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1.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33398545

RESUMO

During the perioperative period, nociception control is certainly one of the anesthesiologist's main objectives when assuming care of a patient. There exists some literature demonstrating that the nociceptive stimuli experienced during surgery are responsible for peripheral and central sensitization phenomena, which can in turn lead to persistent postsurgical pain. An individualized approach to the evaluation and treatment of perioperative nociception is beneficial in order to avoid the sensitization phenomena that leads to prolonged postoperative pain and to minimize the consumption of opiates and their adverse effects. In terms of sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values when compared to heart rate (HR) and mean arterial pressure (MAP), recent literature has shown that the NOL variation (ΔNOL) is the best index to distinguish noxious from non-noxious stimuli. Chronic treatment with ß1-adrenergic antagonists may constitute a limitation to the use of the NOL index. ß1-adrenergic antagonists induce a depressive action on the heart rate, which results in a limitation of its variability after a noxious stimulus. Since heart rate and heart rate variability are two parameters integrated into the NOL index, the validity of the NOL index in a population of patients receiving ß1-adrenergic antagonists has not yet been determined. Our study sought to explore the NOL index, the BIS, and the heart rate variation in a group of patients under chronic treatment with ß1-adrenergic antagonists submitted to standardized noxious stimulus under general anesthesia. We then compared those results to a control group of patients from our previous study (CJA group) that received no ß1-adrenergic antagonist chronic treatment. The patients in this study were subjected to a standardized anesthetic protocol from induction up to 3 min after a standardized tetanic stimulus to the ulnar nerve at a frequency of 100 Hz and an amperage of 70 mA, for a duration of 30 s. Data were electronically recorded to obtain NOL, BIS, and heart rate values every 5 s for the duration of the protocol. The NOL maximal mean value reached after noxious stimulation was not different between our two cohorts (CJA: 30(14) versus BETANOL: 36(14) (p = 0.12)). There was no statistically significant difference between our cohorts in regards of the NOL AUC representing the variation of the NOL over a 180 s period (CJA: 595(356) versus BETANOL: 634(301) (p = 0.30)). However, a repeated measurement ANCOVA identified slight statistically significant differences between our cohorts in the peak of variation of the NOL index between 20 and 65 s after noxious stimulation, the NOL index of the cohort of beta-blocked patients being higher than the CJA patients. Moreover, the time to reach the maximum value was not different (CJA: 73(37) versus BETANOL: 63(41) (p = 0.35)). NOL sensitivity and specificity to detect a noxious stimulus under general anesthesia were similar in patients taking beta-blockers or not, and were better than those of heart rate and Bispectral index (AUC NOL 0.97, CI(0.92-1), versus AUC BIS 0.78, CI(0.64-0.89) and AUC HR 0.66, CI(0.5-0.8)). In conclusion, the NOL index is a reliable monitor to assess nociception in a population of patients under chronic beta-blocker therapy. Patients under such therapy achieve similar maximal NOL values over a 180 s period after a standardized noxious stimulus and the NOL variation over time, represented by the AUC is not significantly different from a cohort of non-beta-blocked patients. Whether the patient takes beta-blockers or not, sensitivity of the NOL index is greater than that seen for BIS index or heart rate to detect an experimental noxious stimulus under general anesthesia.

