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1.
BioDrugs ; 33(5): 571-579, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) to bococizumab were detected in > 40% of subjects in the SPIRE lipid-lowering trials. The risk of cross-reactivity between anti-bococizumab antibodies and other approved anti-proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type-9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was investigated using a single-assay approach. METHODS: Bococizumab immunogenicity was assessed in SPIRE-HR, a 52-week study. The highest ADA titer sample from each ADA-positive subject (n = 155) was tested in vitro for cross-reactivity to alirocumab and evolocumab using a novel ADA assay approach. Additional specificity tiers within the bococizumab ADA assay against each drug were validated using recombinant PCSK9 as a surrogate cross-reactive positive control. If the highest ADA titer sample showed cross-reactivity, additional samples from that subject were analyzed. Cross-reactivity was determined by the ability of alirocumab or evolocumab to inhibit the sample signal greater than or equal to the cross-reactivity cut-points. RESULTS: ADAs were detected in 44.0% (155/352) of bococizumab-treated subjects, and 27.0% also developed neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). Median ADA and NAb titers ranged from 276 to 526 and 8 to 12 over the course of the study, respectively. From 155 ADA-positive subjects tested for cross-reactivity, one (0.6%) subject showed weak cross-reactivity to both alirocumab and evolocumab. This cross-reactivity signal was transient (from Days 337 to 373) and undetectable at the last ADA-positive timepoint (Day 407). CONCLUSION: A novel, single-assay approach was validated to assess the potential cross-reactivity of anti-bococizumab antibodies to alirocumab and evolocumab. In subjects who developed ADAs to bococizumab, the likelihood of clinically relevant cross-reactivity to marketed anti-PCSK9 mAbs is remote, based on the low frequency of cross-reactivity observed, which was weak in signal inhibition and transient in nature. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: The SPIRE-HR study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov under the identifier NCT01968954.

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910915, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539074

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies have shown associations of birth weight with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations. Objective: To test the association of birth weight with T2D and glycemic traits using a mendelian randomization analysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mendelian randomization study used a genetic risk score for birth weight that was constructed with 7 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The associations of this score with birth weight and T2D were tested in a mendelian randomization analysis using study-level data. The association of birth weight with T2D was tested using both study-level data (7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable) and summary-level data from the consortia (43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable). Data from 180 056 participants from 49 studies were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits. Results: This mendelian randomization analysis included 49 studies with 41 155 patients with T2D and 80 008 control participants from study-level data and 34 840 patients with T2D and 114 981 control participants from summary-level data. Study-level data showed that a 1-SD decrease in birth weight due to the genetic risk score was associated with higher risk of T2D among all participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.69-2.61; P = 4.03 × 10-5), among European participants (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.71; P = .04), and among East Asian participants (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62; P = .04). Similar results were observed from summary-level analyses. In addition, each 1-SD lower birth weight was associated with 0.189 SD higher fasting glucose concentration (ß = 0.189; SE = 0.060; P = .002), but not with fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, or hemoglobin A1c concentration. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a genetic predisposition to lower birth weight was associated with increased risk of T2D and higher fasting glucose concentration, suggesting genetic effects on retarded fetal growth and increased diabetes risk that either are independent of each other or operate through alterations of integrated biological mechanisms.

