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1.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 49(1): 3-8, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611544

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We previously published data representing calculations for sample sizes assuming that the reduction of the incidence of knee joint replacement (KJR) would be an endpoint to prove efficacy of a disease-modifying drug in osteoarthritis (DMOAD). The sample sizes required for such hypothetical studies appeared to be high, rendering those studies unrealistic in the clinical research setting for practical reasons. The purpose of this work is to calculate sample sizes for hypothetical trials for DMOAD efficacy using a proxy for reaching end-stage knee osteoarthritis (esKOA) as an endpoint. METHODS: Based on a sub-population of the Osteoarthritis Initiative, the cumulative incidence for both esKOA and KJR were calculated for a period of four years. The sample sizes of hypothetical DMOAD trials were then calculated for particular sub-cohorts of the OAI subpopulation, subdividing the groups according to age, Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grades and gender. RESULTS: Both the incidence for esKOA and for KJR over the four year period increase along with rising age, severity of OA and being female. The sample sizes to detect DMOAD efficacy are considerably smaller if reduction of the incidence of esKOA is chosen as an endpoint instead of reduction of the incidence of KJR. CONCLUSION: In the future, generating health-economic data may become increasingly important to gain reimbursement. By choosing esKOA as an endpoint in DMOAD trials, we are able to show in our work that clinical trials in the field of OA are feasible, merely including a few hundred study participants per study arm.

2.
Stem Cell Reports ; 11(4): 897-911, 2018 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245212

RESUMO

Reproducibility in molecular and cellular studies is fundamental to scientific discovery. To establish the reproducibility of a well-defined long-term neuronal differentiation protocol, we repeated the cellular and molecular comparison of the same two iPSC lines across five distinct laboratories. Despite uncovering acceptable variability within individual laboratories, we detect poor cross-site reproducibility of the differential gene expression signature between these two lines. Factor analysis identifies the laboratory as the largest source of variation along with several variation-inflating confounders such as passaging effects and progenitor storage. Single-cell transcriptomics shows substantial cellular heterogeneity underlying inter-laboratory variability and being responsible for biases in differential gene expression inference. Factor analysis-based normalization of the combined dataset can remove the nuisance technical effects, enabling the execution of robust hypothesis-generating studies. Our study shows that multi-center collaborations can expose systematic biases and identify critical factors to be standardized when publishing novel protocols, contributing to increased cross-site reproducibility.

3.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9408, 2018 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29925868

RESUMO

Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a contributor to age-related muscle loss and functional impairment. Therefore, we developed a high throughput screening strategy that enabled the identification of compounds boosting mitochondrial energy production in a human skeletal muscle cell model. Screening of 7949 pure natural products revealed 22 molecules that significantly increased oxygen consumption and ATP levels in myotubes. One of the most potent compounds was the flavanone hesperetin. Hesperetin (10 µM) increased intracellular ATP by 33% and mitochondrial spare capacity by 25%. Furthermore, the compound reduced oxidative stress in primary myotubes as well as muscle tissue in vivo. In aged mice administration of hesperetin (50 mg/kg/d) completely reverted the age-related decrease of muscle fiber size and improved running performance of treated animals. These results provide a novel screening platform for the discovery of drugs that can improve skeletal muscle function in patients suffering from sarcopenia or other disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction.

5.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 80, 2017 07 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28724990

RESUMO

Lean body mass, consisting mostly of skeletal muscle, is important for healthy aging. We performed a genome-wide association study for whole body (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) and appendicular (arms and legs) lean body mass (n = 28,330) measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, height, and fat mass. Twenty-one single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with lean body mass either genome wide (p < 5 × 10-8) or suggestively genome wide (p < 2.3 × 10-6). Replication in 63,475 (47,227 of European ancestry) individuals from 33 cohorts for whole body lean body mass and in 45,090 (42,360 of European ancestry) subjects from 25 cohorts for appendicular lean body mass was successful for five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near HSD17B11, VCAN, ADAMTSL3, IRS1, and FTO for total lean body mass and for three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in/near VCAN, ADAMTSL3, and IRS1 for appendicular lean body mass. Our findings provide new insight into the genetics of lean body mass.Lean body mass is a highly heritable trait and is associated with various health conditions. Here, Kiel and colleagues perform a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for whole body lean body mass and find five novel genetic loci to be significantly associated.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Magreza/genética , 17-Hidroxiesteroide Desidrogenases/genética , Proteínas ADAMTS/genética , Aldeído Oxirredutases/genética , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Composição Corporal , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/genética , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Elementos Reguladores de Transcrição , Versicanas/genética
6.
Hypertension ; 2017 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28739976