2.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; Publish Ahead of Print2021 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33399383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nitrous oxide (N2O) has been used since the 19th century for its analgesic, antinociceptive and anxiolytic effects during surgical procedures in awake and anaesthetised patients. However, quantification of noxious stimuli that occur under general anaesthesia is a constant challenge for anaesthesiologists, and recently two new indices have been developed to assess intra-operative nociception. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to quantify with new indices as well as with more classical clinical parameters the antinociceptive effect of N2O during general anaesthesia. DESIGN: Prospective, open label, patient-blinded, observational and descriptive trial. SETTING: Single-centre academic hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Forty American Society of Anesthesiologists' physical status 1 to 3 patients undergoing general anaesthesia for elective abdominal surgery via laparotomy were recruited. MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: Intra-operative pain was assessed using a standardised electrical stimulation of the forearm (tetanic stimulation at 70 mA, 100 Hz for 30 s), at 0, 25 and 50% inhaled N2O/O2. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure, bispectral index, the analgesia nociception index and the nociception level (NOL) index were used to evaluate intra-operative nociception before and after each standardised tetanic stimulation. RESULTS: There was a 16% reduction of the analgesia nociception index reaction, a 31% reduction of the NOL reaction and a 51% reduction of the HR reaction to a standardised electrical tetanic nociceptive stimulation during administration of 50% N2O. Administration of 50 or 25% inhaled N2O produced the same quality of antinociception based on HR and NOL index analyses. HR and the NOL index were the best parameters to identify the antinociceptive effect of intra-operatively administered N2O. CONCLUSION: In anaesthetised patients, our study demonstrated clinically significant antinociceptive properties of N2O. Our results showed that low concentrations of N2O (25%) are as effective as higher concentrations (50%) to achieve a significant antinociceptive effect. These findings may help decrease negative effects of using higher concentrations of N2O, including its side effects and its environmental pollution. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov registration identifier: NCT02701478.

3.
BMC Anesthesiol ; 21(1): 15, 2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33435887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on postoperative outcomes of the COVID-19 patient population is limited. We described COVID-19 patients who underwent a surgery and the pandemic impact on surgical activities. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter cohort study between March 13 and June 192,020. We included all COVID-19 patients who underwent surgery in nine centres of the Province of Québec, the Canadian province most afflicted by the pandemic. We also included concomitant suspected COVID-19 (subsequently confirmed not to have COVID-19) patients and patients who had recovered from it. We collected data on baseline characteristics, postoperative complications and postoperative mortality. Our primary outcome was 30-day mortality. We also collected data on overall surgical activities during this first wave and during the same period in 2019. RESULTS: We included 44 COVID-19 patients, 18 suspected patients, and 18 patients who had recovered from COVID-19 at time of surgery. Among the 44 COVID-19 patients, 31 surgeries (71%) were urgent and 16 (36%) were major. In these patients, pulmonary complications were frequent (25%) and 30-day mortality was high (15.9%). This mortality was higher in patients with symptoms (23.1%) compared to those without symptoms (5.6%), although not statistically significant (p = 0.118). Of the total 22,616 cases performed among participating centres during the study period, only 0.19% had COVID-19 at the time of surgery. Fewer procedures were performed during the study period compared to the same period in 2019 (44,486 cases). CONCLUSION: In this Canadian cohort study, postoperative 30-day mortality in COVID-19 patients undergoing surgery was high (15.9%). Although few surgeries were performed on COVID-19 patients, the pandemic impact on surgical activity volume was important. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04458337 .


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados da Assistência ao Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
5.
Pain Manag Nurs ; 21(5): 428-434, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) suffer from pain and are non-communicative. Therefore, alternative pain measures are necessary. Although behavioral pain measures are available, physiological measures are lacking. The Nociception Level index (NOL™) provides a value from combination of multiple physiological parameters to measure pain and its use in the ICU is new. AIM: To explore the use of a multiple physiological parameter measure for pain assessment, the NOL™ index, in mechanically ventilated patients able to self-report pain in the ICU. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed. Data were collected before, during, and 15 minutes after a non-nociceptive procedure (noninvasive blood pressure using cuff inflation) and a nociceptive procedure (endotracheal suctioning). NOL index, 0 to 10 pain intensity, and Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) scores were also obtained. Data were analyzed using Friedman and Mann-Whitney tests. Feasibility of study procedures was described. RESULTS: Out of 28 patients who consented, 17 remained eligible and data were analyzed for 15. Technical issues prevented obtaining a NOL signal in 2 patients. NOL values were higher during endotracheal suctioning (median = 41.6) compared with before (median = 11.2) and after the procedure (median = 11.8) and compared with cuff inflation (median = 15.1; Friedman test, p < .001). NOL values were associated with pain intensity and CPOT scores (Mann-Whitney tests, p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The study procedures with the NOL were found feasible; NOL values could discriminate between nociceptive and non-nociceptive procedures, and values were associated with reference pain measures. Further NOL testing is required in other ICU patient groups and procedures.