3.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504409

RESUMO

AIMS: Low-grade inflammation, measured by elevated plasma concentrations of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (CRP), is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). There is evidence that low-grade inflammation is also related to a higher risk of cancer. The present prospective cohort study evaluates the relation between low-grade systemic inflammation and risk of cancer in patients with stable CVD. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 7178 patients with stable CVD and plasma CRP levels ≤10 mg/L were included. Data were linked to the Dutch national cancer registry. Cox regression models were fitted to study the relation between CRP and incident CVD and cancer. After a median follow-up time of 8.3 years (interquartile range 4.6-12.3) 1072 incident cancer diagnoses were observed. C-reactive protein concentration was related to total cancer [hazard ratio (HR) 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.65] comparing last quintile to first quintile of CRP. Especially lung cancer, independent of histopathological subtype, was related to CRP (HR 3.39; 95% CI 2.02-5.69 comparing last to first quintile of CRP). Incidence of epithelial neoplasms and especially squamous cell neoplasms were related to CRP concentration, irrespective of anatomical location. Sensitivity analyses after excluding patients with a cancer diagnosis within 1, 2, and 5 years of follow-up showed similar results. No effect modification was observed by smoking status or time since smoking cessation (P-values for interaction > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Chronic systemic low-grade inflammation, measured by CRP levels ≤10 mg/L, is a risk factor for incident cancer, markedly lung cancer, in patients with stable CVD. The relation between inflammation and incident cancer is seen in former and current smokers and is uncertain in never smokers.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504417

RESUMO

AIMS: The Canakinumab Antiinflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study (CANTOS) established that targeting inflammation with interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß) inhibition can significantly reduce cardiovascular (CV) event rates in the absence of any beneficial effects on cholesterol. Yet, CANTOS participants treated with both high-intensity statins and canakinumab remain at considerable risk for recurrent CV events. Both interleukin-18 (IL-18, which like IL-1ß requires the NLRP3 inflammasome for activation) and interleukin-6 (IL-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine downstream of IL-1) may contribute to the recurrent events that occur even on canakinumab therapy, and thus represent novel targets for treating atherothrombosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma samples from 4848 stable post-myocardial infarction patients who were assigned to active IL-1ß inhibition or placebo within CANTOS underwent measurement of IL-18 and IL-6 both before and after initiation of canakinumab using validated ELISA. All participants were followed over a median 3.7-year period (maximum 5 years) for recurrent major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and for all-cause mortality. Compared to placebo, canakinumab significantly reduced IL-6 levels in a dose-dependent manner yielding placebo-subtracted median percent reductions in IL-6 at 3 months of 24.8%, 36.3%, and 43.2% for the 50, 150, and 300 mg doses, respectively (all P-values <0.001). By contrast, no dose of canakinumab significantly altered IL-18 levels measured at 3 months (all effects <1%, all P-values > 0.05). Yet, despite these differential plasma effects, either baseline and on-treatment levels of IL-18 or IL-6 associated with rates of future CV events. For example, for MACE, each tertile increase in IL-18 measured 3 months after canakinumab initiation associated with a 15% increase in risk [95% confidence interval (CI) 3-29%, P = 0.016], while each tertile increase in IL-6 measured 3 months after canakinumab initiation associated with a 42% increase in risk (95% CI 26-59%, P < 0.0001). Similar effects were observed for MACE-plus, CV death, all-cause mortality, and the for the combination endpoint of all vascular events inclusive of revascularization procedures and hospitalization for congestive heart failure. In baseline as well as on-treatment analyses, risks were highest among those with the highest levels of both IL-18 and IL-6. CONCLUSION: There remains substantial residual inflammatory risk related to both IL-18 and IL-6 after IL-1ß inhibition with canakinumab These data support further pharmacologic development of therapies for atherothrombosis that target IL-18 or IL-6 signalling, or that can simultaneously inhibit both IL-1ß and IL-18 (such as NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors). CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01327846.

5.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469238

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in RA patients treated with tocilizumab versus the tumor necrosis factor inhibitor etanercept. METHODS: This randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial enrolled patients with active seropositive RA (N=3080), inadequate responses to conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, and at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to open-label tocilizumab 8 mg/kg/month or etanercept 50 mg/week and followed up for an average of 3.2 years. The primary end point was comparison of time-to-first MACE. The trial was powered to exclude a 1.8 or higher relative hazard of MACE for tocilizumab versus etanercept. RESULTS: By week 4, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were 11.1%, 5.7%, and 13.6% higher, respectively, for patients allocated to tocilizumab compared with etanercept (all P<.001). During follow-up, 83 MACE occurred in the tocilizumab group compared with 78 in the etanercept group. The estimated hazard of MACE for tocilizumab relative to etanercept was 1.05 (95% confidence interval=0.77, 1.43). Result were similar in sensitivity analyses and the on-treatment analysis. Adverse events that occurred more frequently in the tocilizumab group included serious infection and gastrointestinal perforation. CONCLUSION: The trial, which provides insights into the cardiovascular safety of tocilizumab versus etanercept, excluded a relative risk for MACE of 1.43 or higher. This result should be interpreted in the context of the clinical efficacy and the non-cardiovascular safety of tocilizumab. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
BMJ ; 366: l4292, 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31345923