RESUMO

Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and has a substantial genetic contribution. Genetic variation influencing blood pressure has the potential to identify new pharmacological targets for the treatment of hypertension. To discover additional novel blood pressure loci, we used 1000 Genomes Project-based imputation in 150 134 European ancestry individuals and sought significant evidence for independent replication in a further 228 245 individuals. We report 6 new signals of association in or near HSPB7, TNXB, LRP12, LOC283335, SEPT9, and AKT2, and provide new replication evidence for a further 2 signals in EBF2 and NFKBIA Combining large whole-blood gene expression resources totaling 12 607 individuals, we investigated all novel and previously reported signals and identified 48 genes with evidence for involvement in blood pressure regulation that are significant in multiple resources. Three novel kidney-specific signals were also detected. These robustly implicated genes may provide new leads for therapeutic innovation.

7.
Diabetes ; 66(11): 2888-2902, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28566273

RESUMO

To characterize type 2 diabetes (T2D)-associated variation across the allele frequency spectrum, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data from 26,676 T2D case and 132,532 control subjects of European ancestry after imputation using the 1000 Genomes multiethnic reference panel. Promising association signals were followed up in additional data sets (of 14,545 or 7,397 T2D case and 38,994 or 71,604 control subjects). We identified 13 novel T2D-associated loci (P < 5 × 10-8), including variants near the GLP2R, GIP, and HLA-DQA1 genes. Our analysis brought the total number of independent T2D associations to 128 distinct signals at 113 loci. Despite substantially increased sample size and more complete coverage of low-frequency variation, all novel associations were driven by common single nucleotide variants. Credible sets of potentially causal variants were generally larger than those based on imputation with earlier reference panels, consistent with resolution of causal signals to common risk haplotypes. Stratification of T2D-associated loci based on T2D-related quantitative trait associations revealed tissue-specific enrichment of regulatory annotations in pancreatic islet enhancers for loci influencing insulin secretion and in adipocytes, monocytes, and hepatocytes for insulin action-associated loci. These findings highlight the predominant role played by common variants of modest effect and the diversity of biological mechanisms influencing T2D pathophysiology.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Variação Genética , Humanos
8.
J Lipid Res ; 58(9): 1834-1844, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28512139

RESUMO

High lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] concentrations are an independent risk factor for cardiovascular outcomes. Concentrations are strongly influenced by apo(a) kringle IV repeat isoforms. We aimed to identify genetic loci associated with Lp(a) concentrations using data from five genome-wide association studies (n = 13,781). We identified 48 independent SNPs in the LPA and 1 SNP in the APOE gene region to be significantly associated with Lp(a) concentrations. We also adjusted for apo(a) isoforms to identify loci affecting Lp(a) levels independently from them, which resulted in 31 SNPs (30 in the LPA, 1 in the APOE gene region). Seven SNPs showed a genome-wide significant association with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. A rare SNP (rs186696265; MAF ∼1%) showed the highest effect on Lp(a) and was also associated with increased risk of CAD (odds ratio = 1.73, P = 3.35 × 10-30). Median Lp(a) values increased from 2.1 to 91.1 mg/dl with increasing number of Lp(a)-increasing alleles. We found the APOE2-determining allele of rs7412 to be significantly associated with Lp(a) concentrations (P = 3.47 × 10-10). Each APOE2 allele decreased Lp(a) by 3.34 mg/dl corresponding to ∼15% of the population's mean values. Performing a gene-based test of association, including suspected Lp(a) receptors and regulators, resulted in one significant association of the TLR2 gene with Lp(a) (P = 3.4 × 10-4). In summary, we identified a large number of independent SNPs in the LPA gene region, as well as the APOE2 allele, to be significantly associated with Lp(a) concentrations.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas A/metabolismo , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Lipoproteína(a)/genética , Lipoproteína(a)/metabolismo , Animais , Apolipoproteínas A/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Isoformas de Proteínas/metabolismo , Caracteres Sexuais
9.
Nature ; 541(7635): 81-86, 2017 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002404

