Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 73
Filtrar
1.
Orthod Craniofac Res ; 23(3): 323-331, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163667

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this prospective controlled study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the rapid maxillary expander (RME) and face mask treatment using three-dimensional soft-tissue facial characteristics of pre-pubertal Class III children. SETTING AND SAMPLE POPULATION: CLIII and non-CLIII groups, both of 32 white children aged 6-8 years participated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Facial surface images were obtained using stereophotogrammetry at T0 and T1 and were superimposed. Landmark-based and surface-based facial parameters were measured, and group differences were quantified (ANOVA; P ≥ .05). RESULTS: CLIII children had less mid-face prominence, shorter lower facial height and protruded mandible when compared to non-CLIII children at T0. At T1, the differences between the groups were not statistically significant, indicating successful correction. After the RME/face mask treatment, the n-sn and sn-pg distances increased by 1.5 mm and 2.2 mm, respectively. The distance from sn to the n-pg line increased by 1 mm, the n-sn-pg angle decreased by almost 2°. Pogonion moved downward by 2.5 mm and posteriorly by 3 mm. The surface-based measurements between the groups after treatment showed anterior movement in the mid-face region and the upper lip region. The lower lip and chin region moved posteriorly in the CLIII group and anteriorly in the non-CLIII group. CONCLUSIONS: After RME/face mask treatment, the lower facial height increased, the maxilla moved anteriorly, and the mandible moved posteriorly. Consequently, CLIII children reached the respective values of the non-CLIII children, indicating a harmonious facial appearance of CLIII children. The results have been obtained using non-invasive technique.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III , Maxila , Cefalometria , Criança , Humanos , Mandíbula , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Eur J Orthod ; 2019 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748803

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have highlighted differences in the facial features in a White European population. Genetics appear to have a major influence on normal facial variation, and environmental factors are likely to have minor influences on face shape directly or through epigenetic mechanisms. AIM: The aim of this longitudinal cohort study is to determine the rate of change in midline facial landmarks in three distinct homogenous population groups (Finnish, Latvian, and Welsh) from 12.8 to 15.3 years of age. This age range covers the pubertal growth period for the majority of boys and girls. METHODS: A cohort of children aged 12 were monitored for facial growth in three countries [Finland (n = 60), Latvia (n = 107), and Wales (n = 96)]. Three-dimensional facial surface images were acquired (using either laser or photogrammetric methods) at regular intervals (6-12 months) for 4 years. Ethical approval was granted in each country. Nine midline landmarks were identified and the relative spatial positions of these surface landmarks were measured relative to the mid-endocanthion (men) over a 4-year period. RESULTS: This study reports the children who attended 95 per cent of all scanning sessions (Finland 48 out of 60; Latvia 104 out of 107; Wales 50 out of 96). Considerable facial variation is seen for all countries and sexes. There are clear patterns of growth that show different magnitudes at different age groups for the different country groups, sexes, and facial parameters. The greatest single yearly growth rate (5.4 mm) was seen for Welsh males for men-pogonion distance at 13.6 years of age. Males exhibit greater rates of growth compared to females. These variations in magnitude and timings are likely to be influenced by genetic ancestry as a result of population migration. CONCLUSION: The midline points are a simple and valid method to assess the relative spatial positions of facial surface landmarks. This study confirms previous reports on the subtle differences in facial shapes and sizes of male and female children in different populations and also highlights the magnitudes and timings of growth for various midline landmark distances to the men point.

3.
Elife ; 82019 11 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763980

RESUMO

The human face represents a combined set of highly heritable phenotypes, but knowledge on its genetic architecture remains limited, despite the relevance for various fields. A series of genome-wide association studies on 78 facial shape phenotypes quantified from 3-dimensional facial images of 10,115 Europeans identified 24 genetic loci reaching study-wide suggestive association (p < 5 × 10-8), among which 17 were previously unreported. A follow-up multi-ethnic study in additional 7917 individuals confirmed 10 loci including six unreported ones (padjusted < 2.1 × 10-3). A global map of derived polygenic face scores assembled facial features in major continental groups consistent with anthropological knowledge. Analyses of epigenomic datasets from cranial neural crest cells revealed abundant cis-regulatory activities at the face-associated genetic loci. Luciferase reporter assays in neural crest progenitor cells highlighted enhancer activities of several face-associated DNA variants. These results substantially advance our understanding of the genetic basis underlying human facial variation and provide candidates for future in-vivo functional studies.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Desenvolvimento Maxilofacial/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Padronização Corporal/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Ontologia Genética , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Herança Multifatorial , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
4.
J Orthod ; 46(4): 311-322, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31631744