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the genetic burden of type 2 diabetes modifies the association between the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Individual participant data meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Eligible prospective cohort studies were systematically sourced from studies published between January 1970 and February 2017 through electronic searches in major medical databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) and discussion with investigators. REVIEW METHODS: Data from cohort studies or multicohort consortia with available genome-wide genetic data and information about the quality of dietary fat and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in participants of European descent was sought. Prospective cohorts that had accrued five or more years of follow-up were included. The type 2 diabetes genetic risk profile was characterized by a 68-variant polygenic risk score weighted by published effect sizes. Diet was recorded by using validated cohort-specific dietary assessment tools. Outcome measures were summary adjusted hazard ratios of incident type 2 diabetes for polygenic risk score, isocaloric replacement of carbohydrate (refined starch and sugars) with types of fat, and the interaction of types of fat with polygenic risk score. RESULTS: Of 102 305 participants from 15 prospective cohort studies, 20 015 type 2 diabetes cases were documented after a median follow-up of 12 years (interquartile range 9.4-14.2). The hazard ratio of type 2 diabetes per increment of 10 risk alleles in the polygenic risk score was 1.64 (95% confidence interval 1.54 to 1.75, I2=7.1%, τ2=0.003). The increase of polyunsaturated fat and total omega 6 polyunsaturated fat intake in place of carbohydrate was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes, with hazard ratios of 0.90 (0.82 to 0.98, I2=18.0%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy) and 0.99 (0.97 to 1.00, I2=58.8%, τ2=0.001; per increment of 1 g/d), respectively. Increasing monounsaturated fat in place of carbohydrate was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 1.19, I2=25.9%, τ2=0.006; per 5% of energy). Evidence of small study effects was detected for the overall association of polyunsaturated fat with the risk of type 2 diabetes, but not for the omega 6 polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat associations. Significant interactions between dietary fat and polygenic risk score on the risk of type 2 diabetes (P>0.05 for interaction) were not observed. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that genetic burden and the quality of dietary fat are each associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The findings do not support tailoring recommendations on the quality of dietary fat to individual type 2 diabetes genetic risk profiles for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes, and suggest that dietary fat is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes across the spectrum of type 2 diabetes genetic risk.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Alelos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(15): e012790, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322059

RESUMO

Background Pathologic angiogenesis is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) microvascular complications and may modulate adipogenesis and precede the onset of clinical diabetes mellitus; however, longitudinal data are unavailable. Placental growth factor is a potent proangiogenic factor that stimulates the formation of mature and durable vessels but is understudied in human diseases. Methods and Results We conducted a prospective case-cohort study of baseline placental growth factor and incident T2DM within the WHS (Women's Health Study). A random sample of incident T2DM cases (n=491) occurring over a 15-year follow-up period was selected and compared with a reference subcohort (n=561). Case subjects were matched to the reference risk set on 5-year age groups and race. All subjects in this analysis were required to have a hemoglobin A1c <6.5% at WHS enrollment. Median baseline levels of placental growth factor were higher in case subjects compare to the reference subcohort (18.0 pg/mL versus 17.2 pg/mL) but were only weakly correlated with glycemic measures and not associated with obesity. The risk of diabetes mellitus increased across placental growth factor quartile in the base model (hazard ratios, 1.00, 1.14, 1.46, and 2.14; P-trend<0.001) and in multivariable-adjusted models accounting for clinical T2DM risk factors (hazard ratios, 1.00, 1.17, 1.45, and 2.61; P-trend<0.001). These findings were not substantially altered by further adjustment for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hemoglobin A1c, or fasting insulin and remained robust in sensitivity analyses excluding those diagnosed within 2 years of enrollment and those with baseline hemoglobin A1c ≥6.0%. Conclusions Elevated placental growth factor levels are associated with future T2DM independent of traditional risk factors, measures of glycemia, insulin resistance, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. These prospective data suggest that pathologic angiogenesis may occur well before the clinical onset of T2DM and thus may have relevance to vascular complications of this disease. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000479.

