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2.
Future Oncol ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521277

RESUMO

In the Phase III ICARIA-MM study (NCT02990338), the addition of the anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody isatuximab to pomalidomide and dexamethasone led to increased progression-free survival and improved response rates in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. There is an unmet treatment need, particularly among patients with poor prognoses, including those with high-risk cytogenetics, those who have renal impairment, those who are elderly and those who are refractory to prior lines of treatment. In this review, the subgroup analyses from the ICARIA-MM study, representing subpopulations with poor prognostic factors, are discussed. Overall, the addition of isatuximab to pomalidomide and dexamethasone improved progression-free survival and disease response rates across different subgroups, regardless of prognostic factor.

3.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 993, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488662

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Selinexor is an oral, selective nuclear export inhibitor. STORM was a phase 2b, single-arm, open-label, multicenter trial of selinexor with low dose dexamethasone in patients with penta-exposed relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) that met its primary endpoint, with overall response of 26% (95% confidence interval [CI], 19 to 35%). Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was a secondary endpoint measured using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Multiple Myeloma (FACT-MM). This study examines impact of selinexor treatment on HRQoL of patients treated in STORM and reports two approaches to calculate minimal clinically important differences for the FACT-MM. METHODS: FACT-MM data were collected at baseline, on day 1 of each 4-week treatment cycle, and at end of treatment (EOT). Changes from baseline were analyzed for the FACT-MM total score, FACT-trial outcome index (TOI), FACT-General (FACT-G), and the MM-specific domain using mixed-effects regression models. Two approaches for evaluating minimal clinically important differences were explored: the first defined as 10% of the instrument range, and the second based on estimated mean baseline differences between Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) scores. Post-hoc difference analysis compared change in scores from baseline to EOT for treatment responders and non-responders. RESULTS: Eighty patients were included in the analysis; the mean number of prior therapies was 7.9 (standard deviation [SD] 3.1), and mean duration of myeloma was 7.6 years (SD 3.4). Each exploratory minimal clinically important difference threshold yielded consistent results whereby most patients did not experience HRQoL decline during the first six cycles of treatment (range: 53.9 to 75.7% for the first approach; range: 52.6 to 72.9% for the second). Treatment responders experienced less decline in HRQoL from baseline to EOT than non-responders, which was significant for the FACT-G, but not for other scores. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients did not experience decline in HRQoL based on minimal clinically important differences during early cycles of treatment with selinexor and dexamethasone in the STORM trial. An anchor-based approach utilizing patient-level data (ECOG PS score) to define minimal clinically important differences for the FACT-MM gave consistent results with a distribution-based approach. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This trial was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov under the trial-ID NCT02336815 on January 8, 2015.

4.
Eur J Haematol ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496096

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of pomalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone (PVd) vs bortezomib and dexamethasone (Vd) by age, renal function, and high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities in lenalidomide-pretreated patients with multiple myeloma at first relapse. METHODS: OPTIMISMM was a phase 3, multicenter, open-label, randomized study (NCT01734928; N = 559). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Overall, 226 patients had received one prior line of therapy. PVd significantly prolonged PFS vs Vd in patients aged ≤65 years (median, 22.0 vs 13.1 months; P = .0258) and >65 years (median, 17.6 vs 9.9 months; P = .0369). Median PFS in patients with renal impairment (RI; creatinine clearance <60 mL/min) was 15.1 months with PVd vs 9.5 months with Vd (hazard ratio [HR], 0.67 [95% CI, 0.34-1.34]). In patients without RI, median PFS was 22.0 vs 13.1 months (HR, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.27-0.76]). In patients with high-risk cytogenetics, median PFS was 14.7 vs 9.9 months (HR, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.13-1.17]). PVd significantly improved overall response rate vs Vd in all subgroups. The safety profile of PVd was consistent with previous reports. CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirmed the benefits of PVd at first relapse, including in patients with poor prognostic factors.

