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1.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 40(16): 4645-4656, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322305

RESUMO

Neuroimaging studies indicate that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present alterations in several functional networks of the sensation-to-cognition spectrum. These alterations include functional overconnectivity within sensory regions and underconnectivity between sensory regions and neural hubs supporting higher order cognitive functions. Today, it is unknown whether this same pattern of alterations persists in adult patients with ADHD who had never been medicated for their condition. The aim of the present study was to assess whether medication-naïve adults with ADHD presented alterations in functional networks of the sensation-to-cognition spectrum. Thirty-one medication-naïve adults with ADHD and twenty-two healthy adults underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Stepwise functional connectivity (SFC) was used to characterize the pattern of functional connectivity between sensory seed regions and the rest of the brain at direct, short, intermediate, and long functional connectivity distances, thus covering the continuum from the sensory input to the neural hubs supporting higher order cognitive functions. As compared to controls, adults with ADHD presented increased SFC degree within primary sensory regions and decreased SFC degree between sensory seeds and higher order integration nodes. In addition, they exhibited decreased connectivity degree between sensory seeds and regions of the default-mode network. Consistently, the higher the score in clinical severity scales the lower connectivity degree between seed regions and the default mode network.

2.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(1): 41-49, ene.-jun. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-ET1-3032

RESUMO

This study aimed to describe and compare the educational, social, and family profiles of adults with and without ADHD from two different settings: a prison and an outpatient psychiatric setting. A total of 542 participants, aged between 17 and 69 years, took part in the study. The participants consisted of four groups: a prison sample with ADHD (n = 69) and without ADHD (n = 183), and an outpatient psychiatric sample with ADHD (n = 218) and without ADHD (n = 72). The results showed that, firstly, there were some statistically significant differences between the groups in academic history, social and family situation, and the adoption of risk behaviors during adolescence and early adulthood. Secondly, some of these differences were related to diagnosis (ADHD versus non-ADHD) while others were related to the sample being examined (prison versus psychiatric). The findings from the study showed the presence of significant implications in social, family, educational, and employment achievements both for adults with ADHD (both prison and psychiatric samples) and for adults without ADHD


Este estudio tiene como objetivo describir y comparar los perfiles educativos, sociales y familiares de un grupo de adultos con y sin TDAH de dos muestras diferentes: una de carcelarios y una población clínica. Formaron parte del estudio 542 participantes, con edades comprendidas entre los 17 y 69 años. La muestra se dividió en cuatro grupos, un grupo de carcelarios con TDAH (n = 69) y sin TDAH (n = 183) y un grupo clínico con TDAH (n = 218) y sin TDAH (n = 72). Los resultados apoyan la hipótesis inicial, que establece que, primero, hay diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los grupos en cuanto a historial académico, situación social y familiar y la adopción de conductas de riesgo durante la adolescencia y la adultez temprana; en segundo lugar, algunas de las diferencias se relacionarán con el diagnóstico de TDAH, mientras que otras estarán más vinculadas a la población examinada. Los hallazgos del estudio mostraron la presencia de consecuencias significativas para los contextos sociales, familiares, educativos y laborales tanto en poblaciones adultas con TDAH (pacientes en carcelarios y clínicos) como aquellas sin TDAH

3.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(6): 795-802, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085060

RESUMO

Emotional lability is strongly associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), represents a major source of impairment and predicts poor clinical outcome in ADHD. Given that no specific genes with a role in the co-occurrence of both conditions have been described, we conducted a GWAS of emotional lability in 563 adults with ADHD. Despite not reaching genome-wide significance, the results highlighted genes related with neurotransmission, cognitive function and a wide range of psychiatric disorders that have emotional lability as common clinical feature. By constructing polygenic risk scores on mood instability in the UK Biobank sample and assessing their association with emotional lability in our clinical dataset, we found suggestive evidence of common genetic variation contributing to emotional lability in general population and in clinically diagnosed ADHD. Although not conclusive, these tentative results are in agreement with previous studies that suggest emotion dysregulation as a transdiagnostic construct and highlight the need for further investigation to disentangle the genetic basis of mood instability in ADHD and co-occurring psychiatric disorders.

