted loss-of-function DCC mutations cause developmental split brain syndrome (DSBS). Although the underlying molecular mechanisms leading to disease remain poorly understood, they are thought to stem from reduced or perturbed NTN1 signaling. Here, we review the 26 reported DCC mutations associated with abnormal CNS development in humans, including 14 missense and 12 predicted loss-of-function mutations, and discuss their associated clinical characteristics and diagnostic features. We provide an update on the observed genotype-phenotype relationships of congenital mirror movements, isolated ACC and DSBS, and correlate this to our current understanding of the biological function of DCC in the development of the CNS. All mutations and their associated phenotypes were deposited into a locus-specific LOVD (https://databases.lovd.nl/shared/genes/DCC).


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Genes DCC , Estudos de Associação Genética , Mutação , Fenótipo , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sítios de Ligação , Sequência Conservada , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Modelos Moleculares , Netrina-1/química , Netrina-1/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos/genética , Síndrome
12.
J Neurosci Methods ; 293: 45-52, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28917658

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The technique of in utero electroporation has been widely used in eutherians, such as mice and rats, to investigate brain development by selectively manipulating gene expression in specific neuronal populations. A major challenge, however, is that surgery is required to access the embryos, affecting animal survival and limiting the number of times it can be performed within the same litter. NEW METHOD: Marsupials are born at an early stage of brain development as compared to eutherians. Forebrain neurogenesis occurs mostly postnatally, allowing electroporation to be performed while joeys develop attached to the teat. Here we describe the method of in pouch electroporation using the Australian marsupial fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata, Dasyuridae). RESULTS: In pouch electroporation is minimally invasive, quick, successful and anatomically precise. Moreover, as no surgery is required, it can be performed several times in the same individual, and littermates can undergo independent treatments. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHOD: As compared to in utero electroporation in rodents, in pouch electroporation in marsupials offers unprecedented opportunities to study brain development in a minimally invasive manner. Continuous access to developing joeys during a protracted period of cortical development allows multiple and independent genetic manipulations to study the interaction of different systems during brain development. CONCLUSIONS: In pouch electroporation in marsupials offers an excellent in vivo assay to study forebrain development and evolution. By combining developmental, functional and comparative approaches, this system offers new avenues to investigate questions of biological and medical relevance, such as the precise mechanisms of brain wiring and the organismic and environmental influences on neural circuit formation.


Assuntos
Eletroporação/métodos , Marsupiais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Modelos Animais , Prosencéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Anestesiologia/instrumentação , Animais , Eletrodos , Desenho de Equipamento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Vetores Genéticos/administração & dosagem , Imuno-Histoquímica , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Neurônios/citologia , Prosencéfalo/citologia , Análise de Sobrevida
13.
Dev Biol ; 432(2): 286-297, 2017 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106906

RESUMO

During mouse spinal cord development, ventricular zone progenitor cells transition from producing neurons to producing glia at approximately embryonic day 11.5, a process known as the gliogenic switch. The transcription factors Nuclear Factor I (NFI) A and B initiate this developmental transition, but the contribution of a third NFI member, NFIX, remains unknown. Here, we reveal that ventricular zone progenitor cells within the spinal cord express NFIX after the onset of NFIA and NFIB expression, and after the gliogenic switch has occurred. Mice lacking NFIX exhibit normal neurogenesis within the spinal cord, and, while early astrocytic differentiation proceeds normally, aspects of terminal astrocytic differentiation are impaired. Finally, we report that, in the absence of Nfia or Nfib, there is a marked reduction in the spinal cord expression of NFIX, and that NFIB can transcriptionally activate Nfix expression in vitro. These data demonstrate that NFIX is part of the downstream transcriptional program through which NFIA and NFIB coordinate gliogenesis within the spinal cord. This hierarchical organisation of NFI protein expression and function during spinal cord gliogenesis reveals a previously unrecognised auto-regulatory mechanism within this gene family.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição NFI/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/embriologia , Animais , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/genética , Neurogênese , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/citologia , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Células-Tronco/metabolismo , Ativação Transcricional
14.
Cancer Lett ; 410: 124-138, 2017 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28962832

