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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33775898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Diet is thought to play a role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), though the relationship between gluten intake and risk of IBD has not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between gluten intake and risk of incident Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of 208,280 US participants from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1986-2016), NHSII (1991-2017), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2016) who did not have IBD at baseline or celiac disease, and who completed semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. We used Cox proportional hazards modeling to estimate the risk of IBD according to quintiles of cumulative average energy-adjusted dietary gluten intake over follow-up period. RESULTS: We documented 337 CD cases and 447 UC cases over 5,115,265 person-years of follow-up. Dietary gluten intake was not associated with risk of IBD. Compared to participants in the lowest quintile of gluten intake, the adjusted hazard-ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for participants in the highest quintile of gluten intake were 1.16 (95% CI: 0.82-1.64; Ptrend = 0.41) for CD and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.75-1.44; Ptrend = 0.64) for UC. Adjusting for primary sources of gluten intake did not materially change our estimates. CONCLUSIONS: In three large adult US prospective cohorts, gluten intake was not associated with risk of CD or UC. Our findings are reassuring at a time when consumption of gluten has been increasingly perceived as a trigger for chronic gastrointestinal diseases.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33280139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although immune-mediated diseases (IMDs) including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are known to cluster, to what extent this is due to common environmental influences is unknown. AIM: To examine the incidence of IBD in individuals with another IMD. METHODS: We used data from the prospective Nurses' Health Study II cohort (1995-2017) to examine the effect of diagnoses of several common IMDs on subsequent risk of Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for detailed diet and lifestyle confounders. RESULTS: We documented 132 cases of CD and 186 cases of UC over 2 016 163 person-years of follow-up (median age at IBD diagnosis 50 years). Compared to participants with no history of IMD, the HRs of CD for those with 1 and ≥ 2 IMDs were 2.57 (95% CI 1.77-3.74) and 2.74 (95% CI 1.36 to 5.49), respectively (Ptrend  < 0.0001). This association was only modestly attenuated by adjustment for environmental risk factors (HR 2.35 and 2.46, respectively). The risk of UC was not increased, with multivariable-adjusted HRs of 1.22 (95% CI 0.85-1.76) and 1.33 (95% CI 0.67-2.65) for those with 1 and ≥ 2 IMDs, respectively, compared to those with none (Ptrend 0.16) (Pheterogeneity comparing CD and UC 0.037). Asthma, atopic dermatitis, psoriasis and rosacea were individually associated with higher risk of CD (HR ranging from 2.15 to 3.39) but not UC. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with one or more IMDs are at an increased risk for CD but not UC.

3.
JMIR Med Inform ; 8(9): e17770, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ascites is a common, painful, and serious complication of cirrhosis. Body weight is a reliable proxy for ascites volume; therefore, daily weight monitoring is recommended to optimize ascites management. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the feasibility of a smartphone app in facilitating outpatient ascites management. METHODS: In this feasibility study, patients with cirrhotic ascites requiring active management were identified in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Patients were provided with a Bluetooth-connected scale, which transmitted weight data to a smartphone app and then via the internet to an electronic medical record (EMR). Weights were monitored every weekday. In the event of a weight change of ≥5 lbs in 1 week, patients were called and administered a short symptom questionnaire, and providers received an email alert. The primary outcomes of this study were the percentage of enrolled days during which weight data were successfully transmitted to an EMR and the percentage of weight alerts that prompted responses by the provider. RESULTS: In this study, 25 patients were enrolled: 12 (48%) were male, and the mean age was 58 (SD 13; range 35-81) years. A total of 18 (72%) inpatients were enrolled. Weight data were successfully transmitted to an EMR during 71.2% (697/979) of the study enrollment days, with technology issues reported on 16.5% (162/979) of the days. Of a total of 79 weight change alerts fired, 41 (52%) were triggered by weight loss and 38 (48%) were by weight gain. Providers responded in some fashion to 66 (84%) of the weight alerts and intervened in response to 45 (57%) of the alerts, for example, by contacting the patient, scheduling clinic or paracentesis appointments, modifying the diuretic dose, or requesting a laboratory workup. Providers responded equally to weight increase and decrease alerts (P=.87). The staff called patients a mean of 3.7 (SD 3.5) times per patient, and the number of phone calls correlated with technology issues (r=0.60; P=.002). A total of 60% (15/25) of the patients chose to extend their participation beyond 30 days. A total of 17 patient readmissions occurred during the study period, with only 4 (24%) related to ascites. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated the feasibility of a smartphone app to facilitate the management of ascites and reported excellent rates of patient and provider engagement. This innovation could enable early therapeutic intervention, thereby decreasing the burden of morbidity and mortality among patients with cirrhosis.