4.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 42, 2019 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30696812

RESUMO

Genetic factors are strongly implicated in the susceptibility to develop externalizing syndromes such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and substance use disorder (SUD). Variants in the ADGRL3 (LPHN3) gene predispose to ADHD and predict ADHD severity, disruptive behaviors comorbidity, long-term outcome, and response to treatment. In this study, we investigated whether variants within ADGRL3 are associated with SUD, a disorder that is frequently co-morbid with ADHD. Using family-based, case-control, and longitudinal samples from disparate regions of the world (n = 2698), recruited either for clinical, genetic epidemiological or pharmacogenomic studies of ADHD, we assembled recursive-partitioning frameworks (classification tree analyses) with clinical, demographic, and ADGRL3 genetic information to predict SUD susceptibility. Our results indicate that SUD can be efficiently and robustly predicted in ADHD participants. The genetic models used remained highly efficient in predicting SUD in a large sample of individuals with severe SUD from a psychiatric institution that were not ascertained on the basis of ADHD diagnosis, thus identifying ADGRL3 as a risk gene for SUD. Recursive-partitioning analyses revealed that rs4860437 was the predominant predictive variant. This new methodological approach offers novel insights into higher order predictive interactions and offers a unique opportunity for translational application in the clinical assessment of patients at high risk for SUD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores de Peptídeos/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610198

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a severely impairing neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 5% in children and adolescents and of 2.5% in adults. Comorbid conditions in ADHD play a key role in symptom progression, disorder course and outcome. ADHD is associated with a significantly increased risk for substance use, abuse and dependence. ADHD and cannabis use are partly determined by genetic factors; the heritability of ADHD is estimated at 70-80% and of cannabis use initiation at 40-48%. In this study, we used summary statistics from the largest available meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of ADHD (n = 53,293) and lifetime cannabis use (n = 32,330) to gain insights into the genetic overlap and causal relationship of these two traits. We estimated their genetic correlation to be r2 = 0.29 (P = 1.63 × 10-5) and identified four new genome-wide significant loci in a cross-trait analysis: two in a single variant association analysis (rs145108385, P = 3.30 × 10-8 and rs4259397, P = 4.52 × 10-8) and two in a gene-based association analysis (WDPCP, P = 9.67 × 10-7 and ZNF251, P = 1.62 × 10-6). Using a two-sample Mendelian randomization approach we found support that ADHD is causal for lifetime cannabis use, with an odds ratio of 7.9 for cannabis use in individuals with ADHD in comparison to individuals without ADHD (95% CI (3.72, 15.51), P = 5.88 × 10-5). These results substantiate the temporal relationship between ADHD and future cannabis use and reinforce the need to consider substance misuse in the context of ADHD in clinical interventions.

6.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 44(5): 890-897, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568281

RESUMO

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorders in childhood and persists into adulthood in 40-65% of cases. Given the polygenic and heterogeneous architecture of the disorder and the limited overlap between genetic studies, there is a growing interest in epigenetic mechanisms, such as microRNAs, that modulate gene expression and may contribute to the phenotype. We attempted to clarify the role of microRNAs in ADHD at a molecular level through the first genome-wide integrative study of microRNA and mRNA profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of medication-naive individuals with ADHD and healthy controls. We identified 79 microRNAs showing aberrant expression levels in 56 ADHD cases and 69 controls, with three of them, miR-26b-5p, miR-185-5p, and miR-191-5p, being highly predictive for diagnostic status in an independent dataset of 44 ADHD cases and 46 controls. Investigation of downstream microRNA-mediated mechanisms underlying the disorder, which was focused on differentially expressed, experimentally validated target genes of the three highly predictive microRNAs, provided evidence for aberrant myo-inositol signaling in ADHD and indicated an enrichment of genes involved in neurological disease and psychological disorders. Our comprehensive study design reveals novel microRNA-mRNA expression profiles aberrant in ADHD, provides novel insights into microRNA-mediated mechanisms contributing to the disorder, and highlights promising candidate peripheral biomarkers.

