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1.
Ann Epidemiol ; 2021 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718132

RESUMO

PURPOSE-: National screening estimates mask county-level variations. We aimed to generate county-level colorectal cancer (CRC) screening prevalence estimates for 2018 among adults aged 50-75 years and identify counties with low screening prevalence. METHODS-: We combined individual-level county data from the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) (n=204,947) with the 2018 American Community Survey county poverty data as a covariate, and the 2018 U.S. Census county population count data to generate county-level prevalence estimates for being current with any CRC screening test, colonoscopy, and home stool blood test. Because BRFSS is a state-based survey, and because some counties did not have samples for analysis, we used correlation coefficients to test internal consistency between model-based and BRFSS state estimates. RESULTS-: Correlation coefficients tests were ≥0.97. Model-based national prevalence for any test was 69.9% (95% CI, 69.5%-70.4%) suggesting 30% are not current with screening test use. State mean estimates ranged from 62.1% in Alaska and Wyoming to 76.6% in Maine and Massachusetts. County mean estimates ranged from 42.2% in Alaska to 80.0% in Florida and Rhode Island. Most tests were performed with colonoscopy. CONCLUSIONS-: Estimates across all U.S. counties showed large variations. Estimates may be informative for planning by states and local screening programs.

2.
Curr Opin Microbiol ; 64: 47-59, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34655935

RESUMO

Natural environments are composed of a huge diversity of microorganisms interacting with each other to form complex functional networks. Our understanding of the operative nature of host-symbiont associations is limited because propagating such associations in a laboratory is challenging. The advent of single-cell technologies applied to, for example, animal cells and apicomplexan parasites has revolutionized our understanding of development and disease. Such cell atlas approaches generate maps of cell-specific processes and variations within cellular populations. These methods can now be combined with cellular-imaging so that interaction stage versus transcriptome state can be quantized for microbe-microbe interactions. We predict that the combination of these methods applied to the study of symbioses will transform our understanding of many ecological interactions, including those sampled directly from natural environments.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 Sep 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521754

RESUMO

Eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbiosis was responsible for the spread of chloroplast (plastid) organelles. Stability is required for the metabolic and genetic integration that drives the establishment of new organelles, yet the mechanisms that act to stabilize emergent endosymbioses-between two fundamentally selfish biological organisms-are unclear. Theory suggests that enforcement mechanisms, which punish misbehavior, may act to stabilize such interactions by resolving conflict. However, how such mechanisms can emerge in a facultative endosymbiosis has yet to be explored. Here, we propose that endosymbiont-host RNA-RNA interactions, arising from digestion of the endosymbiont population, can result in a cost to host growth for breakdown of the endosymbiosis. Using the model facultative endosymbiosis between Paramecium bursaria and Chlorella spp., we demonstrate that this mechanism is dependent on the host RNA-interference (RNAi) system. We reveal through small RNA (sRNA) sequencing that endosymbiont-derived messenger RNA (mRNA) released upon endosymbiont digestion can be processed by the host RNAi system into 23-nt sRNA. We predict multiple regions of shared sequence identity between endosymbiont and host mRNA, and demonstrate through delivery of synthetic endosymbiont sRNA that exposure to these regions can knock down expression of complementary host genes, resulting in a cost to host growth. This process of host gene knockdown in response to endosymbiont-derived RNA processing by host RNAi factors, which we term "RNAi collisions," represents a mechanism that can promote stability in a facultative eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbiosis. Specifically, by imposing a cost for breakdown of the endosymbiosis, endosymbiont-host RNA-RNA interactions may drive maintenance of the symbiosis across fluctuating ecological conditions.