5.
Am J Hematol ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34559902

RESUMO

Preclinical studies have demonstrated activity of the oral proteasome inhibitor (PI) ixazomib (IXA) in bortezomib-resistant multiple myeloma (MM) and synergy with immunomodulatory drugs. We therefore conducted a phase I/II study to establish the safety and preliminary efficacy of IXA with pomalidomide (POM) and dexamethasone (DEX) in lenalidomide (LEN)/PI-refractory MM. Dose escalation established a 4 mg dose of POM and IXA and 20/40 mg dose of DEX as the maximum tolerated dose. The phase II portion of the trial was redesigned and started anew after six patients had been randomized to IXA-POM-DEX due to a rapidly changing treatment landscape. Among the 29 evaluable LEN/PI-refractory patients treated with IXA-POM-DEX in phase I/II, the overall response rate (partial response or better) was 51.7% with a median duration of response of 16.8 months (range 56 days to 4.1 years), median progression-free survival of 4.4 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.0-18.4), and median overall survival of 34.3 months (95% CI: 19.2 to not reached). Hematologic, gastrointestinal, and constitutional adverse events were common and consistent with the side-effect profiles of the individual agents. Our results support further evaluation of this all-oral regimen in relapsed/refractory MM.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34584241

RESUMO

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS), a potentially life-threatening complication of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), results from prolonged sinusoidal endothelial cell activation and profound endothelial cell damage, with sequelae. Defibrotide, the only drug approved in the United States and Europe for treating VOD/SOS post-HCT, has European Commission orphan drug designation for preventing graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), associated with endothelial dysfunction. This endothelial cell protector and stabilizing agent restores thrombo-fibrinolytic balance and preserves endothelial homeostasis through antithrombotic, fibrinolytic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-adhesive activity. Defibrotide also preserves endothelial cell structure by inhibiting heparanase activity. Evidence suggests that downregulating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and histone deacetylases (HDACs) is key to defibrotide's endothelial protective effects; phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/AKT) potentially links defibrotide interaction with the endothelial cell membrane and downstream effects. Despite defibrotide's being most extensively studied in VOD/SOS, emerging preclinical and clinical data support defibrotide for treating or preventing other conditions driven by endothelial cell activation, dysfunction, and/or damage, such as GvHD, transplant-associated thrombotic microangiopathy, or chimeric antigen receptor T-cell (CAR-T) therapy-associated neurotoxicity, underpinned by cytokine release syndrome and endotheliitis. Further preclinical and clinical studies will explore defibrotide's potential utility in a broader range of disorders resulting from endothelial cell activation and dysfunction.

7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518309

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although remarkably effective in some patients, precision medicine typically induces only transient responses despite initial absence of resistance-conferring mutations. Using BRAF-mutated myeloma as a model for resistance to precision medicine we investigated if BRAF-mutated cancer cells have the ability to ensure their survival by rapidly adapting to BRAF inhibitor treatment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Full-length single-cell RNA (scRNA) sequencing (scRNA-seq) was conducted on 3 patients with BRAF-mutated myeloma and 1 healthy donor. We sequenced 1,495 cells before, after 1 week, and at clinical relapse to BRAF/MEK inhibitor treatment. We developed an in vitro model of dabrafenib resistance using genetically homogeneous single-cell clones from two cell lines with established BRAF mutations (U266, DP6). Transcriptional and epigenetic adaptation in resistant cells were defined by RNA-seq and H3K27ac chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq). Mitochondrial metabolism was characterized by metabolic flux analysis. RESULTS: Profiling by scRNA-seq revealed rapid cellular state changes in response to BRAF/MEK inhibition in patients with myeloma and cell lines. Transcriptional adaptation preceded detectable outgrowth of genetically discernible drug-resistant clones and was associated with widespread enhancer remodeling. As a dominant vulnerability, dependency on oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) was induced. In treated individuals, OxPhos was activated at the time of relapse and showed inverse correlation to MAPK activation. Metabolic flux analysis confirmed OxPhos as a preferential energetic resource of drug-persistent myeloma cells. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that cancer cells have the ability to rapidly adapt to precision treatments through transcriptional state changes, epigenetic adaptation, and metabolic rewiring, thus facilitating the development of refractory disease while simultaneously exposing novel vulnerabilities.