RESUMO

Approximately 1.5 billion people worldwide are overweight or affected by obesity, and are at risk of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and related metabolic and inflammatory disturbances. Although the mechanisms linking adiposity to associated clinical conditions are poorly understood, recent studies suggest that adiposity may influence DNA methylation, a key regulator of gene expression and molecular phenotype. Here we use epigenome-wide association to show that body mass index (BMI; a key measure of adiposity) is associated with widespread changes in DNA methylation (187 genetic loci with P < 1 × 10-7, range P = 9.2 × 10-8 to 6.0 × 10-46; n = 10,261 samples). Genetic association analyses demonstrate that the alterations in DNA methylation are predominantly the consequence of adiposity, rather than the cause. We find that methylation loci are enriched for functional genomic features in multiple tissues (P < 0.05), and show that sentinel methylation markers identify gene expression signatures at 38 loci (P < 9.0 × 10-6, range P = 5.5 × 10-6 to 6.1 × 10-35, n = 1,785 samples). The methylation loci identify genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, substrate transport and inflammatory pathways. Finally, we show that the disturbances in DNA methylation predict future development of type 2 diabetes (relative risk per 1 standard deviation increase in methylation risk score: 2.3 (2.07-2.56); P = 1.1 × 10-54). Our results provide new insights into the biologic pathways influenced by adiposity, and may enable development of new strategies for prediction and prevention of type 2 diabetes and other adverse clinical consequences of obesity.


Assuntos
Adiposidade/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Metilação de DNA/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Epigênese Genética , Epigenômica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Obesidade/genética , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sangue/metabolismo , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Índia/etnologia , Masculino , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/complicações , Sobrepeso/sangue , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/genética
10.
Nat Commun ; 7: 13357, 2016 11 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27876822

RESUMO

Large consortia have revealed hundreds of genetic loci associated with anthropometric traits, one trait at a time. We examined whether genetic variants affect body shape as a composite phenotype that is represented by a combination of anthropometric traits. We developed an approach that calculates averaged PCs (AvPCs) representing body shape derived from six anthropometric traits (body mass index, height, weight, waist and hip circumference, waist-to-hip ratio). The first four AvPCs explain >99% of the variability, are heritable, and associate with cardiometabolic outcomes. We performed genome-wide association analyses for each body shape composite phenotype across 65 studies and meta-analysed summary statistics. We identify six novel loci: LEMD2 and CD47 for AvPC1, RPS6KA5/C14orf159 and GANAB for AvPC3, and ARL15 and ANP32 for AvPC4. Our findings highlight the value of using multiple traits to define complex phenotypes for discovery, which are not captured by single-trait analyses, and may shed light onto new pathways.


Assuntos
Antropometria , Tamanho Corporal , Modelos Genéticos , Análise de Componente Principal , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos
11.
Nat Commun ; 7: 11008, 2016 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27020472

RESUMO

Myopia is the most common human eye disorder and it results from complex genetic and environmental causes. The rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia poses a major public health challenge. Here, the CREAM consortium performs a joint meta-analysis to test single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) main effects and SNP × education interaction effects on refractive error in 40,036 adults from 25 studies of European ancestry and 10,315 adults from 9 studies of Asian ancestry. In European ancestry individuals, we identify six novel loci (FAM150B-ACP1, LINC00340, FBN1, DIS3L-MAP2K1, ARID2-SNAT1 and SLC14A2) associated with refractive error. In Asian populations, three genome-wide significant loci AREG, GABRR1 and PDE10A also exhibit strong interactions with education (P<8.5 × 10(-5)), whereas the interactions are less evident in Europeans. The discovery of these loci represents an important advance in understanding how gene and environment interactions contribute to the heterogeneity of myopia.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Meio Ambiente , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Erros de Refração/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
12.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(4): 521-8, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26306643