7.
Addiction ; 113(11): 2073-2086, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30003630

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used substances among adolescents and young adults. Earlier age at cannabis initiation is linked to adverse life outcomes, including multi-substance use and dependence. This study estimated the heritability of age at first cannabis use and identified associations with genetic variants. METHODS: A twin-based heritability analysis using 8055 twins from three cohorts was performed. We then carried out a genome-wide association meta-analysis of age at first cannabis use in a discovery sample of 24 953 individuals from nine European, North American and Australian cohorts, and a replication sample of 3735 individuals. RESULTS: The twin-based heritability for age at first cannabis use was 38% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 19-60%]. Shared and unique environmental factors explained 39% (95% CI = 20-56%) and 22% (95% CI = 16-29%). The genome-wide association meta-analysis identified five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 16 within the calcium-transporting ATPase gene (ATP2C2) at P < 5E-08. All five SNPs are in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r2  > 0.8), with the strongest association at the intronic variant rs1574587 (P = 4.09E-09). Gene-based tests of association identified the ATP2C2 gene on 16q24.1 (P = 1.33e-06). Although the five SNPs and ATP2C2 did not replicate, ATP2C2 has been associated with cocaine dependence in a previous study. ATP2B2, which is a member of the same calcium signalling pathway, has been associated previously with opioid dependence. SNP-based heritability for age at first cannabis use was non-significant. CONCLUSION: Age at cannabis initiation appears to be moderately heritable in western countries, and individual differences in onset can be explained by separate but correlated genetic liabilities. The significant association between age of initiation and ATP2C2 is consistent with the role of calcium signalling mechanisms in substance use disorders.

8.
Psychiatry Clin Neurosci ; 72(9): 731-740, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29888833

RESUMO

AIM: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) neuroimaging studies have identified substantial differences in reward-related circuits on a trial-by-trial basis. However, no research to date has evaluated the effect of motivational context on neural activity in settings with intermittent reward in ADHD. The present study was designed to identify neural processes underlying both immediate effects of reward and sustained effects of reward associated with motivational context in adult ADHD patients. METHODS: We used a functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm, including a time estimation task with constant versus intermittent reward conditions, in a sample of 21 medication-naïve adults with combined ADHD and 24 healthy adults. RESULTS: Although no between-group neural differences were detected, orbitofrontal activity dropped in association with high ADHD symptom severity during the transition from initial non-reward context blocks to subsequent reward context blocks. In turn, ADHD symptom severity predicted higher orbitofrontal activity in response to immediate reward versus no reward within reward context blocks. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that high ADHD symptom severity scorers adopted a 'just-in-time' strategy, involving the recruitment of reward processing brain areas in the face of immediate reward rather than a sustained response to motivational context.

9.
J Atten Disord ; : 1087054718780323, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890879

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which neuropsychological performance parameters implicated in ADHD might mediate the relationship between emotional lability (EL) and this disorder. METHOD: Eight hundred twelve adult patients with ADHD were examined. EL was assessed using the EL subscale of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). To assess cognitive and executive functions, a battery of neuropsychological tests was performed in 262 patients with ADHD and high EL symptomatology and 550 patients with ADHD and low EL symptomatology. RESULTS: Several differences between groups were found regarding neuropsychological performance; however, nearly all significant differences disappeared when the effect of gender, inattention, and hyperactive symptoms and psychiatric comorbidities were taken into account. CONCLUSION: Our results do not support the hypothesis that neuropsychological deficits are associated with EL in adults with ADHD.

10.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 66(supl.1): S109-S114, mar. 2018. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-171900