8.
N Engl J Med ; 385(7): 595-608, 2021 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34379922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Safe and effective long-acting injectable agents for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are needed to increase the options for preventing HIV infection. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, noninferiority trial to compare long-acting injectable cabotegravir (CAB-LA, an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor [INSTI]) at a dose of 600 mg, given intramuscularly every 8 weeks, with daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) for the prevention of HIV infection in at-risk cisgender men who have sex with men (MSM) and in at-risk transgender women who have sex with men. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive one of the two regimens and were followed for 153 weeks. HIV testing and safety evaluations were performed. The primary end point was incident HIV infection. RESULTS: The intention-to-treat population included 4566 participants who underwent randomization; 570 (12.5%) identified as transgender women, and the median age was 26 years (interquartile range, 22 to 32). The trial was stopped early for efficacy on review of the results of the first preplanned interim end-point analysis. Among 1698 participants from the United States, 845 (49.8%) identified as Black. Incident HIV infection occurred in 52 participants: 13 in the cabotegravir group (incidence, 0.41 per 100 person-years) and 39 in the TDF-FTC group (incidence, 1.22 per 100 person-years) (hazard ratio, 0.34; 95% confidence interval, 0.18 to 0.62). The effect was consistent across prespecified subgroups. Injection-site reactions were reported in 81.4% of the participants in the cabotegravir group and in 31.3% of those in the TDF-FTC group. In the participants in whom HIV infection was diagnosed after exposure to CAB-LA, INSTI resistance and delays in the detection of HIV infection were noted. No safety concerns were identified. CONCLUSIONS: CAB-LA was superior to daily oral TDF-FTC in preventing HIV infection among MSM and transgender women. Strategies are needed to prevent INSTI resistance in cases of CAB-LA PrEP failure. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; HPTN 083 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02720094.).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/administração & dosagem , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Idoso , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Preparações de Ação Retardada/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Inibidores de Integrase de HIV/efeitos adversos , Homossexualidade Masculina , Humanos , Injeções Intramusculares/efeitos adversos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Pessoas Transgênero , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340951

RESUMO

Relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) presents a therapeutic challenge due to the development of drug resistance. Panobinostat is an oral histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that affects multiple cellular pathways and has demonstrated the ability to resensitize refractory-multiple myeloma cells in preclinical studies, as well as in patients with RRMM in clinical trials. Synergy of panobinostat with a number of different classes of antimyeloma drugs (proteasome inhibitors, immunomodulatory drugs and monoclonal antibodies) has also been shown. Panobinostat is a promising HDACi for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Here, we present a comprehensive review of preclinical and clinical studies of panobinostat.

11.
Leukemia ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34290359

RESUMO

Immune profiling in patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), and multiple myeloma (MM) provides the framework for developing novel immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we demonstrate decreased CD4+ Th cells, increased Treg and G-type MDSC, and upregulation of immune checkpoints on effector/regulatory and CD138+ cells in MM patients, compared MGUS/SMM patients or healthy individuals. Among the checkpoints profiled, LAG3 was most highly expressed on proliferating CD4+ Th and CD8+ Tc cells in MM patients BMMC and PBMC. Treatment with antibody targeting LAG3 significantly enhanced T cells proliferation and activities against MM. XBP1/CD138/CS1-specific CTL generated in vitro displayed anti-MM activity, which was further enhanced following anti-LAG3 treatment, within the antigen-specific memory T cells. Treg and G-type MDSC weakly express LAG3 and were minimally impacted by anti-LAG3. CD138+ MM cells express GAL-3, a ligand for LAG3, and anti-GAL-3 treatment increased MM-specific responses, as observed for anti-LAG3. Finally, we demonstrate checkpoint inhibitor treatment evokes non-targeted checkpoints as a cause of resistance and propose combination therapeutic strategies to overcome this resistance. These studies identify and validate blockade of LAG3/GAL-3, alone or in combination with immune strategies including XBP1/CD138/CS1 multipeptide vaccination, to enhance anti-tumor responses and improve patient outcome in MM.