4.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(10): 877-888, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718943

RESUMO

Low-dose aspirin is recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force for primary prevention of colorectal cancer in certain individuals. However, broader implementation will require improved precision prevention approaches to identify those most likely to benefit. The major urinary metabolite of PGE2, 11α-hydroxy-9,15-dioxo-2,3,4,5-tetranor-prostane-1,20-dioic acid (PGE-M), is a biomarker for colorectal cancer risk, but it is unknown whether PGE-M is modifiable by aspirin in individuals at risk for colorectal cancer. Adults (N = 180) who recently underwent adenoma resection and did not regularly use aspirin or NSAIDs were recruited to a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of aspirin at 81 or 325 mg/day for 8-12 weeks. The primary outcome was postintervention change in urinary PGE-M as measured by LC/MS. A total of 169 participants provided paired urine samples for analysis. Baseline PGE-M excretion was 15.9 ± 14.6 (mean ± S.D, ng/mg creatinine). Aspirin significantly reduced PGE-M excretion (-4.7 ± 14.8) compared with no decrease (0.8 ± 11.8) in the placebo group (P = 0.015; mean duration of treatment = 68.9 days). Aspirin significantly reduced PGE-M levels in participants receiving either 81 (-15%; P = 0.018) or 325 mg/day (-28%; P < 0.0001) compared with placebo. In 40% and 50% of the individuals randomized to 81 or 325 mg/day aspirin, respectively, PGE-M reduction reached a threshold expected to prevent recurrence in 10% of individuals. These results support that aspirin significantly reduces elevated levels of PGE-M in those at increased colorectal cancer risk to levels consistent with lower risk for recurrent neoplasia and underscore the potential utility of PGE-M as a precision chemoprevention biomarker. The ASPIRED trial is registered as NCT02394769.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 159(3): 873-883.e1, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32389666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Inflammation is a potential mechanism through which diet modulates the onset of inflammatory bowel disease. We analyzed data from 3 large prospective cohorts to determine the effects of dietary inflammatory potential on the risk of developing Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: We collected data from 166,903 women and 41,931 men in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2014), Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2015), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2012). Empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP) scores were calculated based on the weighted sums of 18 food groups obtained via food frequency questionnaires. Self-reported CD and UC were confirmed by medical record review. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: We documented 328 cases of CD and 428 cases of UC over 4,949,938 person-years of follow-up. The median age at IBD diagnosis was 55 years (range 29-85 years). Compared with participants in the lowest quartile of cumulative average EDIP score, those in the highest quartile (highest dietary inflammatory potential) had a 51% higher risk of CD (HR 1.51; 95% CI 1.10-2.07; Ptrend = .01). Compared with participants with persistently low EDIP scores (at 2 time points, separated by 8 years), those with a shift from a low to high inflammatory potential of diet or persistently consumed a proinflammatory diet had greater risk of CD (HR 2.05; 95% CI 1.10-3.79 and HR 1.77; 95% CI 1.10-2.84). In contrast, dietary inflammatory potential was not associated with the risk of developing UC (Ptrend = .62). CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of 3 large prospective cohorts, we found dietary patterns with high inflammatory potential to be associated with increased risk of CD but not UC.