RESUMO

Introducción. El trastorno por déficit de atención/hiperactividad (TDAH) presenta una etiología compleja, atribuida principalmente a múltiples genes de susceptibilidad y factores ambientales. No obstante, los estudios genéticos de asociación han sido inconsistentes, identificando variantes genéticas de efecto moderado que explican una pequeña proporción de la heredabilidad estimada del trastorno (< 10%). Recientes estudios sugieren que la microbiota intestinal y la dieta desempeñan un papel importante en el desarrollo y los síntomas de diferentes trastornos mentales. Sin embargo, en la actualidad no existe una claridad absoluta al respecto. El presente proyecto propone un abordaje alternativo para identificar mecanismos a través de los cuales el ecosistema microbiano intestinal y la dieta podrían contribuir a la presencia del TDAH. Objetivo. Identificar biomarcadores para el TDAH a través del estudio de la microbiota intestinal. Sujetos y métodos. Estudio transversal de pacientes adultos con TDAH (n = 100) y de individuos control (n = 100). En ambos grupos se tomarán medidas de evaluación de TDAH y hábitos alimentarios. Se obtendrán muestras fecales para la extracción del ADN bacteriano, que permitirán caracterizar la microbiota intestinal de los participantes, para posteriormente realizar un estudio de asociación metagenómico e intentar correlacionar la composición bacteriana intestinal con subtipos clínicos del trastorno. Resultados y conclusiones. Se espera que la comparación de los perfiles de microbiota intestinal entre sujetos con TDAH y controles ayude a explicar la heterogeneidad clínica del trastorno e identificar nuevos mecanismos implicados en su desarrollo (AU)


Introduction. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a complex aetiology, mainly attributed to a number of susceptibility genes and environmental factors. Genetic association studies, however, have been inconsistent and have identified genetic variants with a moderate effect that explain a small proportion of the estimated inheritability of the disorder (< 10%). Recent studies suggest that the gut microbiota and diet play an important role in the development and symptoms of different mental disorders. Nevertheless, no clear evidence exists on the issue. This project proposes an alternative approach to identify mechanisms by which the intestinal microbial ecosystem and diet could contribute to the presence of ADHD. Aim. To identify biomarkers for ADHD by examining the gut microbiota. Subjects and methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult patients with ADHD (n = 100) and control subjects (n = 100). Measures of ADHD evaluation and eating habits were performed in both groups. Samples of faecal material were obtained from which to extract bacterial DNA, then used to characterise the participants’ gut microbiota. A metagenomics association study was later performed to attempt to correlate the bacterial composition of the intestine with the clinical subtypes of the disorder. Results and conclusions. Comparing the gut microbiota profiles of subjects with ADHD and controls is expected to help account for the clinical heterogeneity of the disorder and identify new mechanisms involved in its development (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Biomarcadores/análise , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fatores de Risco , Estudos Transversais
11.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 1881, 2018 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29382897

RESUMO

Methylphenidate (MPH) is the most frequently used pharmacological treatment in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, a considerable interindividual variability exists in clinical outcome. Thus, we performed a genome-wide association study of MPH efficacy in 173 ADHD paediatric patients. Although no variant reached genome-wide significance, the set of genes containing single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) nominally associated with MPH response (P < 0.05) was significantly enriched for candidates previously studied in ADHD or treatment outcome. We prioritised the nominally significant SNPs by functional annotation and expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analysis in human brain, and we identified 33 SNPs tagging cis-eQTL in 32 different loci (referred to as eSNPs and eGenes, respectively). Pathway enrichment analyses revealed an over-representation of genes involved in nervous system development and function among the eGenes. Categories related to neurological diseases, psychological disorders and behaviour were also significantly enriched. We subsequently meta-analysed the association with clinical outcome for the 33 eSNPs across the discovery sample and an independent cohort of 189 ADHD adult patients (target sample) and we detected 15 suggestive signals. Following this comprehensive strategy, our results provide a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms implicated in MPH treatment effects and suggest promising candidates that may encourage future studies.

12.
J Atten Disord ; 22(6): 581-590, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28760090

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether emotional lability (EL) in adult ADHD patients can already be identified during their childhood and the extent to which this childhood symptomatology can predict EL in adulthood. METHOD: Seven hundred eighteen adults with ADHD were examined. EL in adulthood was assessed using the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales (CAARS). According to Conners' definition of EL, seven items from the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) were used to determine this symptomatology in childhood. RESULTS: EL was identified in 31.1% of the participants, and 29.6% of this subgroup reported EL symptoms in childhood. Childhood EL was the strongest predictor of these symptoms in adulthood (odds ratio [OR] = 6.18). ADHD subtype, female sex, family history of ADHD, psychiatric comorbidities, and physical abuse were also related to EL development/persistence. CONCLUSION: Screening for EL symptoms in children with ADHD is important, as they are the strongest predictor of this symptomatology in adulthood.