RESUMO

A wealth of biospecimen samples are stored in modern globally distributed biobanks. Biomedical researchers worldwide need to be able to combine the available resources to improve the power of large-scale studies. A prerequisite for this effort is to be able to search and access phenotypic, clinical and other information about samples that are currently stored at biobanks in an integrated manner. However, privacy issues together with heterogeneous information systems and the lack of agreed-upon vocabularies have made specimen searching across multiple biobanks extremely challenging. We describe three case studies where we have linked samples and sample descriptions in order to facilitate global searching of available samples for research. The use cases include the ENGAGE (European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology) consortium comprising at least 39 cohorts, the SUMMIT (surrogate markers for micro- and macro-vascular hard endpoints for innovative diabetes tools) consortium and a pilot for data integration between a Swedish clinical health registry and a biobank. We used the Sample avAILability (SAIL) method for data linking: first, created harmonised variables and then annotated and made searchable information on the number of specimens available in individual biobanks for various phenotypic categories. By operating on this categorised availability data we sidestep many obstacles related to privacy that arise when handling real values and show that harmonised and annotated records about data availability across disparate biomedical archives provide a key methodological advance in pre-analysis exchange of information between biobanks, that is, during the project planning phase.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Bases de Dados Factuais , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/métodos , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/ética , Armazenamento e Recuperação da Informação/normas , Privacidade
13.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 67(12): 3174-83, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26314914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the extent to which the current designs of clinical trials in knee osteoarthritis (OA) permit detection of a therapeutic effect of disease-modifying OA drugs (DMOADs) on the incidence of knee replacement, and to provide estimates of the required sample sizes. METHODS: We selected distinct subcohorts of the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI), based on available information on eligibility criteria for clinical knee OA trials (ClinicalTrials.gov) and additional subcohorts stratified for age, sex, and the severity of radiographic OA. The observed incidence of knee replacement in these OAI subcohorts was used to estimate the expected incidence of knee replacement in the control group of a clinical trial. Based on this estimate, the sample sizes required to detect hypothetical treatment effects on the incidence of knee replacement were calculated, assuming observation periods of 2, 5, or 7 years. RESULTS: The cumulative knee replacement incidence rates in the OAI subcohorts ranged from 0.9% to 12.9%. The corresponding sample sizes required to detect 50% improvement by the DMOAD, with a power of 80% and 95% confidence, were 5,459 and 362, respectively. Including only women with advanced age and radiographic OA increased the incidence of knee replacement and decreased the required sample size. CONCLUSION: The sample sizes that are commonly used in clinical trials do not enable the effects of a DMOAD on incident knee replacement to be detected with sufficient power and confidence. The estimated incidence rates of knee replacement and the corresponding sample sizes are important for informing the design of trials for disease course-modifying effects as well as for socioeconomic evaluation of a DMOAD in terms of preventing knee replacement.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Joelho/estatística & dados numéricos , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/tratamento farmacológico , Tamanho da Amostra , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Articulação do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoartrite do Joelho/cirurgia , Radiografia , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Diabetes Care ; 38(10): 1858-67, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26251408