12.
Expert Opin Drug Discov ; : 1-26, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34074189

RESUMO

Introduction There continues to be an exponential rise in the number of small molecule drugs that contain either a fluorine atom or a fluorinated fragment. While the unique properties of fluorine enable the precise modulation of a molecule's physicochemical properties, strategic bioisosteric replacement of fragments with fluorinated moieties represents an area of significant growth.Areas covered This review discusses the strategic employment of fluorine substitution in the design and development of bioisosteres in medicinal chemistry. In addition, the classic exploitation of trifluoroethylamine group as an amide bioisostere is discussed. In each of the case studies presented, emphasis is placed on the context-dependent influence of the fluorinated fragment on the overall properties/binding of the compound of interest.Expert opinion Whereas utilization of bioisosteric replacements to modify molecular structures is commonplace within drug discovery, the overarching lesson to be learned is that the chances of success with this strategy significantly increase as the knowledge of the structure/environment of the biological target grows. Coupled to this, breakthroughs and learnings achieved using bioisosteres within a specific program are context-based, and though may be helpful in guiding future intuition, will not necessarily be directly translated to future programs. Another important point is to bear in mind what implications a structural change based on a bioisosteric replacement will have on the candidate molecule. Finally, the development of new methods and reagents for the controlled regioselective introduction of fluorine and fluorinated moieties into biologically relevant compounds particularly in drug discovery remains a contemporary challenge in organic chemistry.

13.
Expert Opin Ther Targets ; 25(6): 423-433, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167431

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Defibrotide (DF) is a polyribonucleotide with antithrombotic, pro-fibrinolytic, and anti-inflammatory effects on endothelium. These effects and the established safety of DF present DF as a strong candidate to treat viral and post-infectious syndromes involving endothelial dysfunction. AREAS COVERED: We discuss DF and other therapeutic agents that have the potential to target endothelial components of pathogenesis in viral and post-infectious syndromes. We introduce defibrotide (DF), describe its mechanisms of action, and explore its established pleiotropic effects on the endothelium. We describe the established pathophysiology of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) and highlight the processes specific to COVID-19 potentially modulated by DF. We also present influenza A and viral hemorrhagic fevers, especially those caused by hantavirus, Ebola virus, and dengue virus, as viral syndromes in which DF might serve therapeutic benefit. Finally, we offer our opinion on novel treatment strategies targeting endothelial dysfunction in viral infections and their severe manifestations. EXPERT OPINION: Given the critical role of endothelial dysfunction in numerous infectious syndromes, in particular COVID-19, therapeutic pharmacology for these conditions should increasingly prioritize endothelial stabilization. Several agents with endothelial protective properties should be further studied as treatments for severe viral infections and vasculitides, especially where other therapeutic modalities have failed.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Polidesoxirribonucleotídeos/farmacologia , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea/etiologia , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , COVID-19/virologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Polidesoxirribonucleotídeos/uso terapêutico , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação
15.
J Am Dent Assoc ; 152(7): 542-550, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34176568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, American Society for Testing and Materials level 3 and level 2 medical face masks (MFMs) have been used for most health care workers and even for the first responders owing to a shortage of N95 respirators. However, the MFMs lack effective peripheral seal, leading to concerns about their adequacy to block aerosol exposure for proper protection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the peripheral seal of level 3 and level 2 MFMs with a 3-dimensional (3D-) printed custom frame. METHODS: Level 3 and level 2 MFMs were tested on 10 participants with and without a 3D-printed custom frame; the efficiency of mask peripheral seal was determined by means of quantitative fit testing using a PortaCount Fit Tester based on ambient aerosol condensation nuclei counter protocol. RESULTS: The 3D-printed custom frame significantly improved the peripheral seal of both level 3 and level 2 MFMs compared with the masks alone (P < .001). In addition, both level 3 and level 2 MFMs with the 3D-printed custom frame met the quantitative fit testing standard specified for N95 respirators. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: The 3D-printed custom frame over level 3 and level 2 MFMs can offer enhanced peripheral reduction of aerosols when using collapsible masks. With the shortage of N95 respirators, using the 3D-printed custom frame over a level 3 or level 2 MFM is considered a practical alternative to dental professionals.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Exposição Ocupacional , Humanos , Máscaras , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estados Unidos
16.
Am J Hematol ; 96(9): 1120-1130, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062004

