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1.
Oncotarget ; 7(22): 32866-75, 2016 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27096954

RESUMO

Multimodal tumor imaging with targeted nanoparticles potentially offers both enhanced specificity and sensitivity, leading to more precise cancer diagnosis and monitoring. We describe the synthesis and characterization of phenol-substituted, lipophilic orange and far-red fluorescent dyes and a simple radioiodination procedure to generate a dual (optical and nuclear) imaging probe. MALDI-ToF analyses revealed high iodination efficiency of the lipophilic reporters, achieved by electrophilic aromatic substitution using the chloramide 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3α,6α-diphenyl glycoluril (Iodogen) as the oxidizing agent in an organic/aqueous co-solvent mixture. Upon conjugation of iodine-127 or iodine-124-labeled reporters to tumor-targeting SapC-DOPS nanovesicles, optical (fluorescent) and PET imaging was performed in mice bearing intracranial glioblastomas. In addition, tumor vs non-tumor (normal brain) uptake was compared using iodine-125. These data provide proof-of-principle for the potential value of SapC-DOPS for multimodal imaging of glioblastoma, the most aggressive primary brain tumor.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Corantes Fluorescentes/administração & dosagem , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Fosfatidilserinas/administração & dosagem , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Saposinas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Feminino , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Corantes Fluorescentes/farmacocinética , Glioblastoma/patologia , Xenoenxertos , Humanos , Medições Luminescentes , Camundongos Nus , Nanopartículas , Fosfatidilserinas/síntese química , Fosfatidilserinas/farmacocinética , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/síntese química , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/farmacocinética , Saposinas/síntese química , Saposinas/farmacocinética , Distribuição Tecidual , Carga Tumoral
2.
Nutr Neurosci ; 19(4): 145-55, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24915543

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) to investigate the effects of fish oil (FO) supplementation on cortical metabolite concentrations in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHODS: Metabolite concentrations were determined by (1)H MRS in the anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of adolescents with MDD before and following 10-week open-label supplementation with low (2.4 g/day, n = 7) or high (16.2 g/day, n = 7) dose FO. Depressive symptom severity scores and erythrocyte fatty acid levels were also determined. RESULTS: Baseline erythrocyte eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) composition was positively correlated, and arachidonic acid (AA) and the AA/EPA ratio were inversely correlated, with choline (Cho) concentrations in the right DLPFC. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) composition was inversely correlated with myo-inositol (mI) concentrations in the left DLPFC. Erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition increased, and AA decreased, significantly following low-dose and high-dose FO supplementation. In the intent-to-treat sample, depressive symptom severity scores decreased significantly in the high-dose group (-40%, P < 0.0001) and there was a trend in the low-dose group (-20%, P = 0.06). There were no significant baseline-endpoint changes in metabolite levels in each voxel. In the low-dose group there were changes with large effect sizes, including a decrease in mI in the left DLPFC (-12%, P = 0.18, d = 0.8) and increases in glutamate + glutamine (Glx) (+12%, P = 0.19, d = 0.8) and Cho (+15%, P = 0.08, d = 1.2) in the right DLPFC. In the high-dose group, there was a trend for increases in Cho in the right DLPFC (+10%, P = 0.09, d = 1.2). DISCUSSION: These preliminary data suggest that increasing the LCn-3 fatty acid status of adolescent MDD patients is associated with subtle changes in Glx, mI, and Cho concentrations in the DLPFC that warrant further evaluation in a larger controlled trial.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Deficiências Nutricionais/dietoterapia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/uso terapêutico , Óleos de Peixe/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Deficiências Nutricionais/metabolismo , Deficiências Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , Deficiências Nutricionais/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/metabolismo , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/deficiência , Ácidos Graxos Essenciais/metabolismo , Feminino , Óleos de Peixe/administração & dosagem , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Perda de Seguimento , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Neuroimagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Córtex Pré-Frontal/metabolismo , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem
3.
Physiol Behav ; 151: 198-206, 2015 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26171590