13.
Rev. psiquiatr. salud ment ; 10(4): 185-191, oct.-dic. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-167236

RESUMO

Introducción. El trastorno por déficit de atención e hiperactividad (TDAH) tiene una prevalencia de entre el 2,5 y el 4% de la población general adulta. La Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS) es una escala autoinformada de 18 ítems para la evaluación de los síntomas del TDAH en adultos. El objetivo del presente estudio es realizar la validación de la versión española de la ADHD-RS. Material y método. Se incluyó una muestra de 304 adultos con TDAH y 94 controles sanos sin TDAH. El diagnóstico de TDAH se evaluó con la Entrevista Clínica Estructurada para el DSM-IV (SCID-I) y la Entrevista Diagnóstica para TDAH en Adultos de Conners para el DSM-IV (CAADID-II). Para determinar la validez interna de la estructura de 2 dimensiones de la ADHD-RS se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio. Los coeficientes α se realizaron como medida de la consistencia interna de las dimensiones consideradas. Mediante un estudio de regresión logística se evaluó el modelo en términos de especificidad, sensibilidad, valor predictivo positivo (VPP) y valor predictivo negativo (VPN). Resultados. La media de edad de los participantes fue de 33,29 años (DE=10,50), con un 66% de hombres (sin diferencias entre los 2 grupos). El análisis factorial se realizó con un análisis de componentes principales seguido de una normalización por la rotación varimax. La medida de Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin para el test de adecuación de muestras fue de 0,868 (notable) y el test de esfericidad de Bartlett fue 2 (153)=1.835,76, p<0,0005, indicando que el análisis factorial es adecuado. Este modelo de 2 factores explica el 37,8% de la varianza. El coeficiente α de los 2 factores es 0,84 y 0,82. La estrategia original proponía un punto de corte de 24: sensibilidad (81,9%), especificidad (74,7%), VPP (50,0%), VPN (93,0%), coeficiente kappa 0,78 y área bajo la curva (AUC) 0,89. La nueva estrategia de puntuación sugerida por nuestro grupo propone diferentes puntos de corte según las diferentes presentaciones clínicas de TDAH. El punto de corte para la presentación combinada de TDAH es 24: sensibilidad (81,9%), especificidad (87,3%), VPP (78,6%), VPN (89,4%), coeficiente kappa 0,88 y AUC 0,94, mientras que el punto de corte para la presentación predominante con falta de atención sería 21: sensibilidad (70,2%), especificidad (76,1%), VPP (71,7%), VPN (74,8%), coeficiente kappa 0,88 y AUC 0,94. Conclusiones. La versión española de la ADHD-RS es una escala válida para discriminar correctamente adultos con TDAH de personas sin TDAH. La nueva propuesta de puntuación sugiere la relevancia de las presentaciones clínicas en los diferentes puntos de corte seleccionados (AU)


Introduction. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a prevalence between 2.5% and 4% of the general adult population. Over the past few decades, self-report measures have been developed for the current evaluation of adult ADHD. The ADHD-RS is a 18-items scale self-report version for assessing symptoms for ADHD DSM-IV. A validation of Spanish version of the ADHD-RS was performed. Material and method. The sample consisted of 304 adult with ADHD and 94 controls. A case control study was carried out (adult ADHD vs. non ADHD). The diagnosis of ADHD was evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) and the Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID-II). To determinate the internal validity of the two dimensions structure of ADHD-RS an exploratory factor analysis was performed. The α-coefficients were taken as a measure of the internal consistency of the dimensions considered. A logistic regression study was carried out to evaluate the model in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). Results. Average age was 33.29 (SD=10.50) and 66% of subjects were men (there were no significant differences between the two groups). Factor analysis was done with a principal component analysis followed by a normalized varimax rotation. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy tests was .868 (remarkable) and the Bartlett's test of sphericity was 2 (153)=1,835.76, P<.0005, indicating the appropriateness of the factor analysis. This two-factor model accounted for 37.81% of the explained variance. The α-coefficient of the two factors was .84 and .82. The original strategy proposed 24 point for cut-off: sensitivity (81.9%), specificity (74.7%), PPV (50.0%), NPV (93.0%), kappa coefficient .78 and area under the curve (AUC) .89. The new score strategy proposed by our group suggests different cut-off for different clinical presentations. The 24 point is the best cut-off for ADHD combined presentation: sensitivity (81.9%), specificity (87.3%), PPV (78.6%), NPV (89.4%), kappa coefficient .88 and AUC .94, and 21 point is the best cut-off for ADHD predominantly inattentive presentation: sensitivity (70.2%), specificity (76.1%), PPV (71.7%), NPV (74.8%), kappa coefficient .88 and AUC .94. Conclusions. In this study, the Spanish version of the ADHD-RS is a valid scale to discriminate between ADHD adults and controls. The new proposed score strategy suggests the relevance of clinical presentations in the different cut-offs selected (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/classificação , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Análise Estatística , Análise Fatorial , Psicometria/métodos
14.
Bipolar Disord ; 19(8): 637-650, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28941032