6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 27(4): 585-600.e4, 2020 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240601

RESUMO

The gut microbiota has been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC), but causal alterations preceding CRC have not been elucidated. To prospectively assess microbiome changes prior to colorectal neoplasia, we investigated samples from 100 Lynch syndrome patients using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of colon biopsies, coupled with metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing of feces. Colectomy and CRC history represented the largest effects on microbiome profiles. A subset of Clostridiaceae were depleted in stool corresponding with baseline adenomas, while Desulfovibrio was enriched both in stool and in mucosal biopsies. A classifier leveraging stool metatranscriptomes resulted in modest power to predict interval development of preneoplastic colonic adenoma. Predictive transcripts corresponded with a shift in flagellin contributors and oxidative metabolic microenvironment, potentially factors in local CRC pathogenesis. This suggests that the effectiveness of prospective microbiome monitoring for adenomas may be limited but supports the potential causality of these consistent, early microbial changes in colonic neoplasia.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142939

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is not clear whether a healthy lifestyle affects mortality of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: We collected data form the Nurses' Health Study (1986-2014), Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2015), and Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2014), which assess lifestyles with serial questionnaires. We estimated joint and individual associations between 5 healthy lifestyle factors after IBD diagnosis (never smoking, body mass index 18.5-24.9 kg/m2, vigorous physical activity in the highest 50% with non-zero value, alternate Mediterranean diet score ≥4, and light drinking [0.1-5.0 g/d]) and mortality using Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: We documented 83 deaths in 363 patients with CD during 4741 person-years and 80 deaths in 465 patients with UC during 6061 person-years. The median age of IBD diagnosis was 55 y. Compared to patients with IBD with no healthy lifestyle factors, patients with IBD with 3-5 healthy lifestyle factors had a significant reduction in all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 0.29; 95% CI, 0.16-0.52; Ptrend < .0001). This reduction was significant in patients with CD (Ptrend = .003) as well as in patients with UC (Ptrend = .0003). Individual associations were more than 25 pack-years (HR, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.24-2.97; Ptrend < .0001), physical activity (HR according to quintiles, 0.55-0.31; Ptrend = .001), Mediterranean diet (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.49-0.98), and alcohol consumption (HR0.1-5 g/d 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39-0.95 vs HR>15 g/d 1.84; 95% CI, 1.02-3.32). The findings did not change when we adjusted for family history of IBD, immunomodulator use, and IBD-related surgery. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of data from 3 large cohort studies, we associated adherence to a healthy lifestyle with reduced mortality in patients with CD or UC.

8.
Dig Dis Sci ; 65(1): 111-118, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31367882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Factors associated with interval colorectal cancer (CRC) development in the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) population remain unclear. AIMS: Among a cohort of patients with interval CRC, we aimed to evaluate IBD characteristics, colonoscopy quality indicators, and surveillance guideline adherence. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of IBD- and non-IBD-associated interval CRCs diagnosed between January 2007 and December 2014 within a large US healthcare system. We evaluated risk factors for CRC among patients with IBD. We assessed adherence to surveillance guidelines according to the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (IBD surveillance) and the US Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer (polyp surveillance). We compared colonoscopy quality measures between patients with and without IBD. RESULTS: Among 5345 cases of colonic adenocarcinoma, we detected 15 IBD-associated cases of interval CRC and 230 non-IBD-associated cases of interval CRC. Compared to patients without IBD, IBD patients were younger (54.5 vs. 70.4 years; p < 0.0001) and experienced a shorter interval between index colonoscopy and CRC diagnosis (20.7 vs. 35.1 months; p = 0.0009). Fifty three percent (8/15) of interval CRCs in IBD patients were detected within surveillance guidelines. All IBD patients with interval CRC detected after guideline surveillance interval had high-risk features, including active inflammation, previous low-grade or indefinite dysplasia, multiple pseudopolyps on index colonoscopy, or a first-degree relative with CRC. There were no differences in colonoscopy quality measures between patients with and without IBD. CONCLUSIONS: This study stresses the importance of strict short-interval surveillance for IBD patients with high-risk features, including active inflammation on index colonoscopy.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Pólipos Adenomatosos/diagnóstico , Colite Ulcerativa/diagnóstico , Pólipos do Colo/diagnóstico , Colonoscopia/normas , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Doença de Crohn/diagnóstico , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Pólipos Adenomatosos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Pólipos do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 18(4): 984-986, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31254673