RESUMO

In the phase 3 BOSTON study, patients with multiple myeloma (MM) after 1-3 prior regimens were randomized to once-weekly selinexor (an oral inhibitor of exportin 1 [XPO1]) plus bortezomib-dexamethasone (XVd) or twice-weekly bortezomib-dexamethasone (Vd). Compared with Vd, XVd was associated with significant improvements in median progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), and lower rates of peripheral neuropathy, with trends in overall survival (OS) favoring XVd. In BOSTON, 141 (35.1%) patients had MM with high-risk (presence of del[17p], t[4;14], t[14;16], or ≥4 copies of amp1q21) cytogenetics (XVd, n = 70; Vd, n = 71), and 261 (64.9%) exhibited standard-risk cytogenetics (XVd, n = 125; Vd, n = 136). Among patients with high-risk MM, median PFS was 12.91 months for XVd and 8.61 months for Vd (HR, 0.73 [95% CI, (0.4673, 1.1406)], p = 0.082), and ORRs were 78.6% and 57.7%, respectively (OR 2.68; p = 0.004). In the standard-risk subgroup, median PFS was 16.62 months for XVd and 9.46 months for Vd (HR 0.61; p = 0.004), and ORRs were 75.2% and 64.7%, respectively (OR 1.65; p = 0.033). The safety profiles of XVd and Vd in both subgroups were consistent with the overall population. These data suggest that selinexor can confer benefits to patients with MM regardless of cytogenetic risk. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03110562.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Hidrazinas/uso terapêutico , Mieloma Múltiplo/tratamento farmacológico , Triazóis/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Bortezomib/efeitos adversos , Análise Citogenética , Dexametasona/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrazinas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mieloma Múltiplo/genética , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Resultado do Tratamento , Triazóis/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Shock ; 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endotheliopathy is a key element in COVID-19 pathophysiology, contributing to both morbidity and mortality. Biomarkers distinguishing different COVID-19 phenotypes from sepsis syndrome remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To characterize circulating biomarkers of endothelial damage in different COVID-19 clinical disease stages compared with sepsis syndrome and normal volunteers. METHODS: Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (n = 49) were classified into moderate, severe, or critical (life-threatening) disease. Plasma samples were collected within 48 to 72 h of hospitalization to analyze endothelial activation markers, including sVCAM-1, von Willebrand Factor (VWF), ADAMTS-13 activity, thrombomodulin (TM), and soluble TNF receptor I (sTNFRI); heparan sulfate (HS) for endothelial glycocalyx degradation; C5b9 deposits on endothelial cells in culture and soluble C5b9 for complement activation; circulating dsDNA for neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) presence, and α2-antiplasmin and PAI-1 as parameters of fibrinolysis. We compared the level of each biomarker in all three COVID-19 groups and healthy donors as controls (n = 45). Results in critically ill COVID-19 patients were compared with other intensive care unit (ICU) patients with septic shock (SS, n = 14), sepsis (S, n = 7), and noninfectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (NI-SIRS, n = 7). RESULTS: All analyzed biomarkers were increased in COVID-19 patients versus controls (P < 0.001), except for ADAMTS-13 activity that was normal in both groups. The increased expression of sVCAM-1, VWF, sTNFRI, and HS was related to COVID-19 disease severity (P < 0.05). Several differences in these parameters were found between ICU groups: SS patients showed significantly higher levels of VWF, TM, sTNFRI, and NETS compared with critical COVID-19 patients and ADAMTS-13 activity was significantly lover in SS, S, and NI-SIRS versus critical COVID-19 (P < 0.001). Furthermore, α2-antiplasmin activity was higher in critical COVID-19 versus NI-SIRS (P < 0.01) and SS (P < 0.001), whereas PAI-1 levels were significantly lower in COVID-19 patients compared with NI-SIRS, S, and SS patients (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 patients present with increased circulating endothelial stress products, complement activation, and fibrinolytic dysregulation, associated with disease severity. COVID-19 endotheliopathy differs from SS, in which endothelial damage is also a critical feature of pathobiology. These biomarkers could help to stratify the severity of COVID-19 disease and may also provide information to guide specific therapeutic strategies to mitigate endotheliopathy progression.