8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2773, 2019 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235808

RESUMO

Dental caries and periodontitis account for a vast burden of morbidity and healthcare spending, yet their genetic basis remains largely uncharacterized. Here, we identify self-reported dental disease proxies which have similar underlying genetic contributions to clinical disease measures and then combine these in a genome-wide association study meta-analysis, identifying 47 novel and conditionally-independent risk loci for dental caries. We show that the heritability of dental caries is enriched for conserved genomic regions and partially overlapping with a range of complex traits including smoking, education, personality traits and metabolic measures. Using cardio-metabolic traits as an example in Mendelian randomization analysis, we estimate causal relationships and provide evidence suggesting that the processes contributing to dental caries may have undesirable downstream effects on health.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Periodontite/genética , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Genômica , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Periodontite/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Autorrelato/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(25): 3243-3255, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248544

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower socioeconomic status (SES) associates with a higher risk of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) via mechanisms that are not well understood. OBJECTIVES: Because psychosocial stress is more prevalent among those with low SES, this study tested the hypothesis that stress-associated neurobiological pathways involving up-regulated inflammation in part mediate the link between lower SES and MACE. METHODS: A total of 509 individuals, median age 55 years (interquartile range: 45 to 66 years), underwent clinically indicated whole-body 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging and met pre-defined inclusion criteria, including absence of known cardiovascular disease or active cancer. Baseline hematopoietic tissue activity, arterial inflammation, and in a subset of 289, resting amygdalar metabolism (a measure of stress-associated neural activity) were quantified using validated 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography methods. SES was captured by neighborhood SES factors (e.g., median household income and crime). MACE within 5 years of imaging was adjudicated. RESULTS: Over a median 4.0 years, 40 individuals experienced MACE. Baseline income inversely associated with amygdalar activity (standardized ß: -0.157 [95% confidence interval (CI): -0.266 to -0.041]; p = 0.007) and arterial inflammation (ß: -0.10 [95% CI: -0.18 to -0.14]; p = 0.022). Further, income associated with subsequent MACE (standardized hazard ratio: 0.67 [95% CI: 0.47 to 0.96]; p = 0.029) after multivariable adjustments. Mediation analysis demonstrated that the path of: ↓ neighborhood income to ↑ amygdalar activity to ↑ bone marrow activity to ↑ arterial inflammation to ↑ MACE was significant (ß: -0.01 [95% CI: -0.06 to -0.001]; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Lower SES: 1) associates with higher amygdalar activity; and 2) independently predicts MACE via a serial pathway that includes higher amygdalar activity, bone marrow activity, and arterial inflammation. These findings illuminate a stress-associated neurobiological mechanism by which SES disparities may potentiate adverse health outcomes.

11.
Cardiovasc Diabetol ; 18(1): 71, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164165

RESUMO

In the era of precision medicine, treatments that target specific modifiable characteristics of high-risk patients have the potential to lower further the residual risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular events. Correction of atherogenic dyslipidemia, however, remains a major unmet clinical need. Elevated plasma triglycerides, with or without low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), offer a key modifiable component of this common dyslipidemia, especially in insulin resistant conditions such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. The development of selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha modulators (SPPARMα) offers an approach to address this treatment gap. This Joint Consensus Panel appraised evidence for the first SPPARMα agonist and concluded that this agent represents a novel therapeutic class, distinct from fibrates, based on pharmacological activity, and, importantly, a safe hepatic and renal profile. The ongoing PROMINENT cardiovascular outcomes trial is testing in 10,000 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, elevated triglycerides, and low levels of HDL-C whether treatment with this SPPARMα agonist safely reduces residual cardiovascular risk.

