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1.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35032168

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine if patient symptoms and computed tomography enterography (CTE) and magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) imaging findings can be used to predict near-term risk of surgery in patients with small bowel Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: CD patients with small bowel strictures undergoing serial CTE or MRE were retrospectively identified. Strictures were defined by luminal narrowing, bowel wall thickening, and unequivocal proximal small bowel dilation. Harvey-Bradshaw index (HBI) was recorded. Stricture observations and measurements were performed on baseline CTE or MRE and compared to with prior and subsequent scans. Patients were divided into those who underwent surgery within 2 years and those who did not. LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression models were trained and validated using 5-fold cross-validation. RESULTS: Eighty-five patients (43.7 ± 15.3 years of age at baseline scan, majority male [57.6%]) had 137 small bowel strictures. Surgery was performed in 26 patients within 2 years from baseline CTE or MRE. In univariate analysis of patients with prior exams, development of stricture on the baseline exam was associated with near-term surgery (P = .006). A mathematical model using baseline features predicting surgery within 2 years included an HBI of 5 to 7 (odds ratio [OR], 1.7 × 105; P = .057), an HBI of 8 to 16 (OR, 3.1 × 105; P = .054), anastomotic stricture (OR, 0.002; P = .091), bowel wall thickness (OR, 4.7; P = .064), penetrating behavior (OR, 3.1 × 103; P = .096), and newly developed stricture (OR: 7.2 × 107; P = .062). This model demonstrated sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 73% (area under the curve, 0.62). CONCLUSIONS: CTE or MRE imaging findings in combination with HBI can potentially predict which patients will require surgery within 2 years.

2.
Gut ; 71(1): 55-67, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Creeping fat, the wrapping of mesenteric fat around the bowel wall, is a typical feature of Crohn's disease, and is associated with stricture formation and bowel obstruction. How creeping fat forms is unknown, and we interrogated potential mechanisms using novel intestinal tissue and cell interaction systems. DESIGN: Tissues from normal, UC, non-strictured and strictured Crohn's disease intestinal specimens were obtained. The muscularis propria matrisome was determined via proteomics. Mesenteric fat explants, primary human preadipocytes and adipocytes were used in multiple ex vivo and in vitro cell migration systems on muscularis propria muscle cell derived or native extracellular matrix. Functional experiments included integrin characterisation via flow cytometry and their inhibition with specific blocking antibodies and chemicals. RESULTS: Crohn's disease muscularis propria cells produced an extracellular matrix scaffold which is in direct spatial and functional contact with the immediately overlaid creeping fat. The scaffold contained multiple proteins, but only fibronectin production was singularly upregulated by transforming growth factor-ß1. The muscle cell-derived matrix triggered migration of preadipocytes out of mesenteric fat, fibronectin being the dominant factor responsible for their migration. Blockade of α5ß1 on the preadipocyte surface inhibited their migration out of mesenteric fat and on 3D decellularised intestinal tissue extracellular matrix. CONCLUSION: Crohn's disease creeping fat appears to result from the migration of preadipocytes out of mesenteric fat and differentiation into adipocytes in response to an increased production of fibronectin by activated muscularis propria cells. These new mechanistic insights may lead to novel approaches for prevention of creeping fat-associated stricture formation.


Assuntos
Adipócitos/patologia , Movimento Celular , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Intestinos/patologia , Músculo Liso/patologia , Adipogenia/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Tecidos Suporte
3.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 65(1): e5-e13, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34882636