RESUMO

AIM: To determine factors that may influence the outcome of orthodontic treatment undertaken in General Dental Services/Personal Dental Services in South East Wales. DESIGN AND SETTING: A retrospective study of a requested 20 consecutively treated cases (for the year 2014-2015) provided by 26 performers in South East Wales. METHOD: Performer and patient information was obtained by use of a questionnaire and FP17OW forms, respectively. A calibrated investigator recorded the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN), Peer Assessment Rating (PAR) and the Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON) on start- and end-study models for each case. Descriptive and regression analyses were undertaken to identify any predictive factors of a good treatment outcome. RESULTS: Two respondents completed < 20 cases, so all of their cases were assessed. A total of 495 cases were assessed. The overall achieved mean end-PAR score of 5 is collectively a good occlusal outcome. Predictive factors of a good quality of occlusal outcome (end-PAR score being ⩽ 5) were: dual arch treatment; use of functional with fixed appliances; treatment undertaken in non-corporate practices; and treatment undertaken by registered specialists (P < 0.001). Predictive factors for occlusal improvement (change in PAR score) were: IOTN aesthetic component (AC); IOTN dental health component (DHC) (1-3 or 4-5); and number of arches treated and malocclusion type (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Dual arch fixed appliances undertaken by orthodontic specialists in non-corporate environments produced the highest quality orthodontic outcomes. Those who have the highest need for treatment according to IOTN DHC and AC benefit most in terms of improvement achieved in PAR score.


Assuntos
Má Oclusão , Ortodontia Corretiva , Estética Dentária , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , País de Gales
5.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0221197, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661502

RESUMO

Classification of facial traits (e.g., lip shape) is an important area of medical research, for example, in determining associations between lip traits and genetic variants which may lead to a cleft lip. In clinical situations, classification of facial traits is usually performed subjectively directly on the individual or recorded later from a three-dimensional image, which is time consuming and prone to operator errors. The present study proposes, for the first time, an automatic approach for the classification and categorisation of lip area traits. Our approach uses novel three-dimensional geometric features based on surface curvatures measured along geodesic paths between anthropometric landmarks. Different combinations of geodesic features are analysed and compared. The effect of automatically identified categories on the face is visualised using a partial least squares method. The method was applied to the classification and categorisation of six lip shape traits (philtrum, Cupid's bow, lip contours, lip-chin, and lower lip tone) in a large sample of 4747 faces of normal British Western European descents. The proposed method demonstrates correct automatic classification rate of up to 90%.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Lábio/patologia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Adolescente , Fenda Labial/genética , Fenda Labial/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 197: 42-47, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772781

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High levels of prenatal alcohol exposure are known to cause an array of adverse outcomes including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); however, the effects of low to moderate exposure are less-well characterized. Previous findings suggest that differences in normal-range facial morphology may be a marker for alcohol exposure and related adverse effects. METHODS: In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we tested for an association between maternal alcohol consumption and six FAS-related facial phenotypes in their offspring, using both self-report questionnaires and the maternal genotype at rs1229984 in ADH1B as measures of maternal alcohol consumption. RESULTS: In both self-reported alcohol consumption (N = 4233) and rs1229984 genotype (N = 3139) analyses, we found no strong statistical evidence for an association between maternal alcohol consumption and facial phenotypes tested. The directions of effect estimates were compatible with the known effects of heavy alcohol exposure, but confidence intervals were largely centered around zero. CONCLUSIONS: There is no strong evidence, in a sample representative of the general population, for an effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on normal-range variation in facial morphology.