RESUMO

The critical role of the gut microbiome in microscopic colitis (MC) is evident by the observation that fecal diversion is associated with resolution of mucosal inflammation while restoration of fecal stream is associated with recurrence of disease.1 Characterization of the composition and function of the gut microbiome in MC therefore could provide insights into disease pathogenesis.

10.
Telemed J E Health ; 26(4): 468-476, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298628

RESUMO

Introduction: Many patients struggle with colonoscopy preparation, which is complex and can be an uncomfortable as well as a time-consuming process. The confusion and anxiety from the preprocedure process may lead patients to delay their colonoscopy or skip it altogether. Digital health technology that focuses on patient engagement can play an important role in promoting colorectal cancer screening. Methods: A digital preprocedure instruction program was implemented for outpatient colonoscopy by sending critical reminders and instructions to patients through a series of short message service messages and/or emails. Eligible patients included English speakers on GoLYTELY®/NuLYTELY® or MiraLAX® preparation regimens with a valid cellphone or email address in the electronic health record. We examined the impact of digital instructions on bowel preparation quality, no-show and same-day cancellations over a 3-month period between an intervention group of 756 patients and a control group of 2,103 patients. Patients who enrolled in the digital instructions also received a patient satisfaction survey. Results: Our controlled study demonstrated the effectiveness of digital instructions to reduce no-show and same-day cancellation rates for outpatient colonoscopy from 10.40% to 6.08% (p < 0.001). Bowel preparation quality was not significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.23). However, 90% of patients who enrolled in the program rated their satisfaction with the digital reminders very highly. Discussion: A digital preprocedure instruction program can have a positive impact on operational efficiency, quality of care, and patient satisfaction. This study shows how digital health tools can effectively engage patients scheduled for a colonoscopy, increase appointment adherence, and, therefore, lead to better cancer screening.

12.
J Telemed Telecare ; 25(8): 499-505, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29973131

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Deploy and evaluate a gastroenterology (GI) electronic consultation (e-consult) program. E-consults are a promising approach to enhance provider communication, facilitate timely specialty advice and may replace some outpatient visits. STUDY: As part of our health system's efforts to provide more cost-effective care under risk-based contracts, we implemented an e-consult program where referring providers submit patient-specific clinical questions electronically via an electronic referral system. A GI consultant then reviews the patient's record and provides a written recommendation back to the referring physician. For our program evaluation, we conducted chart reviews of each e-consult to understand how the program was being used and surveyed the participating providers and consultants. RESULTS: From September 2015 to March 2016, we received 144 e-consults, with most questions concerning GI symptoms or abnormal hepatology labs. Only 36% of e-consults recommended an in-person GI consult or procedure. In our survey of participating providers, referring providers strongly agreed that the GI e-consults promoted good patient care (88%) and were satisfied with the program (84%). The majority of GI consultants felt strongly that e-consults were useful for referring providers and their patients, but that current reimbursement and time allotted were not adequate. CONCLUSIONS: We report on the implementation of a GI e-consult program within an ACO, showing that many clinical questions could be answered using this mechanism. E-consults in gastroenterology have the potential to reduce unnecessary visits and/or procedures for patients who can be managed by their primary provider, potentially increasing access for other patients.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento à Distância/métodos , Gastroenterologia/métodos , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 114(1): 127-134, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30181535