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Research on neurocognitive impairment in adult patients with comorbid bipolar disorder (BD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is very scarce. This study assessed the neurocognitive profile of a comorbid group (BD+ADHD) compared with that of pure BD (pBD) group, pure ADHD (pADHD) group and healthy controls (HCs). METHODS: This was a three-site study comprising 229 subjects: 70 patients with pBD, 23 with BD+ADHD, 50 with pADHD, and 86 HCs. All patients with BD had been euthymic for at least 6 months. Neuropsychological performance was assessed using a comprehensive neurocognitive battery. RESULTS: Our results showed that all the clinical groups had poorer performance than the HCs in all the neurocognitive domains except for executive functions. No significant differences were observed between the pBD and BD+ADHD groups in any of the cognitive domains, with these two groups showing greater impairment than the pADHD group in executive functions and visual memory. CONCLUSIONS: Our results, although preliminary, suggest that the BD+ADHD group showed the same neurocognitive profile as pBD patients, most likely reflecting the same neurobiological basis. On the other hand, the pADHD group showed a more selective moderate impairment in attention.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno Bipolar , Transtornos Neurocognitivos , Adulto , Atenção , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Comorbidade , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/etiologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/psicologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estatística como Assunto
15.
Rev Psiquiatr Salud Ment ; 10(4): 185-191, 2017 Oct - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28844652

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has a prevalence between 2.5% and 4% of the general adult population. Over the past few decades, self-report measures have been developed for the current evaluation of adult ADHD. The ADHD-RS is a 18-items scale self-report version for assessing symptoms for ADHD DSM-IV. A validation of Spanish version of the ADHD-RS was performed. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The sample consisted of 304 adult with ADHD and 94 controls. A case control study was carried out (adult ADHD vs. non ADHD). The diagnosis of ADHD was evaluated with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID-I) and the Conners Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID-II). To determinate the internal validity of the two dimensions structure of ADHD-RS an exploratory factor analysis was performed. The α-coefficients were taken as a measure of the internal consistency of the dimensions considered. A logistic regression study was carried out to evaluate the model in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV). RESULTS: Average age was 33.29 (SD=10.50) and 66% of subjects were men (there were no significant differences between the two groups). Factor analysis was done with a principal component analysis followed by a normalized varimax rotation. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy tests was .868 (remarkable) and the Bartlett's test of sphericity was 2 (153)=1,835.76, P<.0005, indicating the appropriateness of the factor analysis. This two-factor model accounted for 37.81% of the explained variance. The α-coefficient of the two factors was .84 and .82. The original strategy proposed 24 point for cut-off: sensitivity (81.9%), specificity (74.7%), PPV (50.0%), NPV (93.0%), kappa coefficient .78 and area under the curve (AUC) .89. The new score strategy proposed by our group suggests different cut-off for different clinical presentations. The 24 point is the best cut-off for ADHD combined presentation: sensitivity (81.9%), specificity (87.3%), PPV (78.6%), NPV (89.4%), kappa coefficient .88 and AUC .94, and 21 point is the best cut-off for ADHD predominantly inattentive presentation: sensitivity (70.2%), specificity (76.1%), PPV (71.7%), NPV (74.8%), kappa coefficient .88 and AUC .94. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the Spanish version of the ADHD-RS is a valid scale to discriminate between ADHD adults and controls. The new proposed score strategy suggests the relevance of clinical presentations in the different cut-offs selected.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Espanha , Traduções
16.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 5407, 2017 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28710364