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ileocolic resection for Crohn's disease traditionally does not include a high ligation of the ileocolic pedicle, and most commonly is performed with a stapled side-to-side ileocolic anastomosis. The mesentery has recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of Crohn's disease. Two techniques have been developed and are associated with reduced postoperative recurrence: the Kono-S anastomosis that excludes diseased mesentery and extended mesenteric excision that resects diseased mesentery. We aimed to assess the technical feasibility and safety of a novel combination of techniques: mesenteric excision and exclusion. TECHNIQUES: This initial report is a single-center descriptive study of consecutive adults who underwent mesenteric excision and exclusion for primary or recurrent ileocolic Crohn's disease from September 2020 to June 2021. Medication exposure and endoscopic balloon dilation before surgery were recorded. Phenotype was classified using the Montreal Classification. Thirty-day outcomes were reported. A video of the mesenteric excision and exclusion including the Kono-S anastomosis is presented. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients with ileocolic Crohn's disease underwent mesenteric excision and exclusion: 100% had strictures, 59% had fistulas, 81% were on biologics, and 27% had previous ileocolic resection(s). Seventy-two percent underwent laparoscopic procedures, a mesenteric defect was closed in 86%, omental flaps were fashioned in 77%, and 3 patients were diverted. Median operative time was 175 minutes. Median postoperative stay was 4 days. At 30 days, there were 2 readmissions for reintervention: 1 seton placement and 1 percutaneous drainage of a sterile collection. There were no cases of intra-abdominal sepsis or anastomotic leak. CONCLUSIONS: Mesenteric excision and exclusion represents an innovative, progressive, and promising approach that appears to be highly feasible and safe. Further study is warranted to determine if mesenteric excision and exclusion is associated with reduced postoperative recurrence of ileocolic Crohn's disease.


Assuntos
Anastomose Cirúrgica/métodos , Terapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Doença de Crohn/cirurgia , Mesentério/cirurgia , Adulto , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Colo/cirurgia , Constrição Patológica/epidemiologia , Doença de Crohn/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Fístula/epidemiologia , Humanos , Íleo/cirurgia , Laparoscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Mesentério/patologia , Duração da Cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/cirurgia , Recidiva , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Segurança , Suturas/efeitos adversos
4.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2021 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intestinal fibrosis has recently been characterized in adult ulcerative colitis and may affect motility, diarrhea, and the symptom of urgency. We aimed to characterize the presence of fibrosis in pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis, and its link to severity and chronicity of mucosal inflammation, as well as clinical factors of severity. METHODS: We performed a single center cross-sectional study in ulcerative colitis children ages 1-18 years undergoing colectomy or proctocolectomy. Tissue cross-sections were derived from proximal, mid and distal colon and rectum, and inflammation and fibrosis were graded based on previously developed scores. Clinical data were collected prospectively. RESULTS: 205 intestinal sections of 62 patients were evaluated. Median age at diagnosis was 13 years, 100% had extensive colitis, and all resections were done for refractory disease. The presence, chronicity and degree of inflammation were linked with the presence of fibrosis. Thickness of the muscularis mucosa was also linked with presence and chronicity of inflammation. The overall submucosal fibrosis burden was associated with prior anti-tumor necrosis factor use. CONCLUSION: Pediatric patients with ulcerative colitis exhibit colorectal submucosal fibrosis and muscularis mucosa thickening, which correlates with the presence, chronicity and degree of mucosal inflammation. Fibrosis should be recognized as a complication of pediatric ulcerative colitis, and ulcerative colitis should be considered a progressive disease.

5.
Gastroenterology ; 2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34883119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) progression and predict poor prognosis in CRC patients. However, the cellular origins of CAFs remain unknown, making it challenging to therapeutically target these cells. Here, we aimed to identify the origins and contribution of colorectal CAFs associated with poor prognosis. METHODS: To elucidate CAF origins, we used a colitis-associated CRC mouse model in 5 different fate-mapping mouse lines with BrdU dosing. RNA-sequencing of fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-purified CRC CAFs was performed to identify a potential therapeutic target in CAFs. To examine the prognostic significance of the stromal target, CRC patient RNA-sequencing data and tissue microarray were used. CRC organoids were injected into the colon of knockout mice to assess the mechanism by which the stromal gene contributes to colorectal tumorigenesis. RESULTS: Our lineage-tracing studies revealed that, in CRC, many ACTA2+ CAFs emerge through proliferation from intestinal pericryptal Leptin receptor (Lepr)+ cells. These Lepr-lineage CAFs, in turn, express melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM), a CRC stroma-specific marker we identified using RNA-sequencing. High MCAM expression induced by TGF-ß was inversely associated with patient survival in human CRC. In mice, stromal Mcam knockout attenuated orthotopically injected colorectal tumoroid growth and improved survival through decreased tumor-associated macrophage recruitment. Mechanistically, fibroblast MCAM interacted with interleukin-1 receptor 1 to augment nuclear factor-ĸB-IL34/CCL8 signaling that promotes macrophage chemotaxis. CONCLUSION: In colorectal carcinogenesis, pericryptal Lepr-lineage cells proliferate to generate MCAM+ CAFs that shape the tumor-promoting immune microenvironment. Preventing the expansion/differentiation of Lepr-lineage CAFs or inhibiting MCAM activity could be effective therapeutic approaches for CRC.