RESUMO

Cholecystokinin (CCK) is released in response to lipid feeding and regulates pancreatic digestive enzymes vital to the absorption of nutrients. Our previous reports demonstrated that cholecystokinin knockout (CCK-KO) mice fed for 10 weeks of HFD had reduced body fat mass, but comparable glucose uptake by white adipose tissues and skeletal muscles. We hypothesized that CCK is involved in energy homeostasis and lipid transport from the small intestine to tissues in response to acute treatment with dietary lipids. CCK-KO mice with comparable fat absorption had increased energy expenditure and were resistant to HFD-induced obesity. Using intraduodenal infusion of butter fat and intravenous infusion using Liposyn III, we determined the mechanism of lipid transport from the small intestine to deposition in lymph and adipocytes in CCK-KO mice. CCK-KO mice had delayed secretion of Apo B48-chylomicrons, lipid transport to the lymphatic system, and triglyceride (TG)-derived fatty acid uptake by epididymal fat in response to acute treatment of intraduodenal lipids. In contrast, CCK-KO mice had comparable TG clearance and lipid uptake by white adipocytes in response to TGs in chylomicron-like emulsion. Thus, we concluded that CCK is important for lipid transport and energy expenditure to control body weight in response to dietary lipid feeding.


Assuntos
Colecistocinina/metabolismo , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Apolipoproteína B-48/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Colecistocinina/genética , Quilomícrons/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Fígado/anatomia & histologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Sistema Linfático/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Tamanho do Órgão
4.
PharmaNutrition ; 2(2): 38-46, 2014 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24772386

RESUMO

Residual depressive symptoms are commonly observed in adolescents with major depressive disorder (MDD) following treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). This study combined a case-control analysis and an open-label fish oil (FO) trial to investigate the relationship between long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acid status and residual depressive symptoms in SSRI-resistant adolescent MDD patients. Baseline erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)(-28%, p=0.0003), but not eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)(-18%, p=0.2), was significantly lower in patients (n=20) compared with healthy controls (n=20). Patients receiving 10-week low-dose (2.4 g/d, n=7) and high-dose (16.2 g/d, n=7) FO exhibited significant increases in erythrocyte EPA and DHA composition. In the intent-to-treat sample, depressive symptoms decreased significantly in the high-dose group (n=7, -40%, p<0.0001), and there was a trend in the low-dose group (n=10, -20%, p=0.06). Symptom remission was observed in 40% of patients in the low-dose group and 100% of patients in the high-dose group. There were no significant changes in vital signs and adverse events were rated as mild or moderate in severity. These preliminary findings demonstrate that adolescents with SSRI-resistant depression exhibit robust DHA deficits, and suggest that adjunctive FO supplementation is well-tolerated and effective for increasing LCn-3 fatty acid status and augmenting SSRI antidepressant effects.

5.
Psychiatry Res ; 215(3): 560-7, 2014 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24439517

RESUMO

This study investigated the fatty acid composition of the postmortem superior temporal gyrus (STG), a cortical region implicated in emotional processing, from normal controls (n=15) and patients with bipolar disorder (BD, n=15), major depressive disorder (MDD, n=15), and schizophrenia (SZ, n=15). For comparative purposes, STG fatty acid composition was determined in a separate cohort of multiple sclerosis patients (MS, n=15) and normal controls (n=15). Compared with controls, patients with BD, but not MDD or SZ, exhibited abnormal elevations in the saturated fatty acids (SFA) palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), the polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) linoleic acid (18:2n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), and reductions in the monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) oleic acid (18:1n-9). The total MUFA/SFA and 18:1/18:0 ratios were lower in the STG of BD patients and were inversely correlated with total PUFA composition. MS patients exhibited a pattern of fatty acid abnormalities similar to that observed in BD patients including elevated PUFA and a lower 18:1/18:0 ratio. Collectively, these data demonstrate that BD patients exhibit a pattern of fatty acid abnormalities in the STG that is not observed in MDD and SZ patients and closely resembles MS patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/patologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/patologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Esquizofrenia/patologia , Lobo Temporal/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Esclerose Múltipla/psicologia , Mudanças Depois da Morte , Lobo Temporal/patologia
6.
J Psychiatr Res ; 50: 42-50, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24360505