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Metformin is used as a first-line oral treatment for type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we aimed to comprehensively investigate the pleiotropic effects of metformin. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed both metabolomic and genomic data of the population-based KORA cohort. To evaluate the effect of metformin treatment on metabolite concentrations, we quantified 131 metabolites in fasting serum samples and used multivariable linear regression models in three independent cross-sectional studies (n = 151 patients with T2D treated with metformin [mt-T2D]). Additionally, we used linear mixed-effect models to study the longitudinal KORA samples (n = 912) and performed mediation analyses to investigate the effects of metformin intake on blood lipid profiles. We combined genotyping data with the identified metformin-associated metabolites in KORA individuals (n = 1,809) and explored the underlying pathways. RESULTS: We found significantly lower (P < 5.0E-06) concentrations of three metabolites (acyl-alkyl phosphatidylcholines [PCs]) when comparing mt-T2D with four control groups who were not using glucose-lowering oral medication. These findings were controlled for conventional risk factors of T2D and replicated in two independent studies. Furthermore, we observed that the levels of these metabolites decreased significantly in patients after they started metformin treatment during 7 years' follow-up. The reduction of these metabolites was also associated with a lowered blood level of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C). Variations of these three metabolites were significantly associated with 17 genes (including FADS1 and FADS2) and controlled by AMPK, a metformin target. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that metformin intake activates AMPK and consequently suppresses FADS, which leads to reduced levels of the three acyl-alkyl PCs and LDL-C. Our findings suggest potential beneficial effects of metformin in the prevention of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
LDL-Colesterol/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Metformina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Angiopatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Jejum/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Dessaturases/metabolismo , Feminino , Genômica , Genótipo , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metabolômica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
15.
PLoS Genet ; 11(7): e1005230, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26132169

RESUMO

Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency ≥0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry. We identified two loci for body mass index (BMI) at genome-wide significance, and two for fasting glucose (FG), none of which has been previously reported in larger meta-analysis efforts to combine GWAS of European ancestry. Through conditional analysis, we also detected multiple distinct signals of association mapping to established loci for waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (RSPO3) and FG (GCK and G6PC2). The index variant for one association signal at the G6PC2 locus is a low-frequency coding allele, H177Y, which has recently been demonstrated to have a functional role in glucose regulation. Fine-mapping analyses revealed that the non-coding variants most likely to drive association signals at established and novel loci were enriched for overlap with enhancer elements, which for FG mapped to promoter and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic islets, in particular. Our study demonstrates that 1000G imputation and genetic fine-mapping of common and low-frequency variant association signals at GWAS loci, integrated with genomic annotation in relevant tissues, can provide insight into the functional and regulatory mechanisms through which their effects on glycaemic and obesity-related traits are mediated.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Índice Glicêmico/genética , Obesidade/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glucose-6-Fosfatase/genética , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Trombospondinas/genética
16.
Nat Genet ; 47(6): 589-97, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25961943

RESUMO

Using a genome-wide screen of 9.6 million genetic variants achieved through 1000 Genomes Project imputation in 62,166 samples, we identify association to lipid traits in 93 loci, including 79 previously identified loci with new lead SNPs and 10 new loci, 15 loci with a low-frequency lead SNP and 10 loci with a missense lead SNP, and 2 loci with an accumulation of rare variants. In six loci, SNPs with established function in lipid genetics (CELSR2, GCKR, LIPC and APOE) or candidate missense mutations with predicted damaging function (CD300LG and TM6SF2) explained the locus associations. The low-frequency variants increased the proportion of variance explained, particularly for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol. Altogether, our results highlight the impact of low-frequency variants in complex traits and show that imputation offers a cost-effective alternative to resequencing.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Dislipidemias/genética , Frequência do Gene , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA
17.
Genetics ; 200(3): 707-18, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25977471

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are widely applied to analyze the genetic effects on phenotypes. With the availability of high-throughput technologies for metabolite measurements, GWAS successfully identified loci that affect metabolite concentrations and underlying pathways. In most GWAS, the effect of each SNP on the phenotype is assumed to be additive. Other genetic models such as recessive, dominant, or overdominant were considered only by very few studies. In contrast to this, there are theories that emphasize the relevance of nonadditive effects as a consequence of physiologic mechanisms. This might be especially important for metabolites because these intermediate phenotypes are closer to the underlying pathways than other traits or diseases. In this study we analyzed systematically nonadditive effects on a large panel of serum metabolites and all possible ratios (22,801 total) in a population-based study [Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA) F4, N = 1,785]. We applied four different 1-degree-of-freedom (1-df) tests corresponding to an additive, dominant, recessive, and overdominant trait model as well as a genotypic model with two degree-of-freedom (2-df) that allows a more general consideration of genetic effects. Twenty-three loci were found to be genome-wide significantly associated (Bonferroni corrected P ≤ 2.19 × 10(-12)) with at least one metabolite or ratio. For five of them, we show the evidence of nonadditive effects. We replicated 17 loci, including 3 loci with nonadditive effects, in an independent study (TwinsUK, N = 846). In conclusion, we found that most genetic effects on metabolite concentrations and ratios were indeed additive, which verifies the practice of using the additive model for analyzing SNP effects on metabolites.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos , Padrões de Herança , Metaboloma/genética , Metabolômica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
J Invest Dermatol ; 135(5): 1283-1293, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25599394