12.
Eur Heart J ; 40(41): 3385-3392, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228190

RESUMO

AIMS: Efficacy of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be influenced by a common allele in guanylate cyclase GUCY1A3, which has been shown to modify platelet function and increase CVD risk. METHODS AND RESULTS: We investigated whether homozygotes of the GUCY1A3 rs7692387 risk (G) allele benefited from aspirin in two long-term, randomized placebo-controlled trials of aspirin in primary CVD prevention: the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS, N = 23 294) and a myocardial infarction (MI, N = 550) and stroke (N = 382) case-control set from the Physician's Health Study (PHS, N = 22 071). Bleeding risk was evaluated in the WGHS. In the placebo group of the WGHS, the GUCY1A3 risk (G) allele was confirmed to increase CVD risk [hazard ratio 1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.78; P = 0.01]. Random-effects meta-analysis of the WGHS and PHS revealed that aspirin reduced CVD events among risk allele homozygotes [G/G: odds ratio (OR) 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.97; P = 0.03] but increased CVD events among non-risk allele carriers (e.g. G/A: OR 1.39; 95% CI 1.03-1.87; P = 0.03) thus implying an interaction between genotype stratum and aspirin intake (Pinteraction = 0.01). Bleeding associated with aspirin increased in all genotype groups, with higher risks in heterozygotes. CONCLUSION: In two randomized placebo-controlled trials in the setting of primary prevention, aspirin reduced the incidence of CVD events in individuals homozygous for the GUCY1A3 risk (G) allele, whereas heterozygote individuals had more events when taking aspirin.

13.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216222, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fibrinogen is an essential hemostatic factor and cardiovascular disease risk factor. Early attempts at evaluating the causal effect of fibrinogen on coronary heart disease (CHD) and myocardial infraction (MI) using Mendelian randomization (MR) used single variant approaches, and did not take advantage of recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) or multi-variant, pleiotropy robust MR methodologies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated evidence for a causal effect of fibrinogen on both CHD and MI using MR. We used both an allele score approach and pleiotropy robust MR models. The allele score was composed of 38 fibrinogen-associated variants from recent GWAS. Initial analyses using the allele score used a meta-analysis of 11 European-ancestry prospective cohorts, free of CHD and MI at baseline, to examine incidence CHD and MI. We also applied 2 sample MR methods with data from a prevalent CHD and MI GWAS. Results are given in terms of the hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio (OR), depending on the study design, and associated 95% confidence interval (CI). In single variant analyses no causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD or MI was observed. In multi-variant analyses using incidence CHD cases and the allele score approach, the estimated causal effect (HR) of a 1 g/L higher fibrinogen concentration was 1.62 (CI = 1.12, 2.36) when using incident cases and the allele score approach. In 2 sample MR analyses that accounted for pleiotropy, the causal estimate (OR) was reduced to 1.18 (CI = 0.98, 1.42) and 1.09 (CI = 0.89, 1.33) in the 2 most precise (smallest CI) models, out of 4 models evaluated. In the 2 sample MR analyses for MI, there was only very weak evidence of a causal effect in only 1 out of 4 models. CONCLUSIONS: A small causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD is observed using multi-variant MR approaches which account for pleiotropy, but not single variant MR approaches. Taken together, results indicate that even with large sample sizes and multi-variant approaches MR analyses still cannot exclude the null when estimating the causal effect of fibrinogen on CHD, but that any potential causal effect is likely to be much smaller than observed in epidemiological studies.