RESUMO

Omega-3 fatty acid deficiency during development leads to enduing alterations in central monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. Here we investigated the effects of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency on behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Male rats were fed diets with (CON, n = 34) or without (DEF, n = 30) the omega-3 fatty acid precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90). A subset of CON (n = 14) and DEF (n = 12) rats were administered FLX (10 mg/kg/d) through their drinking water for 30 d beginning on P60. The forced swimming test (FST) was initiated on P90, and regional brain mRNA markers of serotonin and noradrenaline neurotransmission were determined. Dietary ALA depletion led to significant reductions in frontal cortex docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (-26%, p = 0.0001) and DEF + FLX (-32%, p = 0.0001) rats. Plasma FLX and norfluoxetine concentrations did not different between FLX-treated DEF and CON rats. During the 15-min FST pretest, DEF + FLX rats exhibited significantly greater climbing behavior compared with CON + FLX rats. During the 5-min test trial, FLX treatment reduced immobility and increased swimming in CON and DEF rats, and only DEF + FLX rats exhibited significant elevations in climbing behavior. DEF + FLX rats exhibited greater midbrain, and lower frontal cortex, 5-HT1A mRNA expression compared with all groups including CON + FLX rats. DEF + FLX rats also exhibited greater midbrain alpha2A adrenergic receptor mRNA expression which was positively correlated with climbing behavior in the FST. These preclinical data demonstrate that low omega-3 fatty acid status leads to abnormal behavioral and neurochemical responses to chronic FLX treatment in male rats.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Estresse Psicológico/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Psicológico/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Dieta , Fluoxetina/análogos & derivados , Fluoxetina/sangue , Masculino , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos alfa 2/metabolismo , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/sangue , Natação , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/deficiência
7.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 114-115: 1-8, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24090922

RESUMO

While translational evidence suggests that long-chain omega-3 fatty acid status is positively associated with the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drugs, the neurochemical mechanisms mediating this interaction are not known. Here, we investigated the effects of dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid insufficiency on the neurochemical and behavioral effects of chronic fluoxetine (FLX) treatment. Female rats were fed diets with (CON, n=56) or without (DEF, n=40) the n-3 fatty acids during peri-adolescent development (P21-P90), and one half of each group was administered FLX (10mg/kg/day) for 30days (P60-P90) prior to testing. In adulthood (P90), regional brain serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic (5-HIAA) concentrations, presynaptic markers of 5-HT neurotransmission, behavioral responses in the forced swim test (FST), and plasma FLX and norfluoxetine (NFLX) concentrations were investigated. Peri-adolescent n-3 insufficiency led to significant reductions in cortical docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition in DEF (-25%, p≤0.0001) and DEF+FLX (-28%, p≤0.0001) rats. Untreated DEF rats exhibited significantly lower regional 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios compared with untreated CON rats, but exhibited similar behavioral responses in the FST. In both CON and DEF rats, chronic FLX treatment similarly and significantly decreased 5-HIAA concentrations and the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens, brainstem tryptophan hydroxylase-2 mRNA expression, and immobility in the FST. While the FLX-induced reduction in 5-HIAA concentrations in the prefrontal cortex was significantly blunted in DEF rats, the reduction in the 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was similar to CON rats. Although plasma FLX and NFLX levels were not significantly different in DEF and CON rats, the NFLX/FLX ratio was significantly lower in DEF+FLX rats. These preclinical data demonstrate that n-3 fatty acid deficiency does not significantly reduce the effects of chronic FLX treatment on central 5-HT turnover or behavior in the FST in female rats.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Fluoxetina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/administração & dosagem , Serotonina/metabolismo , Natação , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tronco Encefálico/metabolismo , Cromatografia Gasosa , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Primers do DNA , Estro/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia
8.
Cardiovasc Psychiatry Neurol ; 2013: 796462, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23533712

RESUMO

Deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn - 3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n - 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n - 3), has been implicated in the pathoetiology of cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of excess premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). In the present study, we determined erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels in adult medication-free patients SZ (n = 20) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 24). Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition exhibited by SZ patients (3.5%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (4.5%, -22%, P = 0.007). The majority of SZ patients (72%) exhibited EPA+DHA levels ≤4.0% compared with 37% of controls (Chi-square, P = 0.001). In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n - 6) (+9%, P = 0.02) and the AA:EPA + DHA ratio (+28%, P = 0.0004) were significantly greater in SZ patients. Linoleic acid (18:2n - 6) was significantly lower (-12%, P = 0.009) and the erythrocyte 20:3/18:2 ratio (an index of delta6-desaturase activity) was significantly elevated in SZ patients. Compared with same-gender controls, EPA + DHA composition was significantly lower in male (-19%, P = 0.04) but not female (-13%, P = 0.33) SZ patients, whereas the 20:3/18:2 ratio was significantly elevated in both male (+22%, P = 0.008) and female (+22%, P = 0.04) SZ patients. These results suggest that the majority of SZ patients exhibit low LCn - 3 fatty acid levels which may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