4.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 317, 2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Entering and exiting winter dormancy present important trade-offs between growth and survival at northern latitudes. Many forest trees display local adaptation across latitude in traits associated with these phenology transitions. Transfers of a species outside its native range introduce the species to novel combinations of environmental conditions potentially requiring different combinations of alleles to optimize growth and survival. In this study, we performed genome wide association analyses and a selection scan in a P. trichocarpa mapping population derived from crossings between clones collected across the native range and introduced into Sweden. GWAS analyses were performed using phenotypic data collected across two field seasons and in a controlled phytotron experiment. RESULTS: We uncovered 584 putative candidate genes associated with spring and autumn phenology traits as well as with growth. Many regions harboring variation significantly associated with the initiation of leaf shed and leaf autumn coloring appeared to have been evolving under positive selection in the native environments of P. trichocarpa. A comparison between the candidate genes identified with results from earlier GWAS analyses performed in the native environment found a smaller overlap for spring phenology traits than for autumn phenology traits, aligning well with earlier observations that spring phenology transitions have a more complex genetic basis than autumn phenology transitions. CONCLUSIONS: In a small and structured introduced population of P. trichocarpa, we find complex genetic architectures underlying all phenology and growth traits, and identify multiple putative candidate genes despite the limitations of the study population.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , Espécies Introduzidas , Populus/genética , Populus/fisiologia , Ontologia Genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Padrões de Herança/genética , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Estações do Ano
5.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(3): 634-647, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2018, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended prostate cancer screening for men aged 55 to 69 years who express a preference for being screened after being informed about and understanding prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test benefits and risks. USPSTF recommended against screening men aged ≥70 years. We aim to generate county-level prevalence estimates, masked by national and state estimates, to identify counties with high PSA screening prevalence. METHODS: We fitted multilevel logistic regression mixed models for 4 age groups (≥40, 40 to 54, 55 to 69, ≥70 years), using data from the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) (n = 116,654) and other sources. We evaluated consistency between our model-based state and BRFSS direct state estimates with Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients. RESULTS: PSA screening prevalence increased with increasing age groups: 7.7% for men aged 40 to 54 years, 27.2% for men aged 55 to 69 years, and 33.7% among men age ≥70 years, and was largely clustered in the South and Appalachia. Many county estimates among men aged ≥70 years exceeded 40%, especially in the South. Correlation coefficients were 0.94 for men aged ≥40, and ≥0.85 for men aged 40 to 54 years, 55 to 69 years, and ≥70 years. CONCLUSIONS: PSA screening was highest among men ≥70 years, for whom it is not recommended, and in the South among all age groups. Screening varied substantially within states. IMPACT: In 2018, on average, more than 1 in 4 men aged 55 to 69 years and 1 in 3 men aged ≥70 years underwent PSA screening in the prior year, suggesting potential overuse among some men.


Assuntos
Antígeno Prostático Específico , Neoplasias da Próstata , Adulto , Idoso , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Biol Lett ; 17(6): 20210166, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34129800

RESUMO

Severe Perkinsea infection is an emerging disease of amphibians, specifically tadpoles. Disease presentation correlates with liver infections of a subclade of Perkinsea (Alveolata) protists, named Pathogenic Perkinsea Clade (PPC). Tadpole mortality events associated with PPC infections have been reported across North America, from Alaska to Florida. Here, we investigate the geographic and host range of PPC associations in seemingly healthy tadpoles sampled from Panama, a biogeographic provenance critically affected by amphibian decline. To complement this work, we also investigate a mortality event among Hyla arborea tadpoles in captive-bred UK specimens. PPC SSU rDNA was detected in 10 of 81 Panama tadpoles tested, and H. arborea tadpoles from the UK. Phylogenies of the Perkinsea SSU rDNA sequences demonstrate they are highly similar to PPC sequences sampled from mortality events in the USA, and phylogenetic analysis of tadpole mitochondrial SSU rDNA demonstrates, for the first time, PPC associations in diverse hylids. These data provide further understanding of the biogeography and host range of this putative pathogenic group, factors likely to be important for conservation planning.