6.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(5): 1145-1151, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282591

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of exteriorized with in situ uterine repair on intraoperative nausea and vomiting during elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia using a phenylephrine infusion. METHODS: This study was a randomized double-blinded controlled trial of 180 women undergoing elective cesarean delivery using a standardized anesthetic protocol. Patients were randomized to exteriorization (n=90) or in situ uterine repair (n=90). The spinal anesthetic, phenylephrine infusion, and blood pressure management were all standardized. The primary outcome was postdelivery intraoperative nausea and vomiting using a 4-point scale (0-3). A sample size of 80 patients per group was needed to demonstrate a 50% reduction in intraoperative nausea and vomiting with in situ repair. RESULTS: From November 2015 through July 2018, 180 patients were enrolled. Incidence of postdelivery intraoperative nausea and vomiting was 39% in the exteriorization group compared with 22% in the in situ group (P=.01). Incidence of hypotension (80% vs 50%; P<.001) and tachycardia (33% vs 17%; P=.02) was significantly higher in the exteriorization group, and more phenylephrine boluses were administered to this group (median 4 boluses [first and third quartiles 1.25-7] vs 2 [0-4]; P<.001). The duration of surgery, blood loss, and postoperative hemoglobin decline were similar between groups. CONCLUSION: In situ uterine repair for elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia with a phenylephrine infusion is associated with less postdelivery intraoperative nausea and vomiting. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02587013.


Assuntos
Antieméticos/administração & dosagem , Parto Obstétrico/efeitos adversos , Histerotomia/métodos , Complicações Intraoperatórias/prevenção & controle , Fenilefrina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Raquianestesia , Cesárea/métodos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/induzido quimicamente , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Complicações Intraoperatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Intraoperatórias/etiologia , Náusea/epidemiologia , Náusea/etiologia , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Gravidez , Taquicardia/induzido quimicamente , Taquicardia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Útero/cirurgia , Vômito/epidemiologia , Vômito/etiologia , Vômito/prevenção & controle
7.
Can J Surg ; 63(1): E19-E20, 2020 01 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944637

RESUMO

Summary: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) is a model of care that was introduced in the late 1990s by a group of surgeons in Europe. The model consists of a number of evidence-based principles that support better outcomes for surgical patients, including improved patient experience, reduced length of stay in hospital, decreased complication rates and fewer hospital readmissions. A number of Canadian surgical care teams have already adopted ERAS principles and have reported positive outcomes. Arising from the Canadian Patient Safety Institute's Integrated Patient Safety Action Plan for Surgical Care Safety, and with support from numerous partner organizations from across the country, Enhanced Recovery Canada is leading the drive to improve surgical safety across the country and help disseminate these ERAS principles. We discuss the development of a multidisciplinary clinical pathway for elective colorectal surgery to help guide Canadian clinicians.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Colorretal/normas , Procedimentos Clínicos/normas , Recuperação Pós-Cirúrgica Melhorada/normas , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Segurança do Paciente/normas , Canadá , Medicina Baseada em Evidências/normas , Humanos
9.
J Clin Monit Comput ; 34(5): 1079-1086, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598823