9.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 303(8): G969-78, 2012 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22899820

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that mesenteric lymph plays a very important role in the development of multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome under critical conditions. Great efforts have been made to identify the biologically active molecules in the lymph. We used a trauma-hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) model and the superior mesenteric artery occlusion (SMAO) model, representing a global and a localized intestinal ischemia-reperfusion insult, respectively, to investigate the role of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the cytotoxicity of mesenteric lymph in rats. Lymph was collected before, during, and after (post) shock or SMAO. The post-T/HS and SMAO lymph, but not the sham lymph, manifested cytotoxicity for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVEC cytotoxicity was associated with increased FFAs, especially the FFA-to-protein ratio. Addition of albumin, especially delipidated albumin, reduced this cytotoxicity. Lipase treatment of trauma-sham shock (T/SS) lymph converted it from a noncytotoxic to a cytotoxic fluid, and its toxicity correlated with the FFA-to-protein ratio in a fashion similar to that of the T/HS lymph, further suggesting that FFAs were the key components leading to HUVEC cytotoxicity. Analysis of lymph by gas chromatography revealed that the main FFAs in the post-T/HS or lipase-treated T/SS lymph were palmitic, stearic, oleic, and linoleic acids. When added to the cell culture at levels comparable to those in T/HS lymph, all these FFAs were cytotoxic, with linoleic acid being the most potent. In conclusion, this study suggests that lipase-generated FFAs are the key components resulting in the cytotoxicity of T/HS and SMAO mesenteric lymph.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos não Esterificados/análise , Lipase/análise , Linfa/química , Oclusão Vascular Mesentérica/fisiopatologia , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Animais , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Masculino , Artéria Mesentérica Superior/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
10.
Pharmacol Res ; 66(4): 283-91, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22750665

RESUMO

Psychiatric patients frequently exhibit long-chain n-3 (LCn-3) fatty acid deficits and elevated triglyceride (TAG) production following chronic exposure to second generation antipsychotics (SGAs). Emerging evidence suggests that SGAs and LCn-3 fatty acids have opposing effects on stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), which plays a pivotal role in TAG biosynthesis. Here we evaluated whether low LCn-3 fatty acid status would augment elevations in rat liver and plasma TAG concentrations following chronic treatment with the SGA risperidone (RSP), and evaluated relationships with hepatic SCD1 expression and activity indices. In rats maintained on the n-3 fatty acid-fortified (control) diet, chronic RSP treatment significantly increased liver SCD1 mRNA and activity indices (18:1/18:0 and 16:1/16:0 ratios), and significantly increased liver, but not plasma, TAG concentrations. Rats maintained on the n-3 deficient diet exhibited significantly lower liver and erythrocyte LCn-3 fatty acid levels, and associated elevations in LCn-6/LCn-3 ratio. In n-3 deficient rats, RSP-induced elevations in liver SCD1 mRNA and activity indices (18:1/18:0 and 16:1/16:0 ratios) and liver and plasma TAG concentrations were significantly greater than those observed in RSP-treated controls. Plasma glucose levels were not altered by diet or RSP, and body weight was lower in RSP- and VEH-treated n-3 deficient rats. These preclinical data support the hypothesis that low n-3 fatty acid status exacerbates RSP-induced hepatic steatosis by augmenting SCD1 expression and activity.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/induzido quimicamente , Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Risperidona/efeitos adversos , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Animais , Glicemia/análise , Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22047910