18.
J Clin Oncol ; 39(22): 2430-2442, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34111952

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III TOURMALINE-MM1 study demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in progression-free survival with ixazomib-lenalidomide-dexamethasone (ixazomib-Rd) versus placebo-Rd in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. We report the final analyses for overall survival (OS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to ixazomib-Rd (n = 360) or placebo-Rd (n = 362), stratified by number of prior therapies (1 v 2 or 3), previous proteasome inhibitor (PI) exposure (yes v no), and International Staging System disease stage (I or II v III). OS (intent-to-treat population) was a key secondary end point. RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 85 months, median OS with ixazomib-Rd versus placebo-Rd was 53.6 versus 51.6 months (hazard ratio, 0.939; P = .495). Lower hazard ratios, indicating larger magnitude of OS benefit with ixazomib-Rd versus placebo-Rd, were seen in predefined subgroups: refractory to any (0.794) or last (0.742) treatment line; age > 65-75 years (0.757); International Staging System stage III (0.779); 2/3 prior therapies (0.845); high-risk cytogenetics (0.870); and high-risk cytogenetics and/or 1q21 amplification (0.862). Following ixazomib-Rd versus placebo-Rd, 71.7% versus 69.9% of patients received ≥ 1 anticancer therapy, of whom 24.7% versus 33.9% received daratumumab and 71.8% versus 76.9% received PIs (next-line therapy: 47.5% v 55.8%). Rates of new primary malignancies were similar with ixazomib-Rd (10.3%) and placebo-Rd (11.9%). There were no new or additional safety concerns. CONCLUSION: Median OS values in both arms were the longest reported in phase III studies of Rd-based triplets in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma at the time of this analysis; progression-free survival benefit with ixazomib-Rd versus placebo-Rd did not translate into a statistically significant OS benefit on intent-to-treat analysis. OS benefit was greater in subgroups with adverse prognostic factors. OS interpretation was confounded by imbalances in subsequent therapies received, especially PIs and daratumumab.

19.
Sci Adv ; 7(23)2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088671

RESUMO

Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) have markedly improved patient outcome in multiple myeloma (MM); however, resistance to IMiDs commonly underlies relapse of disease. Here, we identify that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) knockdown (KD)/knockout (KO) in MM cells mediates IMiD resistance via activation of noncanonical nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling. Within MM bone marrow (BM) stromal cell supernatants, TNF-α induces proteasomal degradation of TRAF2, noncanonical NF-κB, and downstream ERK signaling in MM cells, whereas interleukin-6 directly triggers ERK activation. RNA sequencing of MM patient samples shows nearly universal ERK pathway activation at relapse on lenalidomide maintenance therapy, confirming its clinical relevance. Combination MEK inhibitor treatment restores IMiD sensitivity of TRAF2 KO cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our studies provide the framework for clinical trials of MEK inhibitors to overcome IMiD resistance in the BM microenvironment and improve patient outcome in MM.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097193

RESUMO

Patients with COVID-19 present a wide spectrum of disease severity, from asymptomatic cases in the majority to serious disease leading to critical care and even death. Clinically, four different scenarios occur within the typical disease timeline: first, an incubation and asymptomatic period; second, a stage with mild symptoms due mainly to the virus itself; third, in up to 20% of the patients, a stage with severe symptoms where a hyperinflammatory response with a cytokine storm driven by host immunity induces acute respiratory distress syndrome; and finally, a post-acute sequelae (PASC) phase, which present symptoms that can range from mild or annoying to actually quite incapacitating. Although the most common manifestation is acute respiratory failure of the lungs, other organs are also frequently involved. The clinical manifestations of the COVID-19 infection support a key role for endothelial dysfunction in the pathobiology of this condition. The virus enters into the organism via its interaction with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2-receptor that is present prominently in the alveoli, but also in endothelial cells, which can be directly infected by the virus. Cytokine release syndrome can also drive endothelial damage independently. Consequently, a distinctive feature of SARS-CoV-2 infection is vascular harm, with severe endothelial injury, widespread thrombosis, microangiopathy, and neo-angiogenesis in response to endothelial damage. Therefore, endothelial dysfunction seems to be the pathophysiological substrate for severe COVID-19 complications. Biomarkers of endothelial injury could constitute strong indicators of disease progression and severity. In addition, the endothelium could represent a very attractive target to both prevent and treat these complications. To establish an adequate therapy, the underlying pathophysiology and corresponding clinical stage should be clearly identified. In this review, the clinical features of COVID-19, the central role of the endothelium in COVID-19 and in other pathologies, and the potential of specific therapies aimed at protecting the endothelium in COVID-19 patients are addressed.

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