Assuntos
Face/anormalidades , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/etiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Adulto , Álcool Desidrogenase/análise , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Biomarcadores/análise , Criança , Face/patologia , Feminino , Transtornos do Espectro Alcoólico Fetal/patologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fenótipo , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/genética , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Reino Unido
7.
Eur J Orthod ; 41(3): 250-257, 2019 05 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30102316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Since a high prevalence of back anomalies has been reported among subjects with crossbite, the aim was to assess the degree of back symmetry among subjects with (crossbite) and without (control) unilateral functional crossbite during the pre-pubertal growth phase. METHODS: A group of 70 subjects (36 boys, 34 girls; 6.8 ± 1.2 years) in the primary or mixed dentition phase were included. Clinical assessment of head posture, shoulder, scapula and hip height were performed with the subject standing, and differences between the left and right side greater than 5 mm recorded. Asymmetry of the scapula and trunk prominence greater than 8 mm was recorded along with the prominence of thoracic and lumbar paravertebral musculature during the forward-bending test. Back symmetry was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively on colour deviation maps of superimposed mirrored three-dimensional back scans at a tolerance level of 2 mm. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed between the groups regarding the frequency of clinically assessed back anomalies. The percentage of back symmetry was slightly lower in the crossbite than that in the control group (71.4 ± 13.3% and 79.2 ± 12.1%, respectively). A significant association (P < 0.05) was seen between scapula plane inclination (OR = 3.41) and scapula prominence inequalities (OR = 3.29) and unilateral functional crossbite, while hip height inequalities (OR = 0.94) were more frequent in the control group. No associations were detected between the side of crossbite and side of prominence of back parameters. LIMITATIONS: The use of different thresholds for clinical (5-8 mm) and three-dimensional (2 mm) symmetry assessment. CONCLUSIONS: Although some degree of back asymmetry was detected in the crossbite group during the pre-pubertal growth phase, this asymmetry does not appear to be clinically relevant.

8.
Front Genet ; 9: 554, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30510565

RESUMO

Introduction: The human face is a complex trait displaying a strong genetic component as illustrated by various studies on facial heritability. Most of these start from sparse descriptions of facial shape using a limited set of landmarks. Subsequently, facial features are preselected as univariate measurements or principal components and the heritability is estimated for each of these features separately. However, none of these studies investigated multivariate facial features, nor the co-heritability between different facial features. Here we report a spatially dense multivariate analysis of facial heritability and co-heritability starting from data from fathers and their children available within ALSPAC. Additionally, we provide an elaborate overview of related craniofacial heritability studies. Methods: In total, 3D facial images of 762 father-offspring pairs were retained after quality control. An anthropometric mask was applied to these images to establish spatially dense quasi-landmark configurations. Partial least squares regression was performed and the (co-)heritability for all quasi-landmarks (∼7160) was computed as twice the regression coefficient. Subsequently, these were used as input to a hierarchical facial segmentation, resulting in the definition of facial modules that are internally integrated through the biological mechanisms of inheritance. Finally, multivariate heritability estimates were obtained for each of the resulting modules. Results: Nearly all modular estimates reached statistical significance under 1,000,000 permutations and after multiple testing correction (p ≤ 1.3889 × 10-3), displaying low to high heritability scores. Particular facial areas showing the greatest heritability were similar for both sons and daughters. However, higher estimates were obtained in the former. These areas included the global face, upper facial part (encompassing the nasion, zygomas and forehead) and nose, with values reaching 82% in boys and 72% in girls. The lower parts of the face only showed low to moderate levels of heritability. Conclusion: In this work, we refrain from reducing facial variation to a series of individual measurements and analyze the heritability and co-heritability from spatially dense landmark configurations at multiple levels of organization. Finally, a multivariate estimation of heritability for global-to-local facial segments is reported. Knowledge of the genetic determination of facial shape is useful in the identification of genetic variants that underlie normal-range facial variation.

9.
Front Genet ; 9: 413, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405682

RESUMO

Non-syndromic cleft lip with or without palate (NSCL/P) is a frequent malformation of the facial region. Genetic variants (SNPs) within nineteen loci have been previously associated with NSCL/P in GWAS studies of European individuals. These common variant SNPs may have subtler effects on the morphology of the lip and face in unaffected individuals. Several studies have investigated the genetic influences on facial morphology using land-marking methods, but these landmarks are sparse in the lip region. The aim of this study is to assess for associations between the nineteen NSCL/P SNPs and normal lip phenotypes, using a detailed categorical scale. Three-dimensional laser scanned facial images were obtained of 4,747 subjects recruited from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and genetic data was available for 3,643 of them. A polygenetic risk score (PRS) combining the nineteen NSCL/P SNPs was associated with V-shaped Cupid's bow (P = 3 × 10-4) and narrow philtrum (P = 2 × 10-4) phenotypes. Analysis of individual SNPs found strong evidence for association between rs227731 and skeletal II pattern (P = 5 × 10-6). This study finds that known NSCL/P SNPs affect lip phenotypes in the general population, and an increased PRS is associated with narrow philtrum and V-shaped Cupid's bow. However, the difference in NSCL/P PRS between people with and without certain lip features is unlikely to be great enough to serve as a useful marker of NSCL/P risk.