Assuntos
Larva , Alaska , Animais , Florida , América do Norte , Filogenia
7.
R Soc Open Sci ; 8(4): 210140, 2021 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33996132

RESUMO

Endosymbiosis was fundamental for the evolution of eukaryotic complexity. Endosymbiotic interactions can be dissected through forward- and reverse-genetic experiments, such as RNA-interference (RNAi). However, distinguishing small (s)RNA pathways in a eukaryote-eukaryote endosymbiotic interaction is challenging. Here, we investigate the repertoire of RNAi pathway protein-encoding genes in the model nascent endosymbiotic system, Paramecium bursaria-Chlorella spp. Using comparative genomics and transcriptomics supported by phylogenetics, we identify essential proteome components of the small interfering (si)RNA, scan (scn)RNA and internal eliminated sequence (ies)RNA pathways. Our analyses reveal that copies of these components have been retained throughout successive whole genome duplication (WGD) events in the Paramecium clade. We validate feeding-induced siRNA-based RNAi in P. bursaria via knock-down of the splicing factor, u2af1, which we show to be crucial to host growth. Finally, using simultaneous knock-down 'paradox' controls to rescue the effect of u2af1 knock-down, we demonstrate that feeding-induced RNAi in P. bursaria is dependent upon a core pathway of host-encoded Dcr1, Piwi and Pds1 components. Our experiments confirm the presence of a functional, host-derived RNAi pathway in P. bursaria that generates 23-nt siRNA, validating the use of the P. bursaria-Chlorella spp. system to investigate the genetic basis of a nascent endosymbiosis.

8.
R Soc Open Sci ; 8(3): 202150, 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959367

RESUMO

Alveolate protists within the phylum Perkinsea have been found to infect amphibians across a broad taxonomic and geographic range. Phylogenetic analysis has suggested the existence of two clades of amphibian Perkinsea: a putatively non-pathogenic clade linked to asymptomatic infections of tadpoles in Africa, Europe and South America, and a putatively pathogenic clade linked to disease and mass mortality events of tadpoles in North America. Here, we describe the development of a duplex TaqMan qPCR assay to detect and discriminate between rDNA sequences from both clades of Perkinsea in amphibian tissues. The assay uses a single primer pair to target an 18S small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene region shared between the two clades, and two dual-labelled probes to target a region within this fragment that is diagnostic for each clade. This assay enables rapid screening for each of the two Perkinsea groups, allowing for detection, primarily of the phylogenetic group associated with disease outbreaks, and secondarily for the phylogenetic group with no current disease relationship identified. Incorporation of our novel qPCR assay into the routine surveillance of amphibian populations will allow for the assessment of the incidence of each protist clade, thereby providing an improved understanding of Perkinsea infection pervasiveness and a method to underpin future conservation planning.

9.
BMC Biol ; 19(1): 103, 2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34001130

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The supergroup Euglenozoa unites heterotrophic flagellates from three major clades, kinetoplastids, diplonemids, and euglenids, each of which exhibits extremely divergent mitochondrial characteristics. Mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) of euglenids comprise multiple linear chromosomes carrying single genes, whereas mitochondrial chromosomes are circular non-catenated in diplonemids, but circular and catenated in kinetoplastids. In diplonemids and kinetoplastids, mitochondrial mRNAs require extensive and diverse editing and/or trans-splicing to produce mature transcripts. All known euglenozoan mtDNAs exhibit extremely short mitochondrial small (rns) and large (rnl) subunit rRNA genes, and absence of tRNA genes. How these features evolved from an ancestral bacteria-like circular mitochondrial genome remains unanswered. RESULTS: We sequenced and assembled 20 euglenozoan single-cell amplified genomes (SAGs). In our phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses, three SAGs were placed within kinetoplastids, 14 within diplonemids, one (EU2) within euglenids, and two SAGs with nearly identical small subunit rRNA gene (18S) sequences (EU17/18) branched as either a basal lineage of euglenids, or as a sister to all euglenozoans. Near-complete mitochondrial genomes were identified in EU2 and EU17/18. Surprisingly, both EU2 and EU17/18 mitochondrial contigs contained multiple genes and one tRNA gene. Furthermore, EU17/18 mtDNA possessed several features unique among euglenozoans including full-length rns and rnl genes, six mitoribosomal genes, and nad11, all likely on a single chromosome. CONCLUSIONS: Our data strongly suggest that EU17/18 is an early-branching euglenozoan with numerous ancestral mitochondrial features. Collectively these data contribute to untangling the early evolution of euglenozoan mitochondria.