RESUMO

Although omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids negatively regulate triglyceride biosynthesis, the mechanisms mediating this effect are poorly understood, and emerging evidence suggests that stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd1) is required for de novo triglyceride biosynthesis. To investigate this mechanism, we determined the effects of perinatal n-3 deficiency and postnatal repletion on rat liver Scd1 mRNA expression and activity indices (liver 16:1/16:0 and 18:1/18:0 ratios), and determined relationships with postprandial (non-fasting) plasma triglyceride levels. Rats were fed conventional diets with or without the n-3 fatty acid precursor α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3) during perinatal development (E0-P100), and a subset of rats fed the ALA- diet were switched to the ALA+ diet post-weaning (P21-P100, repletion). Compared with controls, rats fed the ALA- diet exhibited significantly lower liver long-chain n-3 fatty acid compositions and elevations in monounsaturated fatty acid composition, both of which were normalized in repleted rats. Liver Scd1 mRNA expression and activity indices (16:1/16:0 and 18:1/18:0 ratios) were significantly greater in n-3 deficient rats compared with controls and repleted rats. Among all rats, liver Scd1 mRNA expression was positively correlated with liver 18:1/18:0 and 16:1/16:0 ratios. Plasma triglyceride levels, but not glucose or insulin levels, were significantly greater in n-3 deficient rats compared with controls and repleted rats. Liver Scd1 mRNA expression and activity indices were positively correlated with plasma triglyceride levels. These preclinical findings demonstrate that n-3 fatty acid status is an important determinant of liver Scd1 mRNA expression and activity, and suggest that down-regulation of Scd1 is a mechanism by which n-3 fatty acids repress constitutive triglyceride biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/enzimologia , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/biossíntese , Desmame , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/administração & dosagem , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/farmacologia
12.
Nutr Res ; 31(9): 715-22, 2011 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22024496

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of perinatal dietary omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid depletion and subsequent repletion on the expression of genes that regulate long-chain (LC) polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in rat liver and brain. It was hypothesized that chronic n-3 fatty acid deficiency would increase liver Fads1 and Fads2 messenger RNA (mRNA) expression/activity and that n-3 fatty acid repletion would normalize this response. Adult rats fed the n-3-free diet during perinatal development exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte, liver, and frontal cortex LCn-3 fatty acid composition and reciprocal elevations in LC omega-6 (n-6) fatty acid composition compared with controls (CONs) and repleted rats. Liver Fads2, but not Fads1, Elovl2, or Elovl5, mRNA expression was significantly greater in n-3-deficient (DEF) rats compared with CONs and was partially normalized in repleted rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, an index of delta6-desturase activity, was significantly greater in DEF rats compared with CON and repleted rats and was positively correlated with Fads2 mRNA expression among all rats. The liver 18:3n-6/18:2n-6 ratio, but not Fads2 mRNA expression, was also positively correlated with erythrocyte and frontal cortex LCn-6 fatty acid compositions. Neither Fads1 or Fads2 mRNA expression was altered in brain cortex of DEF rats. These results confirm previous findings that liver, but not brain, delta6-desaturase expression and activity indices are negatively regulated by dietary n-3 fatty acids.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturase/metabolismo , Acetiltransferases/genética , Acetiltransferases/metabolismo , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturase/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Regulação para Cima
13.
Schizophr Res ; 129(1): 57-65, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21458237

RESUMO

Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), a lipid family comprised of omega-3 (n-3) and n-6 fatty acids, are a critical component of cellular membranes, and recent in vitro studies have found that antipsychotic medications up-regulate genes responsible for PUFA biosynthesis. To evaluate this effect in vivo, rats were treated with risperidone (1.5, 3, 6mg/kg/day), paliperidone (1.5, 3, 6mg/kg/day), olanzapine (2.5, 5, 10mg/kg/day), quetiapine (5, 10, 20mg/kg/day), haloperidol (1, 3mg/kg/day) or vehicle through their drinking water for 40day. Effects on liver Fads1, Fads2, Elovl2, and Elovl5 mRNA expression, plasma indices of n-3 (plasma 22:6/18:3 and 20:5/18:3 ratios) and n-6 (plasma 20:4/18:2 and 20:3/18:2 ratios) biosynthesis, and peripheral (erythrocyte, heart) and central (frontal cortex) membrane PUFA composition were determined. Only risperidone and its metabolite paliperidone significantly and selectively up-regulated liver delta-6 desaturase (Fads2) mRNA expression, and robustly increased plasma indices of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid biosynthesis. In risperidone- and paliperidone-treated rats, plasma indices of n-3 and n-6 fatty acid biosynthesis were all positively correlated with liver Fads2 mRNA expression, but not Fads1, Elovl2, or Elovl5 mRNA expression. All antipsychotics at specific doses increased erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition, and all except quetiapine increased arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) composition. Risperidone, paliperidone, and olanzapine increased heart DHA and AA composition, and no antipsychotic altered frontal cortex DHA or AA composition. These in vivo data demonstrate that augmentation of PUFA biosynthesis is not common to all antipsychotic medications, and that risperidone and paliperidone uniquely increase delta-6 desaturase (Fads2) mRNA expression and most robustly increase PUFA biosynthesis and peripheral membrane composition.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/biossíntese , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturase/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Risperidona/farmacologia , Animais , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Benzodiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Benzodiazepinas/farmacologia , Dibenzotiazepinas/administração & dosagem , Dibenzotiazepinas/farmacologia , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/biossíntese , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/biossíntese , Haloperidol/administração & dosagem , Haloperidol/farmacologia , Isoxazóis/administração & dosagem , Isoxazóis/farmacologia , Linoleoil-CoA Desaturase/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Olanzapina , Palmitato de Paliperidona , Pirimidinas/administração & dosagem , Pirimidinas/farmacologia , Fumarato de Quetiapina , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Risperidona/administração & dosagem
14.
Schizophr Res ; 129(1): 66-73, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21474290