RESUMO

Recently, the nociceptive level index (NOL) was shown to more specifically and sensitively detect noxious stimuli during anesthesia, in comparison to previous methods that relied on such parameters as heart rate (HR) and mean blood pressure (MAP). An ongoing study (NCT#03410485) evaluates the intraoperative combination of both NOL and bispectral (BIS) indices to improve quality of recovery after colorectal surgery. Our ethical committee (REB approval #CER15083) initially agreed on an interim analysis of the data from the first 30 patients. More specifically, this present report analyzed all the intravenous phenylephrine (PE) boluses administered during anesthesia as part of our study protocol to see whether they had a significant impact on NOL values as well as other parameters: HR, MAP, BIS index. For this trial, remifentanil and phenylephrine were given in both groups based on a specific algorithm. All study parameters were recorded electronically. Our analysis for the present specific outcome evaluated NOL index for 30 s before the intravenous PE bolus (1 µg kg-1) was given and until 5 min afterwards. The average NOL values after PE bolus, as well as MAP, HR and BIS indices, were recorded and analyzed. A total of 178 events of PE boluses were identified for 28 patients (two were excluded). Median baseline NOL was 3 (1.8-8.3) CI 95% 5.7-8.7; post-PE bolus: 5.3 (2.7-9.9) (95% CI 6.6-8.9; Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test (WMPSRT), P = 0.0003). When analyzing delta NOL (difference between pre- and post-PE bolus in NOL values) for each patient, the median delta NOL was 2.9 (1.2-6.1) (95% CI 3.6-5.5) with 95% of the subjects keeping a delta NOL under 10. MAP and HR values showed expected significant variations after PE bolus: a slight increase and slight decrease, respectively. BIS index values did not change after PE bolus. Our present results demonstrate that intravenous phenylephrine boluses of 1 µg kg-1 had the expected impact on hemodynamic parameters: a significant but very slight increase in MAP and decrease in HR, which might lack clinical relevance. Our report also demonstrates that these same phenylephrine boluses induce a statistically significant increase of the NOL index which does not seem to have much of a clinical relevance for the novel NOL index used to monitor intraoperative nociception as well as for the more classical BIS index for depth of anesthesia. Nevertheless, doses of intravenous PE bolus used in the present study (1 µg kg-1) might be regarded as smaller than more conventional ones (100-200 µg per bolus). Further studies need to be done with the latter doses.

11.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 32(6): 735-742, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567511

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ambulatory surgery plays a major role in cost-effective patient care without compromising patient safety and satisfaction. This concept improves the patient support and decreases the length of stay sometimes until ambulatory surgery. The aim of this review is to examine the current state of the art of anesthesia for thoracic ambulatory surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Guidelines for enhanced recovery after thoracic surgery (ERATS) have recently been published. They can be safely implemented without increasing hospital readmission or mortality. Video-assisted thoracoscopy may be the best approach within a fast-track program. Anesthetic management should focus on combination of regional analgesia and general anesthesia techniques. General anesthesia should be performed with short acting agent and prevention of residual paralysis. Thoracic epidural analgesia is the gold standard technique for pain control after major thoracic surgery but not compatible with a quick hospital discharge. Thoracic paravertebral block, Serratus plane block, intercostal nerve block, and more recently erector spinae plane block have all been used with success for analgesia in thoracic surgery. CONCLUSION: ERATS program may lead to improved outcomes including decreased length of stay, but it is currently too early to show the impact on thoracic ambulatory surgery that concerned selected patients for lung resection.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Anestesia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Torácicos , Humanos
12.
Curr Opin Anaesthesiol ; 32(6): 720-726, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31567512

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review aims to propose pharmacological strategies to enhance current clinical practices for analgesia in ambulatory surgical settings and in the context of the opioid epidemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Each year, a high volume of patients undergoes ambulatory surgery worldwide. The multimodal analgesia proposed to ambulatory patients must provide the best analgesic effect and patient satisfaction while respecting the rules of safety for ambulatory surgery. The role of nurses, anesthesiologists, and surgeons around said surgery is to relieve suffering, achieve early mobilization and patient satisfaction, and reduce duration of stay in hospital. Currently, and particularly in North America, overprescription of opioids has reached a critical level constituting a 'crisis'. Thus, we see the need to offer more optimal multimodal analgesia strategies to ambulatory patients. SUMMARY: These strategies must combine three key components when not contraindicated: regional/local analgesia, acetaminophen, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Adjuvants such as gabapentinoids, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor modulators, glucocorticoids, α2-adrenergic receptor agonists, intravenous lidocaine might be added to the initial multimodal strategy, however, caution must be used regarding their side effects and risks of delaying recovery after ambulatory surgery. Weaker opioids (e.g. oxycodone, hydrocodone, tramadol) could be used rather than more powerful ones (e.g. morphine, hydromorphone, inhaled fentanyl, sufentanil). This, combined with education about postoperative weaning of opioids after surgery must be done in order to avoid long-term reliance of these drugs.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Ambulatórios , Analgesia/métodos , Adulto , Humanos
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(30): e16467, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31348249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of the anesthesia management during cytoreductive surgery (CRS) plus hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for the treatment of colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis (CRPC) on postoperative outcomes might be of major importance in the process of postoperative recovery. It might have a significant impact on intra- and postoperative outcomes, but the evaluation of this impact seems to be under-reported. To investigate the question whether the anesthesia management was reported in previous studies done in this population and if it had any impact on postoperative outcomes, we propose to conduct a systematic review of the published literature. METHODS: For this review, we will follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P). Medline/PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) will be systematically consulted for eligible studies without age, gender, ethnic, and language restriction. The goal of this review will be to assess whether anesthesia monitoring, dosing, and analgesia protocols were reported in this literature on this specific procedure and whether the impact of the anesthesia management on intraoperative safety and postoperative recovery was evaluated. RESULTS: The results of this systematic review will allow to answer the initial question: has the impact of anesthesia management on intraoperative safety and patients' postoperative recovery already been studied and reported in the past for this type of major surgery? And does anesthesia have any impact on postoperative outcomes? DISCUSSION: In the hypothesis that the impact of anesthesia management on patients' postoperative recovery has never been studied, or very little reported in previous studies in this type of major surgery, it would be justified to conduct a randomized controlled trial on this specific objective. REGISTRATION: This systematic review protocol was registered in PROSPERO, under the registration number CRD42019124162.


Assuntos
Anestesia/métodos , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/métodos , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Neoplasias Peritoneais/cirurgia , Anestesia/efeitos adversos , Anestesia/normas , Protocolos Clínicos , Humanos , Segurança do Paciente , Projetos de Pesquisa
14.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0215221, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120888

RESUMO

Poor reporting quality may contribute to irreproducibility of results and failed 'bench-to-bedside' translation. Consequently, guidelines have been developed to improve the complete and transparent reporting of in vivo preclinical studies. To examine the impact of such guidelines on core methodological and analytical reporting items in the preclinical anesthesiology literature, we sampled a cohort of studies. Preclinical in vivo studies published in Anesthesiology, Anesthesia & Analgesia, Anaesthesia, and the British Journal of Anaesthesia (2008-2009, 2014-2016) were identified. Data was extracted independently and in duplicate. Reporting completeness was assessed using the National Institutes of Health Principles and Guidelines for Reporting Preclinical Research. Risk ratios were used for comparative analyses. Of 7615 screened articles, 604 met our inclusion criteria and included experiments reporting on 52 490 animals. The most common topic of investigation was pain and analgesia (30%), rodents were most frequently used (77%), and studies were most commonly conducted in the United States (36%). Use of preclinical reporting guidelines was listed in 10% of applicable articles. A minority of studies fully reported on replicates (0.3%), randomization (10%), blinding (12%), sample-size estimation (3%), and inclusion/exclusion criteria (5%). Statistics were well reported (81%). Comparative analysis demonstrated few differences in reporting rigor between journals, including those that endorsed reporting guidelines. Principal items of study design were infrequently reported, with few differences between journals. Methods to improve implementation and adherence to community-based reporting guidelines may be necessary to increase transparent and consistent reporting in the preclinical anesthesiology literature.