10.
PLoS Biol ; 19(4): e3001126, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33891594

RESUMO

The overarching trend in mitochondrial genome evolution is functional streamlining coupled with gene loss. Therefore, gene acquisition by mitochondria is considered to be exceedingly rare. Selfish elements in the form of self-splicing introns occur in many organellar genomes, but the wider diversity of selfish elements, and how they persist in the DNA of organelles, has not been explored. In the mitochondrial genome of a marine heterotrophic katablepharid protist, we identify a functional type II restriction modification (RM) system originating from a horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event involving bacteria related to flavobacteria. This RM system consists of an HpaII-like endonuclease and a cognate cytosine methyltransferase (CM). We demonstrate that these proteins are functional by heterologous expression in both bacterial and eukaryotic cells. These results suggest that a mitochondrion-encoded RM system can function as a toxin-antitoxin selfish element, and that such elements could be co-opted by eukaryotic genomes to drive biased organellar inheritance.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Enzimas de Restrição-Modificação do DNA/genética , Eucariotos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Mitocôndrias/genética , Sequência de Bases , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Escherichia coli/genética , Eucariotos/classificação , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Organismos Geneticamente Modificados , Filogenia , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Popul Health Manag ; 24(5): 601-609, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544044

RESUMO

Multiple indices are available to measure medication adherence behaviors. Medication adherence measures, however, have rarely been extracted from electronic health records (EHRs) for population-level risk predictions. This study assessed the value of medication adherence indices in improving predictive models of cost and hospitalization. This study included a 2-year retrospective cohort of patients younger than age 65 years with linked EHR and insurance claims data. Three medication adherence measures were calculated: medication regimen complexity index (MRCI), medication possession ratio (MPR), and prescription fill rate (PFR). The authors examined the effects of adding these measures to 3 predictive models of utilization: a demographics model, a conventional model (Charlson index), and an advanced diagnosis-based model. Models were trained using EHR and claims data. The study population had an overall MRCI, MPR, and PFR of 14.6 ± 17.8, .624 ± .310, and .810 ± .270, respectively. Adding MRCI and MPR to the demographic and the morbidity models using claims data improved forecasting of next-year hospitalization substantially (eg, AUC of the demographic model increased from .605 to .656 using MRCI). Nonetheless, such boosting effects were attenuated for the advanced diagnosis-based models. Although EHR models performed inferior to claims models, adding adherence indices improved EHR model performances at a larger scale (eg, adding MRCI increased AUC by 4.4% for the Charlson model using EHR data compared to 3.8% using claims). This study shows that medication adherence measures can modestly improve EHR- and claims-derived predictive models of cost and hospitalization in non-elderly patients; however, the improvements are minimal for advanced diagnosis-based models.

12.
Shock ; 56(2): 206-214, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33587724

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: COVID-19-related coagulopathy is a known complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection and can lead to intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), one of the most feared complications of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). We sought to evaluate the incidence and etiology of ICH in patients with COVID-19 requiring ECMO. Patients at two academic medical centers with COVID-19 who required venovenous-ECMO support for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were evaluated retrospectively. During the study period, 33 patients required ECMO support; 16 (48.5%) were discharged alive, 13 died (39.4%), and 4 (12.1%) had ongoing care. Eleven patients had ICH (33.3%). All ICH events occurred in patients who received intravenous anticoagulation. The ICH group had higher C-reactive protein (P = 0.04), procalcitonin levels (P = 0.02), and IL-6 levels (P = 0.05), lower blood pH before and after ECMO (P < 0.01), and higher activated partial thromboplastin times throughout the hospital stay (P < 0.0001). ICH-free survival was lower in COVID-19 patients than in patients on ECMO for ARDS caused by other viruses (49% vs. 79%, P = 0.02). In conclusion, patients with COVID-19 can be successfully bridged to recovery using ECMO but may suffer higher rates of ICH compared to those with other viral respiratory infections.