10.
Front Genet ; 9: 497, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405702

RESUMO

Many factors influence human facial morphology, including genetics, age, nutrition, biomechanical forces, and endocrine factors. Moreover, facial features clearly differ between males and females, and these differences are driven primarily by the influence of sex hormones during growth and development. Specific genetic variants are known to influence circulating sex hormone levels in humans, which we hypothesize, in turn, affect facial features. In this study, we investigated the effects of testosterone-related genetic variants on facial morphology. We tested 32 genetic variants across 22 candidate genes related to levels of testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHGB) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) in three cohorts of healthy individuals for which 3D facial surface images were available (Pittsburgh 3DFN, Penn State and ALSPAC cohorts; total n = 7418). Facial shape was described using a recently developed extension of the dense-surface correspondence approach, in which the 3D facial surface was partitioned into a set of 63 hierarchically organized modules. Each variant was tested against each of the facial surface modules in a multivariate genetic association-testing framework and meta-analyzed. Additionally, the association between these candidate SNPs and five facial ratios was investigated in the Pittsburgh 3DFN cohort. Two significant associations involving intronic variants of SHBG were found: both rs12150660 (p = 1.07E-07) and rs1799941 (p = 6.15E-06) showed an effect on mandible shape. Rs8023580 (an intronic variant of NR2F2-AS1) showed an association with the total and upper facial width to height ratios (p = 9.61E-04 and p = 7.35E-04, respectively). These results indicate that testosterone-related genetic variants affect normal-range facial morphology, and in particular, facial features known to exhibit strong sexual dimorphism in humans.

11.
Front Genet ; 9: 462, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30386375

RESUMO

Historically, craniofacial genetic research has understandably focused on identifying the causes of craniofacial anomalies and it has only been within the last 10 years, that there has been a drive to detail the biological basis of normal-range facial variation. This initiative has been facilitated by the availability of low-cost hi-resolution three-dimensional systems which have the ability to capture the facial details of thousands of individuals quickly and accurately. Simultaneous advances in genotyping technology have enabled the exploration of genetic influences on facial phenotypes, both in the present day and across human history. There are several important reasons for exploring the genetics of normal-range variation in facial morphology.     - Disentangling the environmental factors and relative parental biological contributions to heritable traits can help to answer the age-old question "why we look the way that we do?"     - Understanding the etiology of craniofacial anomalies; e.g., unaffected family members of individuals with non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (nsCL/P) have been shown to differ in terms of normal-range facial variation to the general population suggesting an etiological link between facial morphology and nsCL/P.     - Many factors such as ancestry, sex, eye/hair color as well as distinctive facial features (such as, shape of the chin, cheeks, eyes, forehead, lips, and nose) can be identified or estimated using an individual's genetic data, with potential applications in healthcare and forensics.     - Improved understanding of historical selection and adaptation relating to facial phenotypes, for example, skin pigmentation and geographical latitude.     - Highlighting what is known about shared facial traits, medical conditions and genes.

12.
Front Genet ; 9: 502, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410503

RESUMO

Objectives: Orofacial clefting is one of the most prevalent craniofacial malformations. Previous research has demonstrated that unaffected relatives of patients with non-syndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (NSCL/P) show distinctive facial features, which can be an expression of underlying NSCL/P susceptibility genes. These results support the hypothesis that genes involved in the occurrence of a cleft also play a role in normal craniofacial development. In this study, we investigated the influence of genetic variants associated with NSCL/P on normal-range variation in facial shape. Methods: A literature review of genome wide association studies (GWAS) investigating the genetic etiology of NSCL/P was performed, resulting in a list of 75 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in 38 genetic loci. Genotype data were available for 65 of these selected SNPs in three datasets with a combined sample size of 7,418 participants of European ancestry, whose 3D facial images were also available. The effect of each SNP was tested using a multivariate canonical correlation analysis (CCA) against 63 hierarchically-constructed facial segments in each of the three datasets and meta-analyzed. This allowed for the investigation of associations between SNPs known to be involved in NSCL/P and normal-range facial shape variations in a global-to-local perspective, without preselecting specific facial shape features or characteristics. Results: Six NSCL/P SNPs showed significant associations with variation in normal-range facial morphology. rs6740960 showed significant effects in the chin area (p = 3.71 × 10-28). This SNP lies in a non-coding area. Another SNP, rs227731 near the NOG gene, showed a significant effect in the philtrum area (p = 1.96 × 10-16). Three SNPs showed significant effects on the shape of the nose. rs742071 (p = 8.71 × 10-14), rs34246903 (p = 6.87 × 10-12), and rs10512248 (p = 8.4 × 10-9). Respectively, these SNPs are annotated to PAX7, MSX1, and PTCH1. Finally, rs7590268, an intron variant of THADA, showed an effect in the shape of the supraorbital ridge (p = 3.84 × 10-7). Conclusions: This study provides additional evidence NSCL/P-associated genetic variants influence normal-range craniofacial morphology, with significant effects observed for the chin, the nose, the supraorbital ridges and the philtrum area.