6.
BMJ Open Gastroenterol ; 8(1)2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34930755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Crohn's disease (CD) may develop fibrostenotic strictures. No currently available therapies prevent or treat fibrostenotic CD (FCD), making this a critical unmet need. AIM: To compare health outcomes and resource utilisation between CD patients with and without fibrostenotic disease. METHODS: Patients aged ≥18 years with FCD and non-FCD between 30 October 2015 and 30 September 2018 were identified in the Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters Database. We conducted 1:3 nearest neighbour propensity score matching on age, sex, malnutrition, payer type, anti-tumour necrosis factor use, and Charlson Comorbidity Index score. Primary outcomes up to 1 year from the index claim were ≥1 hospitalisation, ≥1 procedure, ≥1 surgery, and steroid dependency (>100 day supply). Associations between FCD diagnosis and outcomes were estimated with a multivariable logistic regression model. This study was exempt from institutional review board approval. RESULTS: Propensity score matching yielded 11 022 patients. Compared with non-FCD, patients with FCD had increased likelihood of hospitalisations (17.1% vs 52.4%; p<0.001), endoscopic procedures (4.4% vs 8.6%; p<0.001), IBD-related surgeries (4.7% vs 9.1%; p<0.001), steroid dependency (10.0% vs 15.7%; p<0.001), and greater mean annual costs per patient ($47 575 vs $77 609; p<0.001). FCD was a significant risk factor for ≥1 hospitalisation (adjusted OR (aOR), 6.1), ≥1 procedure (aOR, 2.1), ≥1 surgery (aOR, 2.0), and steroid dependency (aOR, 1.7). CONCLUSIONS: FCD was associated with higher risk for hospitalisation, procedures, abdominal surgery, and steroid dependency. Patients with FCD had a greater mean annual cost per patient. FCD represents an ongoing unmet medical need.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34932238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ozanimod, a high selective sphingosine 1 phosphate (S1P) receptor (S1PR) 1/5 modulator was approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis. Additional S1PR modulators are being tested in clinical development programmes for both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. AIM: To provide an overview of advances in understanding S1PRs biology and summarise preclinical and clinical investigations of S1P receptor modulators in chronic inflammatory disease with special emphasis on inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). METHODS: We performed a narrative review using PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov. RESULTS: Through S1PRs, S1P regulates multiple cellular processes, including proliferation, migration, survival, and vascular barrier integrity. The S1PRs function of regulating lymphocyte trafficking is well known, but new functions of S1PRs expand our knowledge of S1PRs biology. Several S1PR modulators are in clinical development for both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease and have shown promise in phase II and III studies with ozanimod now being approved for ulcerative colitis. CONCLUSIONS: S1P receptor modulators constitute a novel, promising, safe, and convenient strategy for the treatment of IBD.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative Crohn's disease (CD) surveillance relies on endoscopic monitoring. The role of cross-sectional imaging is less clear. We evaluated the concordance of cross-sectional enterography with endoscopic recurrence and the predictive ability of radiography for future CD postoperative recurrence. METHODS: We performed a multi-institution retrospective cohort study of postoperative adult CD patients who underwent ileocolonoscopy and cross-sectional enterography within 90 days of each other following ileocecal resection. Imaging studies were interpreted by blinded, expert CD radiologists. Patients were categorized by presence of endoscopic postoperative recurrence (E+) (modified Rutgeerts' score > i2b) or radiographic disease activity (R+) and grouped by concordance status. RESULTS: 216 CD patients with paired ileocolonoscopy and imaging were included. A majority (54.2%) exhibited concordance (34.7% E+/R+; 19.4% E-/R-) between studies. The plurality (41.7%, N=90) were E-/R+ discordant. Imaging was highly sensitive (89.3%), with low specificity (31.8%), in detecting endoscopic postoperative recurrence. Intestinal wall thickening, luminal narrowing, mural hyper-enhancement, and length of disease on imaging were associated with endoscopic recurrence (all p<0.01). Radiographic disease severity was associated with increasing Rutgeerts' score (p<0.001). E-/R+ patients experienced more rapid subsequent endoscopic recurrence (HR: 4.16; p=0.033) and increased rates of subsequent endoscopic (43.8% vs 22.7%) and surgical recurrence (20% vs 9.5%) than E-/R- patients (median follow-up 4.5 years). CONCLUSION: Cross-sectional imaging is highly sensitive, but poorly specific, in detecting endoscopic disease activity and postoperative recurrence. Advanced radiographic disease correlates with endoscopic severity. Patients with radiographic activity in the absence of endoscopic recurrence may be at increased risk for future recurrence, and closer monitoring should be considered.