Assuntos
Proteínas Reguladoras de Apoptose/sangue , COVID-19/terapia , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Proteínas Mitocondriais/sangue , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Hemorragias Intracranianas/sangue , Hemorragias Intracranianas/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 9(2): 525-535, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137495

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The ambulatory selective variceal ablation under local anesthesia (ASVAL) technique subscribes to the "ascending" theory of varicose vein etiology, which recommends primary ambulatory phlebectomy as a treatment for tributary varicosities and truncal vein incompetence. This systematic review explores the efficacy and safety of the ASVAL technique for the treatment of symptomatic varicose veins. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the Medline and Embase databases and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials in May 2019 revealed 11 original articles that were qualitatively reviewed. The primary outcome was the absence from recurrent varicose veins at 1-year follow-up. Secondary outcomes were resolution of great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux on duplex ultrasound, change in GSV diameter, objective and subjective clinical improvement in chronic venous disease, and patient-reported outcome measures. RESULTS: A total of 2106 limbs underwent intervention in 1734 patients reported in two randomized controlled trials, one case control study, three cohort studies, and five case series. Varicosity recurrence at 1 year ranged from 0.5% to 13.5% in patients. Of 1622 limbs with diagnosed GSV incompetence before intervention, 1114 were competent at 1 year (mean, 68.2% [±12.62%]). All studies measuring GSV diameter reported statistically significant reductions in vein size. CONCLUSIONS: ASVAL may be considered as a minimally invasive treatment for early stages of chronic venous disease in the presence of truncal reflux. The evidence base should be strengthened by prospective randomized controlled trials that follow standardized procedures and report according to recognized measures of quality of life alongside clinical and hemodynamic data.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Ablação , Anestesia Local , Veia Safena/cirurgia , Varizes/cirurgia , Insuficiência Venosa/cirurgia , Técnicas de Ablação/efeitos adversos , Anestesia Local/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade de Vida , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Veia Safena/diagnóstico por imagem , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Varizes/diagnóstico por imagem , Insuficiência Venosa/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 161(2): 666-678.e3, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31973895

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is limited evidence to guide the decision to proceed with weaning from venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and approximately 30% of patients weaned "successfully" do not survive to hospital discharge. We evaluated predictors of in-hospital mortality and midterm outcomes of patients successfully weaned from venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation after support for cardiogenic shock, surviving more than 24 hours after weaning, with the aim of improving patient selection for durable weaning. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 92 patients supported on venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and successfully weaned between January 2013 and February 2018. Survival was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Predictors of in-hospital mortality were identified using a Cox proportional hazards model and an Akaike information criterion-selected multivariate model. RESULTS: Overall survival at hospital discharge was 64.2%; survival was 54.6% 1 year after support and 51.4% 3 years after support. A history of diabetes, previous myocardial infarction, prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, and hypoxemia at extracorporeal membrane oxygenation weaning were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. At midterm follow-up, New York Heart Association class I heart function was observed in 53% of patients, class II in 19%, class III in 16%, and class IV in 12%. Average left ventricular ejection fraction was 46.5% ± 18.2%, and 50% of the patients had been readmitted to the hospital because of heart failure. CONCLUSIONS: Durable extracorporeal membrane oxygenation weaning with acceptable midterm functional status is obtainable in well-selected patients. Previous myocardial infarction, diabetes, prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, and pulmonary dysfunction strongly predicted in-hospital mortality after venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation weaning. In this high-risk situation, other heart replacement therapies should be considered.