14.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(6): 1182-1190, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070471

RESUMO

Objective- Inflammation is a causal risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). sPLA2-IIA (group IIA secretory phospholipase A2) plays an integral role in regulating vascular inflammation. Although studies investigated sPLA2-IIA in secondary prevention, we prospectively evaluated sPLA2-IIA mass and genetic variants with CVD events in a primary prevention population with chronic inflammation. Approach and Results- The JUPITER trial (Justification for the Use of Statins in Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin) randomized participants with LDL (low-density lipoprotein) <130 mg/dL and hsCRP (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) ≥2 mg/L to high-intensity rosuvastatin versus placebo. Baseline and 1-year plasma sPLA2-IIA mass was measured (N=11 269 baseline; N=9620 1 year). We also identified genetic variants influencing sPLA2-IIA using genome-wide association and examined them with CVD. Three hundred thirteen incident CVD events occurred during follow-up. Baseline sPLA2-IIA mass (median, 25th-75th percentile: 3.81, 2.49-6.03 ng/mL) was associated with increased risk of CVD: risk factor-adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI; P) per SD increment: 1.22 (1.08-1.38; P=0.002). This remained significant (1.18; 1.04-1.35; P=0.01) after incrementally adjusting for hsCRP. Similar estimates were observed in rosuvastatin and placebo groups ( P treatment interaction>0.05). The rs11573156C variant in PLA2G2A (encoding sPLA2-IIA) had the strongest effect on sPLA2-II: median (25th-75th percentile, ng/mL) for CC and GG genotypes: 2.79 (1.97-4.01) and 7.38 (5.38-10.19), respectively; and had nonsignificant trend for higher CVD risk (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.89-1.38; P=0.34). Conclusions- In the JUPITER population recruited on chronic inflammation, sPLA2-IIA mass was associated with CVD risk relating to vascular inflammation not fully reflected by hsCRP. Additional studies, including larger functional genetic and clinical studies, are needed to determine whether sPLA2-IIA may be a potential pharmacological target for primary prevention of CVD. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT00239681.

15.
Neurology ; 92(19): e2286-e2294, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30971484

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between lipid levels and hemorrhagic stroke risk among women. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study among 27,937 women enrolled in the Women's Health Study with measured total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), as well as triglycerides. Strokes were confirmed by medical record review. We used Cox proportional hazards models to analyze associations between lipid categories and hemorrhagic stroke risk. RESULTS: During a mean of 19.3 years of follow-up, 137 hemorrhagic strokes occurred. Compared to those with LDL-C levels 100-129.9 mg/dL, after multivariable adjustment, those with LDL-C levels <70 mg/dL had 2.17 times the risk (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05, 4.48) of experiencing a hemorrhagic stroke. No significant increase in risk was seen for those with LDL-C levels 130-159.9 mg/dL (relative risk [RR] 1.14; 95% CI 0.72, 1.80) or 70-99.9 mg/dL (RR 1.25; 95% CI 0.76, 2.04). There was a suggestion, although not significant, of increased risk for those with LDL-C levels ≥160 mg/dL (RR 1.53; 95% CI 0.92, 2.52). Women in the lowest quartile of triglycerides had a significantly increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke compared to women in the top quartile after multivariable adjustment (RR 2.00; 95% CI 1.18, 3.39). We observed no significant associations between total cholesterol or HDL-C levels and hemorrhagic stroke risk. CONCLUSION: LDL-C levels <70 mg/dL and low triglyceride levels were associated with increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke among women.

16.
Circ Res ; 124(5): 677-678, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817264
17.
Circ Res ; 124(3): 437-450, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30702995