RESUMO

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition characterized by pervasive impairment of attention, hyperactivity, and/or impulsivity that can persist into adulthood. The aetiology of ADHD is complex and multifactorial and, despite the wealth of evidence for its high heritability, genetic studies have provided modest evidence for the involvement of specific genes and have failed to identify consistent and replicable results. Due to the lack of robust findings, we performed gene-wide and pathway enrichment analyses using pre-existing GWAS data from 607 persistent ADHD subjects and 584 controls, produced by our group. Subsequently, expression profiles of genes surpassing a follow-up threshold of P-value < 1e-03 in the gene-wide analyses were tested in peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) of 45 medication-naive adults with ADHD and 39 healthy unrelated controls. We found preliminary evidence for genetic association between RNF122 and ADHD and for its overexpression in adults with ADHD. RNF122 encodes for an E3 ubiquitin ligase involved in the proteasome-mediated processing, trafficking, and degradation of proteins that acts as an essential mediator of the substrate specificity of ubiquitin ligation. Thus, our findings support previous data that place the ubiquitin-proteasome system as a promising candidate for its involvement in the aetiology of ADHD.

17.
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 64(supl.1): s117-s122, 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-163045

RESUMO

Introducción. El trastorno por déficit de atención/hiperactividad (TDAH) es un trastorno del neurodesarrollo altamente prevalente, presenta una elevada comorbilidad con sintomatología afectiva y ansiosa, afecta a la funcionalidad de la persona que lo padece, tienen una baja adhesión terapéutica y genera unos costes sociales y personales elevados. El mindfulness es un tratamiento psicológico que ha demostrado ser eficaz para el TDAH. La realidad virtual es un tratamiento altamente utilizado en fobias y extendido a otras patologías con resultados positivos. Objetivo. Desarrollar el primer tratamiento con realidad virtual y mindfulness para el TDAH en la edad adulta, que suponga un aumento en la adhesión terapéutica y reduzca costes. Pacientes y métodos. Estudio piloto de 25 pacientes tratados con realidad virtual, mediante cuatro sesiones de 30 minutos, y 25 mediante psicoestimulantes. Se tomarán medidas de evaluación pretratamiento, postratamiento y postratamiento a los 3 y 12 meses, tanto de TDAH como de depresión, ansiedad, funcionalidad y calidad de vida. Se analizarán posteriormente con el programa SPSS v. 20 y se realizará un ANOVA de grupos independientes para ver las diferencias entre tratamientos y un test-retest para detectar el mantenimiento de los cambios. Resultados y conclusiones. Es necesaria la utilización de tratamientos que sean efectivos, supongan una reducción en los costes y un aumento en la adhesión terapéutica. El tratamiento con realidad virtual se plantea como una alternativa a los tratamientos clásicos, que sea más breve y atractiva para los pacientes (AU)


Introduction. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder, which presents a high comorbidity with anxiety and affective signs and symptoms. It has repercussions on the functioning of those suffering from it, who also have low therapy compliance and generate a significant cost both at a personal level and for society. Mindfulness is a psychological treatment that has proved to be effective for ADHD. Virtual reality is widely used as treatment in cases of phobias and other pathologies, with positive results. Aims. To develop the first treatment for ADHD in adults based on virtual reality and mindfulness, while also resulting in increased treatment adherence and reduced costs. Patients and methods. We conducted a pilot study with 25 patients treated by means of virtual reality, in four 30-minute sessions, and 25 treated with psychostimulants. Measures will be taken pre-treatment, post-treatment and at 3 and 12 months post-treatment, to evaluate both ADHD and also depression, anxiety, functionality and quality of life. Data will be later analysed with the SPSS v. 20 statistical program. An ANOVA of independent groups will be performed to see the differences between treatments and also a test-retest to detect whether the changes will be maintained. Results and conclusions. It is necessary to use treatments that are effective, reduce costs and increase therapy adherence. Treatment with virtual reality is an interesting alternative to the classical treatments, and is shorter and more attractive for patients (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/métodos , Terapia de Exposição à Realidade Virtual/tendências , Atenção Plena/métodos , Atenção Plena/tendências , Projetos Piloto , Análise de Variância , Adesão à Medicação , Psicoterapia Centrada na Pessoa/métodos , Psicoterapia Centrada na Pessoa/tendências , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
J Atten Disord ; 2016 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27125994