RESUMO

The nuclear factor I (NFI) transcription factors play important roles during normal development and have been associated with developmental abnormalities in humans. All four family members, NFIA, NFIB, NFIC and NFIX, have a homologous DNA binding domain and function by regulating cell proliferation and differentiation via the transcriptional control of their target genes. More recently, NFI genes have also been implicated in cancer based on genomic analyses and studies of animal models in a variety of tumours across multiple organ systems. However, the association between their functions in development and in cancer is not well described. In this review, we summarise the evidence suggesting a converging role for the NFI genes in development and cancer. Our review includes all cancer types in which the NFI genes are implicated, focusing predominantly on studies demonstrating their oncogenic or tumour-suppressive potential. We conclude by presenting the challenges impeding our understanding of NFI function in cancer biology, and demonstrate how a developmental perspective may contribute towards overcoming such hurdles.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição NFI/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/genética , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/metabolismo , Transformação Celular Neoplásica/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Transdução de Sinais , Transcrição Genética
15.
PLoS One ; 12(9): e0184450, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28880940

RESUMO

Most of our understanding of forebrain development comes from research of eutherian mammals, such as rodents, primates, and carnivores. However, as the cerebral cortex forms largely prenatally, observation and manipulation of its development has required invasive and/or ex vivo procedures. Marsupials, on the other hand, are born at comparatively earlier stages of development and most events of forebrain formation occur once attached to the teat, thereby permitting continuous and non-invasive experimental access. Here, we take advantage of this aspect of marsupial biology to establish and characterise a resourceful laboratory model of forebrain development: the fat-tailed dunnart (Sminthopsis crassicaudata), a mouse-sized carnivorous Australian marsupial. We present an anatomical description of the postnatal development of the body, head and brain in dunnarts, and provide a staging system compatible with human and mouse developmental stages. As compared to eutherians, the orofacial region develops earlier in dunnarts, while forebrain development is largely protracted, extending for more than 40 days versus ca. 15 days in mice. We discuss the benefits of fat-tailed dunnarts as laboratory animals in studies of developmental biology, with an emphasis on how their accessibility in the pouch can help address new experimental questions, especially regarding mechanisms of brain development and evolution.


Assuntos
Prosencéfalo Basal/embriologia , Marsupiais/embriologia , Animais , Prosencéfalo Basal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prosencéfalo Basal/metabolismo , Encéfalo/embriologia , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Biologia do Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Marsupiais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Marsupiais/metabolismo , Camundongos
16.
Neural Dev ; 12(1): 9, 2017 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28558801

RESUMO

The corpus callosum forms the major interhemispheric connection in the human brain and is unique to eutherian (or placental) mammals. The developmental events associated with the evolutionary emergence of this structure, however, remain poorly understood. A key step in callosal formation is the prior remodeling of the interhemispheric fissure by embryonic astroglial cells, which then subsequently act as a permissive substrate for callosal axons, enabling them to cross the interhemispheric midline. However, whether astroglial-mediated interhemispheric remodeling is unique to eutherian mammals, and thus possibly associated with the phylogenetic origin of the corpus callosum, or instead is a general feature of mammalian brain development, is not yet known. To investigate this, we performed a comparative analysis of interhemispheric remodeling in eutherian and non-eutherian mammals, whose lineages branched off before the evolution of the corpus callosum. Whole brain MRI analyses revealed that the interhemispheric fissure is retained into adulthood in marsupials and monotremes, in contrast to eutherians (mice), in which the fissure is significantly remodeled throughout development. Histological analyses further demonstrated that, while midline astroglia are present in developing marsupials, these cells do not intercalate with one another through the intervening interhemispheric fissure, as they do in developing mice. Thus, developing marsupials do not undergo astroglial-mediated interhemispheric remodeling. As remodeling of the interhemispheric fissure is essential for the subsequent formation of the corpus callosum in eutherians, our data highlight the role of astroglial-mediated interhemispheric remodeling in the evolutionary origin of the corpus callosum.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/fisiologia , Corpo Caloso/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eutérios/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Telencéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Corpo Caloso/anatomia & histologia , Eutérios/anatomia & histologia , Especificidade da Espécie
18.
J Comp Neurol ; 525(11): 2465-2483, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28295292