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea among the elderly. Although the prevalence of celiac disease appears to be higher in patients with microscopic colitis, the relationship between dietary gluten intake and risk of microscopic colitis among individuals without celiac disease has not been explored. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of 160,744 US women without celiac disease enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the NHSII. Dietary gluten intake was estimated using validated food frequency questionnaires every 4 years. Microscopic colitis was confirmed through medical records review. We used Cox proportional hazard modeling to estimate the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: We documented 219 incident cases of microscopic colitis over more than 20 years of follow-up encompassing 3,716,718 person-years (crude incidence rate: 5.9/100,000 person-years) in NHS and NHSII. Dietary gluten intake was not associated with risk of microscopic colitis (Ptrend = 0.88). Compared to individuals in the lowest quintile of energy-adjusted gluten intake, the adjusted HR of microscopic colitis was 1.18 (95% CI: 0.77-1.78) for the middle quintile and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.67-1.58) for the highest quintile. Additional adjustment for primary dietary sources of gluten including refined and whole grains did not materially alter the effect estimates (All Ptrend ≥ 0.69). The null association did not differ according to lymphocytic or collagenous subtypes (Pheterogeneity = 0.72) and was not modified by age, smoking status, or body mass index (All Pinteraction ≥ 0.17). CONCLUSIONS: Dietary gluten intake during adulthood was not associated with risk of microscopic colitis among women without celiac disease.


Assuntos
Doença Celíaca , Colite Ulcerativa/epidemiologia , Glutens/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Colite Ulcerativa/etiologia , Colite Ulcerativa/patologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher
14.
Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 17(12): 2523-2532.e1, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity promotes intestinal inflammation and might contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. We examined the association between obesity and risk of microscopic colitis in a prospective cohort study. METHODS: We collected data from 192,101 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (from 1986 through 2014) or the NHSII (from 1991 through 2015). Anthropomorphic and lifestyle information were self-reported biennially. Obesity was defined using body mass index (BMI). Microscopic colitis was confirmed by review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Among the participants in the NHS and NHSII, we confirmed 244 cases of microscopic colitis during 4,223,868 person-years of follow-up evaluation. Higher BMI was associated inversely with risk of microscopic colitis (Ptrend < .001). Compared with women with BMIs ranging from 18.5 to 20.9 kg/m2, the aHRs were 0.61 (95% CI, 0.41-0.91) for overweight women (BMI, 25-29.9 kg/m2) and 0.50 (95% CI, 0.32-0.79) for obese women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). The aHR for each 5-kg/m2 increase in BMI was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.69-0.90). Weight gain since early adulthood (age, 18 y) also was associated inversely with risk of microscopic colitis (Ptrend = .001). The aHR for each 10-kg weight gain since early adulthood was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.77-0.94). The associations were not modified by age, cohort, physical activity, or smoking status (all Pinteraction ≥ .26). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike many other immune- and metabolic-related disorders, obesity and weight gain since early adulthood were associated with a lower risk of microscopic colitis, based on an analysis of participants in the NHS and NHSII.


Assuntos
Colite Microscópica/epidemiologia , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Risco
15.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 16471, 2018 11 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405182