13.
PLoS Genet ; 14(8): e1007501, 2018 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30067744

RESUMO

There is increasing evidence that genetic risk variants for non-syndromic cleft lip/palate (nsCL/P) are also associated with normal-range variation in facial morphology. However, previous analyses are mostly limited to candidate SNPs and findings have not been consistently replicated. Here, we used polygenic risk scores (PRS) to test for genetic overlap between nsCL/P and seven biologically relevant facial phenotypes. Where evidence was found of genetic overlap, we used bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) to test the hypothesis that genetic liability to nsCL/P is causally related to implicated facial phenotypes. Across 5,804 individuals of European ancestry from two studies, we found strong evidence, using PRS, of genetic overlap between nsCL/P and philtrum width; a 1 S.D. increase in nsCL/P PRS was associated with a 0.10 mm decrease in philtrum width (95% C.I. 0.054, 0.146; P = 2x10-5). Follow-up MR analyses supported a causal relationship; genetic variants for nsCL/P homogeneously cause decreased philtrum width. In addition to the primary analysis, we also identified two novel risk loci for philtrum width at 5q22.2 and 7p15.2 in our Genome-wide Association Study (GWAS) of 6,136 individuals. Our results support a liability threshold model of inheritance for nsCL/P, related to abnormalities in development of the philtrum.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Lábio/anormalidades , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Herança Multifatorial , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
14.
Eur J Orthod ; 39(6): 641-645, 2017 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28371800

RESUMO

Objectives: To assess arch width, palatal surface area, and volume in surgically treated unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) in mixed dentition children in comparison with non-cleft lip and palate (NCLP) children using a 3D laser scanning. Materials and Methods: 38 subjects (Caucasian origin), 5.63-11.9 years of age (mean, 9.33 ± 1.67 years), were included. 19 in each group (UCLP and NCLP). Digital dental casts were obtained using a 3 Shape R700 laser scanner. Intercanine and intermolar widths (cusp and gingival levels), palatal surface area and volume were measured. An independent sample Student's t-test and an ANOVA were undertaken with significance level set as P < 0.05. Results: Intercanine widths at the cusp (5.60 mm; P < 0.001) and at the gingival level (3.11 mm; P = 0.014), palatal area (141.5 mm2; P = 0.009) and volume (890.7 mm3; P = 0.029) were significantly lower in the UCLP compared to the control group. Limitations: A smaller part of the subjects was in late mixed dentition phase. To overcome this limitation a matched control group was used. In seven subjects with UCLP, some teeth were missing, which might have had an influence on the dental measurements. However, these subjects could not be excluded because eliminating more severely affected subjects, would have introduced bias. Conclusions: Three-dimensional evaluation of the maxillary arch and palate highlighted significant differences between UCLP and non-UCLP subjects in mixed dentition phase, suggesting that orthopaedic maxillary expansion is advisable in UCLP.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/patologia , Fissura Palatina/patologia , Arco Dental/patologia , Maxila/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cefalometria/métodos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fenda Labial/diagnóstico por imagem , Fissura Palatina/diagnóstico por imagem , Arco Dental/diagnóstico por imagem , Dentição Mista , Feminino , Gengiva , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Técnica de Expansão Palatina
15.
PLoS One ; 11(9): e0162250, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27584156