RESUMO

Recent preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that the stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (Scd1) enzyme plays a key role in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis and insulin sensitivity, and in vitro studies have found that antipsychotic medications up-regulate Scd1 mRNA expression. To investigate these effects in vivo, rats were treated with risperidone (1.5, 3, and 6mg/kg/d), paliperidone (1.5, 3, and 6mg/kg/d), olanzapine (2.5, 5, and 10mg/kg/d), quetiapine (5, 10, and 20mg/kg/d), haloperidol (1, and 3mg/kg/d) or vehicle through their drinking water for 40days. Effects on liver Scd1 mRNA expression and an index of Scd1 activity (the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, 'desaturation index') were determined, as were postprandial plasma triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels. All atypical antipsychotics increased the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio, but not liver Scd1 mRNA expression, at doses found to also increase plasma TG levels. Among all rats (n=122), the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 56% of the variance in TG concentrations. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio was also positively associated with erythrocyte and heart membrane phospholipid 18:1n-9 composition. All antipsychotics except risperidone increased glucose levels at specific doses, and none of the antipsychotics significantly altered insulin levels. The plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio accounted for 20% of the variance in glucose levels. Plasma omega-3 and omega-6 PUFA levels were inversely correlated with the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio and TG and glucose levels. These in vivo data demonstrate that different atypical antipsychotic medications increase the plasma 18:1/18:0 ratio in association with elevations in postprandial TG and glucose levels, and that concomitant elevations in PUFA biosynthesis oppose these effects.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Glucose/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Animais , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Água Potável/administração & dosagem , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Período Pós-Prandial/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética
15.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 652(1-3): 152-6, 2011 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21118685

RESUMO

Prior clinical and preclinical studies suggest that omega-3 fatty acids negatively regulate pro-inflammatory signaling cascades, and that the atypical antipsychotic risperidone up-regulates omega-3 fatty acid biosynthesis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic (40days) risperidone treatment (3mg/kg/day) on basal pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6, IL-6; tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNFα) and C-reactive protein (CRP) production in control and n-3 fatty acid deficient rats. Relationships with erythrocyte polyunsaturated fatty acid composition were determined. Compared with untreated controls, untreated n-3-deficient rats exhibited significantly greater basal IL-6, TNFα, and CRP production. Following chronic risperidone treatment there were trends for greater IL-6, TNFα, and CRP production in controls, but these did not reach significance. In n-3-deficient rats, chronic risperidone normalized elevated IL-6, TNFα, and CRP levels. Erythrocyte arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) composition was positively correlated, and erythrocyte eicosapentenoic (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) inversely correlated, with plasma IL-6, TNFα, and CRP levels in untreated control and n-3-deficient rats, and these associations were not observed among risperidone-treated rats. The adrenic acid (22:4n-6)/arachidonic acid ratio, an index of elongase-mediated arachidonic acid biosynthesis, was reduced by risperidone in controls and elevated in n-3-deficient rats. These preclinical data demonstrate that chronic risperidone treatment normalizes constitutively elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine and CRP production in n-3 fatty acid deficient rats but not in controls, and that the mechanism is dissociable from n-3 fatty acid biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/uso terapêutico , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Risperidona/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antipsicóticos/farmacologia , Doença Crônica , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/classificação , Dieta com Restrição de Gorduras/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/metabolismo , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Risperidona/farmacologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20817496