RESUMO

γδ T cells predominate in the intestinal mucosa and help maintain gut homeostasis and mucosal immunity. Although HIV infection significantly alters these cells, what drives these perturbations is unclear. Growing evidence suggests that impaired intestinal immune function in HIV leads to chronic immune activation and disease progression. This occurs even in HIV controllers - individuals with undetectable HIV viremia without antiretroviral therapy (ART). We show that Vδ1+ cells, a subset of γδ T cells described as being important in intestinal barrier function, increase in frequency in HIV-infected individuals, including HIV controllers. These cells resemble terminally differentiated effector memory cells, producing the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ, TNFα, and MIP-1ß upon stimulation. Importantly, pro-inflammatory Vδ1+ cell frequency correlates with levels of HIV RNA in intestinal tissue but not in plasma. This study supports a model in which local viral replication in the gut in HIV controllers disrupts the phenotype and function of Vδ1+ cells, a cell type involved in the maintenance of epithelial barrier integrity, and may thereby contribute to systemic immune activation and HIV disease progression.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/virologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/metabolismo , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Carga Viral , Adulto , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Memória Imunológica , Imunofenotipagem , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Contagem de Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Replicação Viral
16.
Gastroenterology ; 155(6): 1764-1775.e2, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30144433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Microscopic colitis is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the colon primarily affecting postmenopausal women. However, the relation between hormonal determinants, including reproductive and menopausal factors, and risk of microscopic colitis has yet to be characterized. METHODS: We collected data from 227,766 women who participated in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and the NHSII without a baseline history of microscopic colitis. Reproductive and menopausal factors were assessed in 1988 in the NHS and 1989 in the NHSII and updated biennially. Cases of microscopic colitis were confirmed through review of pathology records. We used Cox proportional hazards modeling to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Through 2014 in the NHS and 2015 in the NHSII, we confirmed 275 incident cases of microscopic colitis over 5,147,282 person-years. Compared with never use, current use of menopausal hormone therapy was associated with increased risk of microscopic colitis (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio 2.64; 95% confidence interval 1.78-3.90). The risk increased with longer duration of use (P for trend < .0001) and decreased after discontinuation (P for trend = .002). The association did not differ according to disease subtype (P for heterogeneity = .34). Similarly, ever use of oral contraceptives was associated with increased risk of microscopic colitis (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio 1.57; 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.13). There were no associations between age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, age at menopause, or menopause type and incident microscopic colitis. CONCLUSIONS: In 2 large prospective cohort studies, we observed an association between exogenous hormone use and incident microscopic colitis. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms underlying these associations.


Assuntos
Colite Microscópica/induzido quimicamente , Anticoncepcionais Orais/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Colite Microscópica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , História Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fatores de Tempo
17.
J Crohns Colitis ; 12(5): 559-567, 2018 Apr 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29370359

RESUMO

Background: Long-term data on the influence of smoking on risk of microscopic colitis are limited. We therefore sought to examine and characterize the association between smoking and risk of incident microscopic colitis in two large prospective cohorts of women. Methods: We conducted a prospective study of 231015 women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study [NHS] and NHSII. Information regarding smoking, other lifestyle factors and medications were collected biennially from 1976 to 2012 in NHS and from 1989 to 2013 in NHSII. Incident cases of microscopic colitis were confirmed through physician medical record review. We used Cox proportional hazards modelling to examine the association between smoking and risk of microscopic colitis. Results: We documented 166 incident cases of microscopic colitis over 6122779 person-years of follow up. Compared to non-smokers, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for microscopic colitis was 2.52 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.59-4.00) amongst current smokers and 1.54 [95% CI 1.09-2.17] amongst past smokers. The risk increased with higher pack-years of smoking [p trend = 0.001] and diminished following smoking cessation [p trend = 0.017]. Current smoking appeared to be more strongly associated with risk of collagenous colitis [HR 3.68; 95% CI 1.94-6.97] than lymphocytic colitis [HR 1.71; 95% CI 0.83-3.53]. Conclusion: In two large prospective cohort studies, we observed an association between current smoking and risk of microscopic colitis. Risk of microscopic colitis appeared to increase with higher pack-years and diminish following smoking cessation. Future studies focused on characterizing the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are warranted.