10.
Physiol Rev ; 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569264

RESUMO

Intestinal fibrosis is considered an inevitable complication of Crohn's disease (CD) that results in symptoms of obstruction and stricture formation. Endoscopic or surgical treatment is required to treat the majority of patients. Progress in the management of stricturing CD is hampered by the lack of effective anti-fibrotic therapy; however, this situation is likely to change because of recent advances in other fibrotic diseases of the lung, liver and skin. In this review, we summarized data from randomized controlled trials (RCT) of anti-fibrotic therapies in these conditions. Multiple compounds have been tested for the anti-fibrotic effects in other organs. According to their mechanisms, they were categorized into growth factor modulators, inflammation modulators, 5-hydroxy-3-methylgultaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, intracellular enzymes and kinases, renin-angiotensin system (RAS) modulators and others. From our review of the results from the clinical trials and discussion of their implications in the gastrointestinal tract, we have identified several molecular candidates that could serve as potential therapies for intestinal fibrosis in CD.

11.
J Crohns Colitis ; 2021 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34558619

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are quickly spreading across medicine as an analytical method to tackle challenging clinical questions. What were previously thought of as highly complex data sources, such as images or free text, are now becoming manageable. Novel analytical methods merge the latest developments in information technology infrastructure with advances in computer science. Once primarily associated with Silicon Valley, AI techniques are now making their way into medicine, including in the field of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Understanding potential applications and limitations of these techniques can be difficult, in particular for busy clinicians. In this article, we explain the basic terminologies and provide particular focus on the foundations behind state-of-the-art AI methodologies in both imaging and text. We explore the growing applications of AI in medicine, with a specific focus on IBD to inform the practicing gastroenterologist and IBD specialist. Finally, we outline possible future uses of these technologies in daily clinical practice.

13.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 27(10): 1552-1563, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279600

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) becoming increasingly complex, incorporating preventive care health maintenance measures can be challenging. The aim of developing these updated recommendations is to provide more specific details to facilitate their use into a busy clinical practice setting. METHOD: Fifteen statements were formulated with recommendations regarding the target, timing, and frequency of the health maintenance interventions in patients with IBD. We used a modified Delphi method and a literature review to establish a consensus among the panel of experts. The appropriateness of each health maintenance statement was rated on a scale of 1 to 5 (1-2 as inappropriate, and 4-5 as appropriate) by each panelist. Interventions were considered appropriate, and statements were accepted if ≥80% of the panelists agreed with a score ≥4. RESULTS: The panel approved 15 health maintenance recommendations for adults with IBD based on the current literature and expert opinion. These recommendations include explicit details regarding specific screening tools, timing of screening, and vaccinations for adults with IBD. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with IBD are at an increased risk for infections, malignancies, and other comorbidities. Given the complexity of caring for patients with IBD, this focused list of recommendations can be easily incorporated in to clinical care to help eliminate the gap in preventative care for patients with IBD.