Assuntos
Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
16.
Genome Biol Evol ; 12(12): 2417-2428, 2020 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33045041

RESUMO

Dinoflagellates possess many cellular characteristics with unresolved evolutionary histories. These include nuclei with greatly expanded genomes and chromatin packaged using histone-like proteins and dinoflagellate-viral nucleoproteins instead of histones, highly reduced mitochondrial genomes with extensive RNA editing, a mix of photosynthetic and cryptic secondary plastids, and tertiary plastids. Resolving the evolutionary origin of these traits requires understanding their ancestral states and early intermediates. Several early-branching dinoflagellate lineages are good candidates for such reconstruction, however these cells tend to be delicate and environmentally sparse, complicating such analyses. Here, we employ transcriptome sequencing from manually isolated and microscopically documented cells to resolve the placement of two cells of one such genus, Abedinium, collected by remotely operated vehicle in deep waters off the coast of Monterey Bay, CA. One cell corresponds to the only described species, Abedinium dasypus, whereas the second cell is distinct and formally described as Abedinium folium, sp. nov. Abedinium has classically been assigned to the early-branching dinoflagellate subgroup Noctilucales, which is weakly supported by phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA, the single characterized gene from any member of the order. However, an analysis based on 221 proteins from the transcriptome places Abedinium as a distinct lineage, separate from and basal to Noctilucales and the rest of the core dinoflagellates. The transcriptome also contains evidence of a cryptic plastid functioning in the biosynthesis of isoprenoids, iron-sulfur clusters, and heme, a mitochondrial genome with all three expected protein-coding genes (cob, cox1, and cox3), and the presence of some but not all dinoflagellate-specific chromatin packaging proteins.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados/genética , Filogenia , Dinoflagelados/isolamento & purificação , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Genomas de Plastídeos , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma
17.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1473-1480, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056955

RESUMO

Among U.S. men, prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death (1). Past studies documented decreasing incidence of prostate cancer overall since 2000 but increasing incidence of distant stage prostate cancer (i.e., signifying spread to parts of the body remote from the primary tumor) starting in 2010 (2,3). Past studies described disparities in prostate cancer survival by stage, age, and race/ethnicity using data covering ≤80% of the U.S. population (4,5). To provide recent data on incidence and survival of prostate cancer in the United States, CDC analyzed data from population-based cancer registries that contribute to U.S. Cancer Statistics (USCS).* Among 3.1 million new cases of prostate cancer recorded during 2003-2017, localized, regional, distant, and unknown stage prostate cancer accounted for 77%, 11%, 5%, and 7% of cases, respectively, but the incidence of distant stage prostate cancer significantly increased during 2010-2017. During 2001-2016, 10-year relative survival for localized stage prostate cancer was 100%. Overall, 5-year survival for distant stage prostate cancer improved from 28.7% during 2001-2005 to 32.3% during 2011-2016; for the period 2001-2016, 5-year survival was highest among Asian/Pacific Islanders (API) (42.0%), followed by Hispanics (37.2%), American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) (32.2%), Black men (31.6%), and White men (29.1%). Understanding incidence and survival differences by stage, race/ethnicity, and age can guide public health planning related to screening, treatment, and survivor care. Future research into differences by stage, race/ethnicity, and age could inform interventions aimed at improving disparities in outcomes.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Heredity (Edinb) ; 125(6): 449-458, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901141