RESUMO

The nuclear factor I (NFI) family of transcription factors plays an important role in the development of the cerebral cortex in humans and mice. Disruption of nuclear factor IA (NFIA), nuclear factor IB (NFIB), or nuclear factor IX (NFIX) results in abnormal development of the corpus callosum, lateral ventricles, and hippocampus. However, the expression or function of these genes has not been examined in detail in the adult brain, and the cell type-specific expression of NFIA, NFIB, and NFIX is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the expression of each NFI protein shows a distinct laminar pattern in the adult mouse neocortex and that their cell type-specific expression differs depending on the family member. NFIA expression was more frequently observed in astrocytes and oligodendroglia, whereas NFIB expression was predominantly localized to astrocytes and neurons. NFIX expression was most commonly observed in neurons. The NFI proteins were equally distributed within microglia, and the ependymal cells lining the ventricles of the brain expressed all three proteins. In the hippocampus, the NFI proteins were expressed during all stages of neural stem cell differentiation in the dentate gyrus, with higher expression intensity in neuroblast cells as compared to quiescent stem cells and mature granule neurons. These findings suggest that the NFI proteins may play distinct roles in cell lineage specification or maintenance, and establish the basis for further investigation of their function in the adult brain and their emerging role in disease.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/biossíntese , Neuroglia/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fatores Etários , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Córtex Cerebral/citologia , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/genética
19.
Development ; 143(24): 4620-4630, 2016 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27965439

RESUMO

During forebrain development, radial glia generate neurons through the production of intermediate progenitor cells (IPCs). The production of IPCs is a central tenet underlying the generation of the appropriate number of cortical neurons, but the transcriptional logic underpinning this process remains poorly defined. Here, we examined IPC production using mice lacking the transcription factor nuclear factor I/X (Nfix). We show that Nfix deficiency delays IPC production and prolongs the neurogenic window, resulting in an increased number of neurons in the postnatal forebrain. Loss of additional Nfi alleles (Nfib) resulted in a severe delay in IPC generation while, conversely, overexpression of NFIX led to precocious IPC generation. Mechanistically, analyses of microarray and ChIP-seq datasets, coupled with the investigation of spindle orientation during radial glial cell division, revealed that NFIX promotes the generation of IPCs via the transcriptional upregulation of inscuteable (Insc). These data thereby provide novel insights into the mechanisms controlling the timely transition of radial glia into IPCs during forebrain development.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/biossíntese , Hipocampo/embriologia , Fatores de Transcrição NFI/genética , Células-Tronco Neurais/citologia , Neurogênese/genética , Animais , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Neurogênese/fisiologia , Neurônios/citologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Transcrição Genética , Ativação Transcricional/genética
20.
Cell Rep ; 17(3): 735-747, 2016 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27732850

RESUMO

The corpus callosum is the major axon tract that connects and integrates neural activity between the two cerebral hemispheres. Although ∼1:4,000 children are born with developmental absence of the corpus callosum, the primary etiology of this condition remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that midline crossing of callosal axons is dependent upon the prior remodeling and degradation of the intervening interhemispheric fissure. This remodeling event is initiated by astroglia on either side of the interhemispheric fissure, which intercalate with one another and degrade the intervening leptomeninges. Callosal axons then preferentially extend over these specialized astroglial cells to cross the midline. A key regulatory step in interhemispheric remodeling is the differentiation of these astroglia from radial glia, which is initiated by Fgf8 signaling to downstream Nfi transcription factors. Crucially, our findings from human neuroimaging studies reveal that developmental defects in interhemispheric remodeling are likely to be a primary etiology underlying human callosal agenesis.


Assuntos
Astrócitos/metabolismo , Cérebro/embriologia , Corpo Caloso/embriologia , Organogênese , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/genética , Agenesia do Corpo Caloso/patologia , Animais , Axônios/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Corpo Caloso/metabolismo , Corpo Caloso/patologia , Fator 8 de Crescimento de Fibroblasto/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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