14.
Inflamm Bowel Dis ; 2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34180986

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several indices exist to measure pouchitis disease activity; however, none are fully validated. As an initial step toward creating a validated instrument, we identified pouchitis disease activity indices, examined their operating properties, and assessed their value as outcome measures in clinical trials. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials including indices that evaluated clinical, endoscopic, or histologic pouchitis disease activity. A second search identified studies that assessed the operating properties of pouchitis indices. RESULTS: Eighteen randomized controlled trials utilizing 4 composite pouchitis disease activity indices were identified. The Pouchitis Disease Activity Index (PDAI) was most commonly used (12 of 18; 66.7%) to define both trial eligibility (8 of 12; 66.7%), and outcome measures (12 of 12; 100%). In a separate search, 21 studies evaluated the operating properties of 3 pouchitis indices; 90.5% (19 of 21) evaluated validity, of which 42.1% (8 of 19) evaluated the construct validity of the PDAI. Criterion validity (73.7%; 14 of 19) was evaluated through correlation of the PDAI with fecal calprotectin (FCP; r = 0.188 to 0.71), fecal lactoferrin (r = 0.570 to 0.582), and C-reactive protein (CRP; r = 0.584). Two studies assessed correlation of the modified PDAI (mPDAI) with FCP (r = 0.476 and r = 0.565, respectively). Fair to moderate inter-rater reliability of the PDAI (k = 0.440) and mPDAI (k = 0.389) was reported in a single study. Responsiveness of the PDAI pre-antibiotic and postantibiotic treatment was partially evaluated in a single study of 12 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Development and validation of a specific pouchitis disease activity index is needed given that existing instruments are not valid, reliable, or responsive.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089850

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Intestinal strictures are a common complication of Crohn's disease (CD). Biomarkers of intestinal strictures would assist in their prediction, diagnosis, and monitoring. Herein we provide a comprehensive systematic review of studies assessing biomarkers that may predict or diagnose CD-associated strictures. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus to identify citations pertaining to biomarkers of intestinal fibrosis through July 6, 2020, that used a reference standard of full-thickness histopathology or cross-sectional imaging or endoscopy. Studies were categorized based on the type of biomarker they evaluated (serum, genetic, histopathologic, or fecal). RESULTS: Thirty-five distinct biomarkers from 3 major groups were identified: serum (20 markers), genetic (9 markers), and histopathology (6 markers). Promising markers include cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, hepatocyte growth factor activator, and lower levels of microRNA-19-3p (area under the curves were 0.805, 0.738, and 0.67, respectively), and multiple anti-flagellin antibodies (A4-Fla2 [odds ratio, 3.41], anti Fla-X [odds ratio, 2.95], and anti-CBir1 [multiple]). Substantial heterogeneity was observed and none of the markers had undergone formal validation. Specific limitations to acceptance of these markers included failure to use a standardized definition of stricturing disease, lack of specificity, and insufficient relevance to the pathogenesis of intestinal strictures or incomplete knowledge regarding their operating properties. CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of well-defined studies on biomarkers of intestinal stricture. Development of reliable and accurate biomarkers of stricture is a research priority. Biomarkers can support the clinical management of CD patients and aid in the stratification and monitoring of patients during clinical trials of future antifibrotic drug candidates.

17.
Dig Dis Sci ; 2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34160735

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The efficacy and safety profile of ustekinumab (UST) in Crohn's disease (CD) is favorable; however, data in elderly patients are lacking. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of UST in elderly CD. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of CD patients classified as elderly (age ≥ 65 years at UST initiation) or nonelderly (<65 years) treated at a large, tertiary referral center. Outcomes assessed were clinical (measured by physician global assessment [PGA]) and steroid-free response, remission, adverse events, and postsurgical complications were compared by age category. Multivariable regression modeling and survival analysis was also performed. RESULTS: In total, 117 patients (elderly n = 39, nonelderly n = 78) were included in the study. Elderly patients had predominantly moderate disease (87.2%), while nonelderly had a higher proportion of severe disease activity (44.9%) (p = 0.001), though no differences in baseline endoscopic activity, prior biologic use, or steroid or immunomodulator use at baseline existed (p > 0.05 all). While nearly 90% patients in both groups experienced clinical response to UST, compared to nonelderly, elderly patients were less likely to achieve complete clinical remission (28.2% vs. 52.6%, p = 0.01). On regression modeling, age was not associated with clinical outcomes (p > 0.05 all). Mucosal healing was achieved in 26% elderly and 30% nonelderly patients (p = 0.74). There were no significant differences in infusion reactions (2.6% vs. 6.4%, p = 0.77), infection (5.2% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.7), or postsurgical complications (p = 0.99) by age category. CONCLUSION: UST is safe and effective in elderly CD. Although limited by sample size and retrospective design, such real-world data can inform biologic positioning in this IBD population.