RESUMO

In a warming climate, the ability to accurately predict and track shifting environmental conditions will be fundamental for plant survival. Environmental cues define the transitions between growth and dormancy as plants synchronise development with favourable environmental conditions, however these cues are predicted to change under future climate projections which may have profound impacts on tree survival and growth. Here, we use a quantitative genetic approach to estimate the genetic basis of spring and autumn phenology in Populus trichocarpa to determine this species capacity for climate adaptation. We measured bud burst, leaf coloration, and leaf senescence traits across two years (2017-2018) and combine these observations with measures of lifetime growth to determine how genetic correlations between phenology and growth may facilitate or constrain adaptation. Timing of transitions differed between years, although we found strong cross year genetic correlations in all traits, suggesting that genotypes respond in consistent ways to seasonal cues. Spring and autumn phenology were correlated with lifetime growth, where genotypes that burst leaves early and shed them late had the highest lifetime growth. We also identified substantial heritable variation in the timing of all phenological transitions (h2 = 0.5-0.8) and in lifetime growth (h2 = 0.8). The combination of additive variation and favourable genetic correlations in phenology traits suggests that populations of cultivated varieties of P. Trichocarpa may have the capability to adapt their phenology to climatic changes without negative impacts on growth.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Mudança Climática , Populus , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta , Populus/genética , Populus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estações do Ano , Temperatura , Árvores
19.
Med Care ; 58(11): 1013-1021, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An individual's risk for future opioid overdoses is usually assessed using a 12-month "lookback" period. Given the potential urgency of acting rapidly, we compared the performance of alternative predictive models with risk information from the past 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. METHODS: We included 1,014,033 Maryland residents aged 18-80 with at least 1 opioid prescription and no recorded death in 2015. We used 2015 Maryland prescription drug monitoring data to identify risk factors for nonfatal opioid overdoses from hospital discharge records and investigated fatal opioid overdose from medical examiner data in 2016. Prescription drug monitoring program-derived predictors included demographics, payment sources for opioid prescriptions, count of unique opioid prescribers and pharmacies, and quantity and types of opioids and benzodiazepines filled. We estimated a series of logistic regression models that included 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of prescription drug monitoring program data and compared model performance, using bootstrapped C-statistics and associated 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: For hospital-treated nonfatal overdose, the C-statistic increased from 0.73 for a model including only the fourth quarter to 0.77 for a model with 4 quarters of data. For fatal overdose, the area under the curve increased from 0.80 to 0.83 over the same models. The strongest predictors of overdose were prescription fills for buprenorphine and Medicaid and Medicare as sources of payment. CONCLUSIONS: Models predicting opioid overdose using 1 quarter of data were nearly as accurate as models using all 4 quarters. Models with a single quarter may be more timely and easier to identify persons at risk of an opioid overdose.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/envenenamento , Overdose de Drogas/epidemiologia , Medicamentos sob Prescrição/envenenamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Overdose de Drogas/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Maryland/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Evol Lett ; 4(4): 302-316, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774880

RESUMO

Adaptation to contrasting environments occurs when advantageous alleles accumulate in each population, but it remains largely unknown whether these same advantageous alleles create genetic incompatibilities that can cause intrinsic reproductive isolation leading to speciation. Identifying alleles that underlie both adaptation and reproductive isolation is further complicated by factors such as dominance and genetic interactions among loci, which can affect both processes differently and obscure potential links between adaptation and speciation. Here, we use a combination of field and glasshouse experiments to explore the connection between adaptation and speciation while accounting for dominance and genetic interactions. We created a hybrid population with equal contributions from four contrasting ecotypes of Senecio lautus (Asteraceae), which produced hybrid genomes both before (F1 hybrid generation) and after (F4 hybrid generation) recombination among the parental ecotypes. In the glasshouse, plants in the second generation (F2 hybrid generation) showed reduced fitness as a loss of fertility. However, fertility was recovered in subsequent generations, suggesting that genetic variation underlying the fitness reduction was lost in subsequent generations. To quantify the effects of losing genetic variation at the F2 generation on the fitness of later generation hybrids, we used a reciprocal transplant to test for fitness differences between parental ecotypes, and F1 and F4 hybrids in all four parental habitats. Compared to the parental ecotypes and F1 hybrids, variance in F4 hybrid fitness was lower, and lowest in habitats that showed stronger native-ecotype advantage, suggesting that stronger natural selection for the native ecotype reduced fitness variation in the F4 hybrids. Fitness trade-offs that were present in the parental ecotypes and F1 hybrids were absent in the F4 hybrid. Together, these results suggest that the genetic variation lost after the F2 generation was likely associated with both adaptation and intrinsic reproductive isolation among ecotypes from contrasting habitats.

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