Assuntos
Colite Colagenosa/epidemiologia , Colite Linfocítica/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Dig Dis Sci ; 63(2): 338-344, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29302876

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hospitalized patients completing bowel preparation for colonoscopy typically have preparations of poorer quality when compared to outpatient populations. AIMS: Our study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a performance improvement program in improving colonoscopy preparation for an inpatient population. METHODS: We identified a cohort of adult patients (n = 641) undergoing an inpatient colonoscopy during a 12-month period at an academic medical center and compared a multifactor intervention group to a historical baseline group. During this 12-month period, a performance improvement program including use of a dedicated gastrointestinal nurse facilitator, implementation of standardized order sets, and introduction of split bowel preparations in the inpatient setting was made available to the cohort group. RESULTS: The primary outcome was quality of bowel preparation for colonoscopy as rated by endoscopists using the modified Aronchick scale. When comparing the baseline group to the intervention group, the rate of acceptable preparations, characterized as excellent, good, or adequate, increased from 69.9 to 78.9%, which was statistically significant (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A comprehensive performance improvement program improved the quality of colonoscopy preparation among inpatients. The use of a dedicated gastrointestinal nurse facilitator, implementation of standardized order sets, and introduction of split bowel preparations are recommended in the inpatient setting for an effective bowel preparation.


Assuntos
Colonoscopia , Pacientes Internados , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Catárticos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Adulto Jovem
19.
World J Gastroenterol ; 23(37): 6868-6876, 2017 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29085229

RESUMO

AIM: To reduce readmissions and improve patient outcomes in cirrhotic patients through better understanding of readmission predictors. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study of patients admitted with decompensated cirrhosis from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2013 (n = 222). Primary outcomes were time to first readmission and 30-d readmission rate due to complications of cirrhosis. Clinical and demographic data were collected to help describe predictors of readmission, along with care coordination measures such as post-discharge status and outpatient follow-up. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to describe variables associated with readmission. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-two patients (59.4%) were readmitted at least once during the study period. Median time to first and second readmissions were 54 and 93 d, respectively. Thirty and 90-d readmission rates were 20.7 and 30.1 percent, respectively. Predictors of 30-d readmission included education level, hepatic encephalopathy at index, ALT more than upper normal limit and Medicare coverage. There were no statistically significant differences in readmission rates when stratified by discharge disposition, outpatient follow-up provider or time to first outpatient visit. CONCLUSION: Readmissions are challenging aspect of care for cirrhotic patients and risk continues beyond 30 d. More initiatives are needed to develop enhanced, longitudinal post-discharge systems.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Hepática/terapia , Cobertura do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Doença Crônica/terapia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Encefalopatia Hepática/economia , Encefalopatia Hepática/etiologia , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Readmissão do Paciente/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos
20.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 23(11): 1898-1904, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28991856

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High intake of dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). However, results have been heterogeneous suggesting that genetic variations in PUFA metabolism may modify this risk. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study nested within 2 prospective cohorts, the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHS II. Among women providing blood (n = 62,437) or buccal cells (n = 59,543) for genotyping, we confirmed new diagnoses of CD or UC. Dietary intake was assessed 4 years before diagnosis. Confirmed cases were matched 1:2 to controls. Subjects were genotyped for single nucleotide polymorphisms at CYP4F3, FADS1, and FADS2 loci. Conditional logistic regression models examined the interaction between genotype, n3:n6 PUFA intake and risk of CD and UC. RESULTS: Our study included 101 CD and 139 UC patients matched to 495 controls. On multivariable analysis, high intake of n3:n6 PUFA (above median) demonstrated a trend toward reduced risk of UC (Odds ratio [OR] 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.47-1.09, P = 0.11). High n3:n6 PUFA intake was associated with a reduced risk of UC in individuals with the GG/AG genotype at a single nucleotide polymorphism in CYP4F3 (OR 0.57, 95% CI, 0.32-0.99) but not those with the AA genotype (OR 0.95, 95% CI, 0.47-1.93) (P-interaction = 0.049). No gene-diet interactions were noted for CD. CONCLUSIONS: The association between dietary n3:n6 PUFA intake and risk of UC may be modified variants at CYP4F3. Further gene-environment studies of the association between diet and IBD risk are warranted.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Família 4 do Citocromo P450/genética , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Doença de Crohn/genética , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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