18.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2299: 385-403, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028756

RESUMO

Mouse models are essential for investigation of underlying disease mechanisms that drive intestinal fibrosis, as well as assessment of potential therapeutic approaches to either prevent or resolve fibrosis. Here we describe several common mouse models of intestinal inflammation and fibrosis, including chemically driven colitis models, a bacterially triggered colitis model, and spontaneous intestinal inflammation in genetically susceptible mouse strains. Detailed protocols are provided for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis, 2,4,6-trinitro-benzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis, adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC)-triggered colitis, the interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10KO) mouse model of spontaneous colitis, and the SAMP/YitFc model of spontaneous ileocolitis.


Assuntos
Colite/etiologia , Colite/patologia , Interleucina-10/genética , Animais , Sulfato de Dextrana/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Ácido Trinitrobenzenossulfônico/efeitos adversos
19.
Immunol Rev ; 302(1): 211-227, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993489

RESUMO

The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) worldwide has resulted in a global public health challenge. Intestinal fibrosis leading to stricture formation and bowel obstruction is a frequent complication in Crohn's disease (CD), and the lack of anti-fibrotic therapies makes elucidation of fibrosis mechanisms a priority. Progress has shown that mesenchymal cells, cytokines, microbial products, and mesenteric adipocytes are jointly implicated in the pathogenesis of intestinal fibrosis. This recent information puts prevention or reversal of intestinal strictures within reach through innovative therapies validated by reliable clinical trial endpoints. Here, we review the role of immune and non-immune components of the pathogenesis of intestinal fibrosis, including new cell clusters, cytokine networks, host-microbiome interactions, creeping fat, and their translation for endpoint development in anti-fibrotic clinical trials.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Constrição Patológica/patologia , Fibrose , Humanos , Intestinos/patologia
20.
Gut ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952604

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Effective medical therapy and validated trial outcomes are lacking for small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) strictures. Histopathology of surgically resected specimens is the gold standard for correlation with imaging techniques. However, no validated histopathological scoring systems are currently available for small bowel stricturing disease. We convened an expert panel to evaluate the appropriateness of histopathology scoring systems and items generated based on panel opinion. DESIGN: Modified RAND/University of California Los Angeles methodology was used to determine the appropriateness of 313 candidate items related to assessment of CD small bowel strictures. RESULTS: In this exercise, diagnosis of naïve and anastomotic strictures required increased bowel wall thickness, decreased luminal diameter or internal circumference, and fibrosis of the submucosa. Specific definitions for stricture features and technical sampling parameters were also identified. Histopathologically, a stricture was defined as increased thickness of all layers of the bowel wall, fibrosis of the submucosa and bowel wall, and muscularisation of the submucosa. Active mucosal inflammatory disease was defined as neutrophilic inflammation in the lamina propria and any crypt or intact surface epithelium, erosion, ulcer and fistula. Chronic mucosal inflammatory disease was defined as crypt architectural distortion and loss, pyloric gland metaplasia, Paneth cell hyperplasia, basal lymphoplasmacytosis, plasmacytosis and fibrosis, or prominent lymphoid aggregates at the mucosa/submucosa interface. None of the scoring systems used to assess CD strictures were considered appropriate for clinical trials. CONCLUSION: Standardised assessment of gross pathology and histopathology of CD small bowel strictures will improve clinical trial efficiency and aid drug development.

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