RESUMO

Omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid deficiency, elevated inflammatory signaling, and central serotonin (5-HT) turnover have separately been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study we investigated the interrelationship between n-3 fatty acid status, pro-inflammatory signaling activity, and central 5-HT turnover in vivo. Rats were fed diets with or without the n-3 fatty acid precursor α-linolenic acid (ALA) during perinatal development (E0-P100), and a subset of rats fed the ALA- diet were switched to the ALA+ diet post-weaning (P21-P100, repletion). In adulthood (P100), plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured. Additionally, indices of liver n-6 fatty acid biosynthesis, erythrocyte fatty acid composition, and regional brain monoamine turnover were determined. Indices of liver delta-6 desaturase activity were up-regulated in n-3-deficient rats, and were associated with greater erythrocyte membrane arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 n-6) composition. Plasma IL-6 (p=0.001), TNFα (p=0.02), and CRP (p=0.001) concentrations were significantly greater in n-3-deficient rats relative to controls. The 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio was significantly greater in frontal cortex, hypothalamus, and ventral striatum of n-3-deficient rats relative to controls. Changes in membrane n-3 and n-6 fatty acid composition, elevations in plasma IL-6 and TNFα, and increased central 5-HT turnover were all prevented by normalization of n-3 fatty acid status. Erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) was inversely correlated, and AA and the AA/DHA and AA/eicosapentaenoic acid ratios were positively correlated, with plasma IL-6, TNFα, and CRP levels. Plasma IL-6 levels were positively correlated with 5-HIAA/5-HT ratios in all brain regions. These preclinical data provide evidence for a functional link between n-3 fatty acid deficiency, elevated peripheral inflammatory signaling, and increased central 5-HT turnover.


Assuntos
Citocinas/biossíntese , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Serotonina/metabolismo , Animais , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Lipídeos/deficiência , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo
17.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry ; 34(7): 1317-21, 2010 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20655971

RESUMO

Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and fluoxetine (FLX) have additive effects in the treatment of major depressive disorder, and FLX up-regulates genes that regulate fatty acid biosynthesis in vitro. Although these data suggest that FLX may augment n-3 fatty acid biosynthesis, the in vivo effects of FLX treatment on PUFA biosynthesis and peripheral and central membrane compositions are not known. In the present study, male and female rats were treated with FLX (10 mg/kg/day) through their drinking water for 30 days (P60-P90). Plasma FLX and norfluoxetine (NFLX) concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and erythrocyte and prefrontal cortex (PFC) fatty acid composition determined by gas chromatography. To confirm central effects of FLX, serotonin turnover in the PFC was determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Chronic FLX treatment resulted in clinically-relevant plasma FLX concentrations in male and female rats, and significantly decreased serotonin turnover in the PFC. After correcting for multiple comparisons, chronic FLX treatment did not significantly alter erythrocyte fatty acid composition in male or female rats. Chronic FLX treatment significantly and selectively increased docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6) in the PFC of female rats, but not in male rats. These preclinical findings do not support the hypothesis that chronic FLX treatment increases n-3 fatty acid biosynthesis or membrane composition.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/farmacologia , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fluoxetina/farmacologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Feminino , Fluoxetina/análogos & derivados , Fluoxetina/sangue , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Serotonina/metabolismo
18.
J Affect Disord ; 126(1-2): 303-11, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20413162