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess for the first time the criterion validity of the semi-structured Diagnostic Interview for ADHD in adults (DIVA 2.0), and its concurrent validity in comparison with the Conners' Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV (CAADID) and other ADHD severity scales, following the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) criteria. METHOD: A transversal study was performed on 40 out-patients with ADHD to check the criteria and concurrent validity of the DIVA 2.0 compared with the CAADID. RESULTS: The DIVA 2.0 interview showed a diagnostic accuracy of 100% when compared with the diagnoses obtained with the CAADID interview. The concurrent validity demonstrated good correlations with three self-reported rating scales: the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS; r = .544, p < .0001), the ADHD-Rating Scale (r = .720, p < .0001), and Sheehan's Dysfunction Inventory (r = .674, p < .0001). CONCLUSION: The DIVA 2.0 is a reliable tool for assessing and diagnosing Adult ADHD and is the only one that offers free online access for clinical and research purposes.

19.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 168(6): 480-491, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26174753

RESUMO

We performed a case-control association study in persistent ADHD considering eight candidate genes (DRD4, DAT1/SLC6A3, COMT, ADRA2A, CES1, CYP2D6, LPHN3, and OPRM1) and found additional evidence for the involvement of the Dup 120bp and VNTR 48bp functional variants within the dopamine receptor DRD4 gene in the etiology of adult ADHD. We subsequently investigated the interaction of stressful life events with these two DRD4 polymorphisms, and the impact of such events on the severity of ADHD symptomatology. The gene-by-environment analysis revealed an independent effect of stressful experiences on the severity of persistent ADHD, and a gene-by-environment interaction on the inattentive dimension of the disorder, where non carriers of the Dup 120bp (L) - VNTR 48bp (7R) haplotype were more sensitive to environmental adversity than carriers. These results are in agreement with previous works reporting a relationship between DRD4 and the effect of adverse experiences, which may explain the discordant findings in previous genetic studies and strengthen the importance of gene-by-environment interactions on the severity of ADHD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

20.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 168(6): 459-470, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26174813

RESUMO

Attention deficit is one of the core symptoms of the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the specific genetic variants that may be associated with attention function in adult ADHD remain largely unknown. The present study aimed to identifying SNPs associated with attention function in adult ADHD and tested whether these associations were enriched for specific biological pathways. Commissions, hit-reaction time (HRT), the standard error of HRT (HRTSE), and intraindividual coefficient variability (ICV) of the Conners Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II) were assessed in 479 unmedicated adult ADHD individuals. A Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) was conducted for each outcome and, subsequently, gene set enrichment analyses were performed. Although no SNPs reached genome-wide significance (P < 5E-08), 27 loci showed suggestive evidence of association with the CPT outcomes (P < E-05). The most relevant associated SNP was located in the SORCS2 gene (P = 3.65E-07), previously associated with bipolar disorder (BP), Alzheimer disease (AD), and brain structure in elderly individuals. We detected other genes suggested to be involved in synaptic plasticity, cognitive function, neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, and smoking behavior such as NUAK1, FGF20, NETO1, BTBD9, DLG2, TOP3B, and CHRNB4. Also, several of the pathways nominally associated with the CPT outcomes are relevant for ADHD such as the ubiquitin proteasome, neurodegenerative disorders, axon guidance, and AD amyloid secretase pathways. To our knowledge, this is the first GWAS and pathway analysis of attention function in patients with persistent ADHD. Overall, our findings reinforce the conceptualization of attention function as a potential endophenotype for studying the molecular basis of adult ADHD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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