RESUMO

The recognition that atherosclerosis is a complex chronic inflammatory disorder mediated through both adaptive and innate immunity has led to the hypothesis that anticytokine therapies targeting specific IL (interleukin) signaling pathways could serve as powerful adjuncts to lipid lowering in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. Cytokines involved in human atherosclerosis can be broadly classified as proinflammatory and proatherogenic (such as IL-1, IL-6, and TNF [tumor necrosis factor]) or as anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic (such as IL-10 and IL-1rA). The recent CANTOS (Canakinumab Anti-Inflammatory Thrombosis Outcomes Study) has shown that specific targeting of IL-1ß can significantly reduce cardiovascular event rates without lipid or blood pressure lowering. In CANTOS, the magnitude of benefit of this cytokine-targeted approach to atherosclerosis treatment was associated to the magnitude of reduction of the central signaling cytokine IL-6 and the downstream clinical biomarker high-sensitivity CRP (C-reactive protein). By contrast, in the recent CIRT (Cardiovascular Inflammation Reduction Trial), low-dose methotrexate neither reduced IL-1ß, IL-6, or high-sensitivity CRP nor lowered cardiovascular event rates. Taken together, these 2 contemporary trials provide proof of principle that focused cytokine inhibition, not broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory therapy, is likely to be crucial for atheroprotection. This review provides an overview of cytokines in atherosclerosis, the potential benefits and risks associated with targeted anticytokine therapies, and a look to the future of clinical practices addressing residual inflammatory risk.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína C-Reativa/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Interleucina-1beta/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-6/antagonistas & inibidores , Trombose/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Aterosclerose/complicações , Antígenos CD40/antagonistas & inibidores , Ligante de CD40/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hematopoese , Humanos , Inflamassomos/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-18/antagonistas & inibidores , Metotrexato/uso terapêutico , Camundongos , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/antagonistas & inibidores , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Trombose/etiologia , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides/antagonistas & inibidores
18.
JAMA Cardiol ; 4(2): 144-152, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30673084

RESUMO

Importance: Increased free thyroxine (FT4) and decreased thyrotropin are associated with increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF) in observational studies, but direct involvement is unclear. Objective: To evaluate the potential direct involvement of thyroid traits on AF. Design, Setting, and Participants: Study-level mendelian randomization (MR) included 11 studies, and summary-level MR included 55 114 AF cases and 482 295 referents, all of European ancestry. Exposures: Genomewide significant variants were used as instruments for standardized FT4 and thyrotropin levels within the reference range, standardized triiodothyronine (FT3):FT4 ratio, hypothyroidism, standardized thyroid peroxidase antibody levels, and hyperthyroidism. Mendelian randomization used genetic risk scores in study-level analysis or individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 2-sample MR for the summary-level data. Main Outcomes and Measures: Prevalent and incident AF. Results: The study-level analysis included 7679 individuals with AF and 49 233 referents (mean age [standard error], 62 [3] years; 15 859 men [29.7%]). In study-level random-effects meta-analysis, the pooled hazard ratio of FT4 levels (nanograms per deciliter) for incident AF was 1.55 (95% CI, 1.09-2.20; P = .02; I2 = 76%) and the pooled odds ratio (OR) for prevalent AF was 2.80 (95% CI, 1.41-5.54; P = .003; I2 = 64%) in multivariable-adjusted analyses. The FT4 genetic risk score was associated with an increase in FT4 by 0.082 SD (standard error, 0.007; P < .001) but not with incident AF (risk ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.62-1.14; P = .27) or prevalent AF (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 0.64-2.73; P = .46). Similarly, in summary-level inverse-variance weighted random-effects MR, gene-based FT4 within the reference range was not associated with AF (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.89-1.14; P = .88). However, gene-based increased FT3:FT4 ratio, increased thyrotropin within the reference range, and hypothyroidism were associated with AF with inverse-variance weighted random-effects OR of 1.33 (95% CI, 1.08-1.63; P = .006), 0.88 (95% CI, 0.84-0.92; P < .001), and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.90-0.99; P = .009), respectively, and robust to tests of horizontal pleiotropy. However, the subset of hypothyroidism single-nucleotide polymorphisms involved in autoimmunity and thyroid peroxidase antibodies levels were not associated with AF. Gene-based hyperthyroidism was associated with AF with MR-Egger OR of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.05-1.63; P = .02) with evidence of horizontal pleiotropy (P = .045). Conclusions and Relevance: Genetically increased FT3:FT4 ratio and hyperthyroidism, but not FT4 within the reference range, were associated with increased AF, and increased thyrotropin within the reference range and hypothyroidism were associated with decreased AF, supporting a pathway involving the pituitary-thyroid-cardiac axis.