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Facial phenotype is influenced by genes and environment; however, little is known about their relative contributions to normal facial morphology. The aim of this study was to assess the relative genetic and environmental contributions to facial morphological variation using a three-dimensional (3D) population-based approach and the classical twin study design. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 3D facial images of 1380 female twins from the TwinsUK Registry database were used. All faces were landmarked, by manually placing 37 landmark points, and Procrustes registered. Three groups of traits were extracted and analysed: 19 principal components (uPC) and 23 principal components (sPC), derived from the unscaled and scaled landmark configurations respectively, and 1275 linear distances measured between 51 landmarks (37 manually identified and 14 automatically calculated). The intraclass correlation coefficients, rMZ and rDZ, broad-sense heritability (h2), common (c2) and unique (e2) environment contributions were calculated for all traits for the monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins. RESULTS: Heritability of 13 uPC and 17 sPC reached statistical significance, with h2 ranging from 38.8% to 78.5% in the former and 30.5% to 84.8% in the latter group. Also, 1222 distances showed evidence of genetic control. Common environment contributed to one PC in both groups and 53 linear distances (4.3%). Unique environment contributed to 17 uPC and 20 sPC and 1245 distances. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic factors can explain more than 70% of the phenotypic facial variation in facial size, nose (width, prominence and height), lips prominence and inter-ocular distance. A few traits have shown potential dominant genetic influence: the prominence and height of the nose, the lower lip prominence in relation to the chin and upper lip philtrum length. Environmental contribution to facial variation seems to be the greatest for the mandibular ramus height and horizontal facial asymmetry.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychoanal Q ; 85(3): 589-631, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27428582

RESUMO

The question of how to place psychoanalysis in relation to science has been debated since the beginning of psychoanalysis and continues to this day. The author argues that psychoanalysis is best viewed as a form of applied art (also termed applied aesthetics) in parallel to medicine as applied science. This postulate draws on a functional definition of modernity as involving the differentiation of the value spheres of science, art, and religion. The validity criteria for each of the value spheres are discussed. Freud is examined, drawing on Habermas, and seen to have erred by claiming that the psychoanalytic method is a form of science. Implications for clinical and metapsychological issues in psychoanalysis are discussed.


Assuntos
Estética , Teoria Psicanalítica , Humanos
17.
BMJ Open ; 5(9): e009027, 2015 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26351193

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between the prevalence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and face shape morphology in a large cohort of 15-year-old children. DESIGN: Observational longitudinal cohort study SETTING: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), South West of England. PARTICIPANTS: Three-dimensional surface laser scans were taken for 4784 white British children from the ALSPAC during a follow-up clinic. A total of 1724 children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) and 1862 healthy children were identified via parents' report of sleep disordered symptoms for their children. We excluded from the original cohort all children identified as having congenital abnormalities, diagnoses associated with poor growth and children with adenoidectomy and/or tonsillectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parents in the ALSPAC reported sleep disordered symptoms (snoring, mouth breathing and apnoea) for their children at 6, 18, 30, 42, 57, 69 and 81 months. Average facial shells were created for children with and without SDB in order to explore surface differences. RESULTS: Differences in facial measurements were found between the children with and without SDB throughout early childhood. The mean differences included an increase in face height in SDB children of 0.3 mm (95% CI -0.52 to -0.05); a decrease in mandibular prominence of 0.9° (95% CI -1.30 to -0.42) in SDB children; and a decrease in nose prominence and width of 0.12 mm (95% CI 0.00 to 0.24) and 0.72 mm (95% CI -0.10 to -0.25), respectively, in SDB children. The odds of children exhibiting symptoms of SDB increased significantly with respect to increased face height and mandible angle, but reduced with increased nose width and prominence. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of a long face, reduced nose prominence and width, and a retrognathic mandible may be diagnostic facial features of SBD that may warrant a referral to specialists for the evaluation of other clinical symptoms of SDB.