Assuntos
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/normas , Relatório de Pesquisa/normas , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Guias como Assunto , Dor/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(9): 1049-1061, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30997633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Pain Monitoring Device (PMD) monitor (Medasense Biometrics Ltd., Ramat Gan, Israel) uses the Nociception Level (NOL) index, a multiple parameter-derived index that has recently shown a good sensitivity and specificity to detect noxious stimuli. The aim of this study was to assess the latest version of the device (PMD200TM) on variations of the NOL response after standardized tetanic stimuli to study the correlation between remifentanil doses and NOL. METHODS: Data from 26 patients undergoing midline laparotomy and receiving a desflurane-remifentanil-based anesthetic coupled with low thoracic epidural analgesia were analyzed. A standardized tetanic stimulus was applied to the forearm of the patients at different remifentanil infusion rates. The primary aim was to evaluate the correlation between post-tetanic stimulation NOL values from the PMD200 and remifentanil doses. The NOL index variations after experimental and clinical stimuli were also compared with heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and Bispectral Index™ (BIS). RESULTS: A correlation between post-tetanic stimulation NOL values and remifentanil doses was found (r = -0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.70 to -0.44; P < 0.001). The NOL discriminated noxious from non-noxious states with the maximal Youden's index value of the NOL receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve showing a specificity of 88% (95% CI, 69.0 to 100) and sensitivity of 79.1% (95% CI, 56.2 to 95.5). The area under the NOL ROC curve (AUC, 0.9; 95% CI, 0.84 to 0.95) was significantly different from the other variables (P < 0.001 vs HR; P < 0.001 vs MAP; P < 0.001 vs BIS). CONCLUSIONS: The NOL value after noxious stimulus decreased with incremental remifentanil doses, showing a significant inverse correlation between the NOL index and opioid doses. The sensitivity and specificity of NOL to discriminate between noxious and non-noxious stimuli suggests its interesting potential as a monitor of nociception intensity during anesthesia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02884778); 27 July, 2016.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Laparotomia/métodos , Monitorização Intraoperatória/métodos , Remifentanil/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Analgesia Epidural/métodos , Pressão Arterial/fisiologia , Desflurano/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Estimulação Elétrica , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nociceptividade/fisiologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
16.
Curr Drug Saf ; 14(2): 140-146, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843492

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of this survey was to describe the clinical monitoring practically used after intravenous, subcutaneous or neuraxial (epidural or intrathecal) administration of morphine. METHODS: It was a descriptive, retrospective, multicenter (10 hospitals) survey based on the medical charts' analysis, which evaluated the postoperative clinical monitoring after morphine administration. RESULTS: Morphine was delivered intravenously (69%), intrathecally (19%), epidurally (10%) and/or subcutaneously (12%). Clinical monitoring protocols and protocols for the management of side effects were both present in 60% (n=6/10), only one of the two types of protocols in 10% (n=1/10) and both absent in 30% (n=3/10). Protocols for the management of respiratory depression and consciousness evaluation were present in 70% of cases (n=7/10). These events were reported on medical records without any prescription or protocol in 35% (n=14/40) and 37,5% (n=15/40) respectively. Prescriptions for respiratory rate evaluation and clinical monitoring of consciousness were in agreement with only 20% of the medical data and medical records. Different levels of respiratory rate were observed: 43% (n=3/7) below 8/min, 43% (n=3/7) below 10/min and 14% (n=1/7) below 12/min. Clinical monitoring was not performed in 31% (n=31/100) for consciousness and in 35% (n=35/100) for respiratory rate. Pulse oximeter was used in 48% (n=48/100) of patients. Capnography was never used. Respiratory depression occurred in 1% (n=1/100) of cases. CONCLUSION: This survey emphasizes an important disparity in the prescription of medical monitoring and a lack of use of protocols when morphine is administered. It demonstrates the need for a standardization of protocols according to the existing guidelines.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Insuficiência Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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