19.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30624689

RESUMO

Background: Vitamins are among the most frequently used supplements (48% of US adults). However, little is known about contributions of genetic variation to their efficacy and safety. Multiple pathways link catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) to the vitamin E supplement, alpha-tocopherol, and cancer. Methods: Here we determined if COMT exerted pharmacogenetic effects on cancer prevention in two randomized trials of alpha-tocopherol supplementation. Pharmacogenetic effects of common COMT rs4680 (val158met), which encodes a nonsynonymous valine-to-methionine substitution, were examined in the trial plus a 10-year post-trial follow-up (overall) period of The Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS, N = 23 294), a 10-year alpha-tocopherol and aspirin trial with 10 years post-trial follow-up. Results were validated in a case/control (N = 2396/2235) subset of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC, N = 29 133). The primary outcome was total cancers. Rates of cancer types prevalent in women (colorectal, breast, lung, uterine, and lymphoma/leukemia) were also examined. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Random-effects meta-analysis of rs4680 genotype strata, in WGHS and ATBC overall periods, revealed differential alpha-tocopherol effects compared with placebo: met/met (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.80 to 0.97; P = .01), val/met (HR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.92 to 1.06; P = .74), and val/val (HR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.31; P = .002) with a statistically significant COMT by alpha-tocopherol interaction (Pinteraction <.001). Timing of effects differed, with stronger effects in WGHS trial and ATBC post-trial. Conclusion: Pharmacogenetic analysis of COMT and cancer prevention in two large randomized trials revealed statistically significant COMT by alpha-tocopherol interaction, such that alpha-tocopherol was beneficial among rs4680 met-allele (28.0%), but not val-allele (22.8%) homozygotes. These effects indicate the need for additional studies of genetic variation as a determinant of the benefits and possible harms of over-the-counter supplements, like alpha-tocopherol, used for health promotion.

20.
Circulation ; 139(10): 1289-1299, 2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586730

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical inflammation is associated with an increased risk of heart failure and with adverse prognosis in patients with established heart failure. Yet, treatments specifically directed at reducing inflammation in patients with heart failure have not yet shown improved clinical outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that the interleukin-1ß inhibitor canakinumab would prevent hospitalization for heart failure (HHF) and the composite of HHF or heart failure-related mortality. METHODS: We randomized 10 061 patients with prior myocardial infarction and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥2 mg/L to canakinumab 50, 150, or 300 mg or placebo, given subcutaneously once every 3 months. In total, 2173 (22%) reported a history of heart failure at baseline. We tested the hypothesis that canakinumab prevents prospectively collected HHF events and the composite of HHF or heart failure-related mortality. RESULTS: A total of 385 patients had an HHF event during a median follow-up of 3.7 years. Patients who had HHF were older, had higher body mass index, and were more likely to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and prior coronary bypass surgery. As anticipated, median (quartile 1, 3) baseline concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were higher among those who had HHF during follow-up than those who did not (5.7 [3.5, 9.9] mg/L versus 4.2 [2.8, 6.9] mg/L, respectively; P<0.0001). The unadjusted hazard ratios for HHF with each dose of canakinumab compared with placebo were 1.04 (95% CI, 0.79-1.36) for 50 mg, 0.86 (95% CI, 0.65-1.13) for 150 mg, and 0.76 (95% CI, 0.57-1.01) for 300 mg ( P for trend=0.025). The composite of HHF or heart failure-related mortality was also reduced by canakinumab, with unadjusted hazard ratios of 1.00 (95% CI, 0.78-1.29) for 50 mg, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.68-1.13) for 150 mg, and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.60-1.02) for 300 mg ( P for trend=0.042). CONCLUSIONS: These randomized double-blind placebo-controlled data suggest that therapy with canakinumab, an interleukin-1ß inhibitor, is related to a dose-dependent reduction in HHF and the composite of HHF or heart failure-related mortality in a population of patients with prior myocardial infarction and elevations in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT01327846.

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