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and controlled intervention trials suggest that omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid deficiency represents a reversible risk factor for recurrent affective disorders. However, there is limited comparative information available regarding the n-3 fatty acid status and associated mood symptoms in medication-free patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: The fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes from adult male and female healthy controls (n=20) and medication-free patients with MDD (n=20) and BD (n=20) was determined by gas chromatography. Associations with depression and mania symptom severity scores were investigated. RESULTS: After correction for multiple comparisons, both MDD (-20%) and BD (-32%) patients exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition relative to healthy controls, and there was a trend for lower DHA in BD patients relative to MDD patients (-15%, p=0.09). There were no gender differences for DHA in any group. Other n-3 fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosapentanoic acid (22:5n-3), and n-6 fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), were not different. Erythrocyte DHA composition was inversely correlated with indices of delta-9 desaturase activity (18:1/18:0), and associated elevations in oleic acid (18:1n-9) composition, and delta-6 desaturase activity (20:3/18:2). DHA composition was not significantly correlated with depression or mania symptom severity scores. LIMITATIONS: Data regarding diet and life style factors (cigarette smoking) were not available to evaluate their contribution to the present findings. CONCLUSIONS: Male and female patients with MDD and BD exhibit selective erythrocyte DHA deficits relative to healthy controls, and this deficit was numerically greater in BD patients. Selective DHA deficits are consistent with impaired peroxisome function, which has implications for n-3 fatty acid interventions aimed at preventing or reversing this deficit.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/sangue , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/sangue , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Eritrócitos/química , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Ácido Araquidônico/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/deficiência , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/sangue , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores Sexuais
19.
Gastroenterology ; 138(5): 1997-2005, 2010 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20117110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a satiation peptide released during meals in response to lipid intake; it regulates pancreatic digestive enzymes that are required for absorption of nutrients. We proposed that mice with a disruption in the CCK gene (CCK knockout [CCK-KO] mice) that were fed a diet of 20% butter fat would have altered fat metabolism. METHODS: We used quantitative magnetic resonance imaging to determine body composition and monitored food intake of CCK-KO mice using an automated measurement system. Intestinal fat absorption and energy expenditure were determined using a noninvasive assessment of intestinal fat absorption and an open circuit calorimeter, respectively. RESULTS: After consuming a high-fat diet for 10 weeks, CCK-KO mice had reduced body weight gain and body fat mass and enlarged adipocytes, despite the same level of food intake as wild-type mice. CCK-KO mice also had defects in fat absorption, especially of long-chain saturated fatty acids, but pancreatic triglyceride lipase did not appear to have a role in the fat malabsorption. Energy expenditure was higher in CCK-KO than wild-type mice, and CCK-KO mice had greater oxidation of carbohydrates while on the high-fat diet. Plasma leptin levels in the CCK-KO mice fed the high-fat diet were markedly lower than in wild-type mice, although levels of insulin, gastric-inhibitory polypeptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1 were normal. CONCLUSIONS: CCK is involved in regulating the metabolic rate and is important for lipid absorption and control of body weight in mice placed on a high-fat diet.


Assuntos
Colecistocinina/deficiência , Gorduras na Dieta/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Ganho de Peso , Adiposidade , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Manteiga , Calorimetria , Colecistocinina/genética , Gorduras na Dieta/sangue , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ingestão de Alimentos , Metabolismo Energético , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Lipase/metabolismo , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Atividade Motora , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 91(4): 1060-7, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20130094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3), the principal omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid in brain gray matter, positively regulates cortical metabolic function and cognitive development. However, the effects of DHA supplementation on functional cortical activity in human subjects are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the effects of DHA supplementation on functional cortical activity during sustained attention in human subjects. DESIGN: Healthy boys aged 8-10 y (n = 33) were randomly assigned to receive placebo or 1 of 2 doses of DHA (400 or 1200 mg/d) for 8 wk. Relative changes in cortical activation patterns during sustained attention at baseline and endpoint were determined by functional magnetic resonance imaging. RESULTS: At 8 wk, erythrocyte membrane DHA composition increased significantly from baseline in subjects who received low-dose (by 47%) or high-dose (by 70%) DHA but not in those who received placebo (-11%). During sustained attention, both DHA dose groups had significantly greater changes from baseline in activation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex than did the placebo group, and the low-dose and high-dose DHA groups had greater decreases in the occipital cortex and cerebellar cortex, respectively. Relative to low-dose DHA, high-dose DHA resulted in greater decreases in activation of bilateral cerebellum. The erythrocyte DHA composition was positively correlated with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation and was inversely correlated with reaction time, at baseline and endpoint. CONCLUSION: Dietary DHA intake and associated elevations in erythrocyte DHA composition are associated with alterations in functional activity in cortical attention networks during sustained attention in healthy boys. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00662142.


Assuntos
Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Criança , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Valores de Referência
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