RESUMO

Psoriasis has been linked to cardiometabolic diseases, but epidemiological findings are inconsistent. We investigated the association between psoriasis and cardiometabolic outcomes in a German cross-sectional study (n=4,185) and a prospective cohort of German Health Insurance beneficiaries (n=1,811,098). A potential genetic overlap was explored using genome-wide data from >22,000 coronary artery disease and >4,000 psoriasis cases, and with a dense genotyping study of cardiometabolic risk loci on 927 psoriasis cases and 3,717 controls. After controlling for major confounders, in the cross-sectional analysis psoriasis was significantly associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D, adjusted odds ratio (OR)=2.36; 95% confidence interval CI=1.26-4.41) and myocardial infarction (MI, OR=2.26; 95% CI=1.03-4.96). In the longitudinal study, psoriasis slightly increased the risk for incident T2D (adjusted relative risk (RR)=1.11; 95% CI=1.08-1.14) and MI (RR=1.14; 95% CI=1.06-1.22), with highest risk increments in systemically treated psoriasis, which accounted for 11 and 17 excess cases of T2D and MI per 10,000 person-years. Except for weak signals from within the major histocompatibility complex, there was no evidence of genetic risk loci shared between psoriasis and cardiometabolic traits. Our findings suggest that psoriasis, in particular severe psoriasis, increases the risk for T2D and MI, and that the genetic architecture of psoriasis and cardiometabolic traits is largely distinct.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Infarto do Miocárdio/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Psoríase/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Incidência , Benefícios do Seguro/estatística & dados numéricos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Psoríase/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
20.
Hum Genet ; 134(2): 131-46, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25367360

RESUMO

To identify genetic variants associated with refractive astigmatism in the general population, meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies were performed for: White Europeans aged at least 25 years (20 cohorts, N = 31,968); Asian subjects aged at least 25 years (7 cohorts, N = 9,295); White Europeans aged <25 years (4 cohorts, N = 5,640); and all independent individuals from the above three samples combined with a sample of Chinese subjects aged <25 years (N = 45,931). Participants were classified as cases with refractive astigmatism if the average cylinder power in their two eyes was at least 1.00 diopter and as controls otherwise. Genome-wide association analysis was carried out for each cohort separately using logistic regression. Meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed effects model. In the older European group the most strongly associated marker was downstream of the neurexin-1 (NRXN1) gene (rs1401327, P = 3.92E-8). No other region reached genome-wide significance, and association signals were lower for the younger European group and Asian group. In the meta-analysis of all cohorts, no marker reached genome-wide significance: The most strongly associated regions were, NRXN1 (rs1401327, P = 2.93E-07), TOX (rs7823467, P = 3.47E-07) and LINC00340 (rs12212674, P = 1.49E-06). For 34 markers identified in prior GWAS for spherical equivalent refractive error, the beta coefficients for genotype versus spherical equivalent, and genotype versus refractive astigmatism, were highly correlated (r = -0.59, P = 2.10E-04). This work revealed no consistent or strong genetic signals for refractive astigmatism; however, the TOX gene region previously identified in GWAS for spherical equivalent refractive error was the second most strongly associated region. Analysis of additional markers provided evidence supporting widespread genetic co-susceptibility for spherical and astigmatic refractive errors.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Grupo de Alta Mobilidade/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Astigmatismo/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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