Assuntos
Face/anatomia & histologia , Respiração Bucal/complicações , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/complicações , Ronco/complicações , Análise de Variância , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Respiração Bucal/diagnóstico , Síndromes da Apneia do Sono/diagnóstico , Ronco/diagnóstico , Reino Unido
18.
J Orthod ; 42(4): 307-14, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26282015

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of an audience response system (ARS) on knowledge retention of dental students and to gauge student perceptions of using the ARS. DESIGN: Randomised control study. SETTING: School of Dentistry, Cardiff University. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy four second-year dental students were stratified by gender and randomised anonymously to one of two groups. METHODS: One group received a lecture on orthodontic terminology and diagnosis in a traditional didactic format and the other received the same lecture integrated with ARS slides. Students completed an assessment of multiple-choice questions (MCQs) scored out of 20, before and immediately after the lecture. Students were also asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire on their perceptions of ARS. RESULTS: Both groups had statistically significant increases in MCQ scores post-lecture (ARS mean increase 3.6 SD2.0, 95% CI 2.2-3.5 and Didactic mean increase 2.9 SD2.3, 95% CI 2.8-4.3). A mixed-design analysis of variance showed that ARS led to an improved MCQ score (by 0.8 or 25%) compared to the didactic group, although this effect was not significant (P = 0.15). The effect of gender at baseline (P = 0.49), post-lecture (P = 0.73) and increase in MCQ score split by group (P = 0.46) was also not significant. Students reported that the ARS was easy to use, helped them engage with the lecture and encouraged them to work harder. CONCLUSION: The ARS did not lead to a significant increase in short-term orthodontic knowledge recall of students compared with didactic teaching. However, the use of ARS within orthodontic teaching could make lectures more interactive and engaging.

19.
Eur J Orthod ; 37(4): 379-85, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25336564

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize facial and jaw morphology of children with Class III malocclusion in early mixed dentition. METHODS: This study was conducted on 7- to 8-year-old Caucasian children, 48 children with Class III malocclusion and 91 children with normal occlusion. Surface images of faces and study casts were obtained using laser scanning. Two average facial templates were constructed for the males and females in the control group. The facial images were superimposed on the corresponding average templates. Facial parameters, palatal volumes, and gingival surface areas were measured and group differences were quantified. The analysis of variance was used for statistical evaluation of the measured parameters. RESULTS: The results revealed shorter lower face height (P < 0.001), concave facial profile (P < 0.001), retruded maxilla (P < 0.001), protruded mandible (P < 0.001), retrusive mid-face restricted area (P < 0.001), reduced gingival surface area of the maxilla (P = 0.013), and reduced maxilla/mandible gingival surface area ratio (P < 0.001) in the Class III group compared to the control group. There were no differences between the groups in upper face height, restricted areas of the upper and lower face, palatal volume, and gingival surface area of the mandible (P > 0.05). LIMITATIONS: Regardless of the fact that the prevalence of Class III malocclusion is rather small, the sample size could be larger. CONCLUSIONS: Class III subjects show clinically relevant facial and jaws characteristics in pre-pubertal growth period. A comprehensive diagnosis should include transverse dimension analysis.


Assuntos
Cefalometria/métodos , Dentição Mista , Face/patologia , Ossos Faciais/patologia , Má Oclusão de Angle Classe III/patologia , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/patologia , Criança , Queixo/patologia , Modelos Dentários , Feminino , Gengiva/patologia , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Lasers , Masculino , Mandíbula/patologia , Maxila/patologia , Nariz/patologia , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Palato/patologia , Retrognatismo/patologia , Dimensão Vertical
20.
Eur J Orthod ; 36(5): 506-11, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25257926

RESUMO

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging technology has been widely used to analyse facial morphology and has revealed an influence of some medical conditions on craniofacial growth and morphology. The aim of the study is to investigate whether craniofacial morphology is different in atopic Caucasian children compared with controls. Study design included observational longitudinal cohort study. Atopy was diagnosed via skin-prick tests performed at 7.5 years of age. The cohort was followed to 15 years of age as part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A total of 734 atopic and 2829 controls were identified. 3D laser surface facial scans were obtained at 15 years of age. Twenty-one reproducible facial landmarks (x, y, z co-ordinates) were identified on each facial scan. Inter-landmark distances and average facial shells for atopic and non-atopic children were compared with explore differences in face shape between the groups. Both total anterior face height (pg-g, pg-men) and mid-face height (Is-men, sn-men, n-sn) were longer (0.6 and 0.4mm respectively) in atopic children when compared with non-atopic children. No facial differences were detected in the transverse and antero-posterior relationships. Small but statistically significant differences were detected in the total and mid-face height between atopic and non-atopic children. No differences were detected in the transverse and antero-posterior relationships.


Assuntos
Cefalometria/métodos , Dermatite Atópica/patologia , Face , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos/patologia , Estatura , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Lasers , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes Cutâneos , Dimensão Vertical
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA