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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 7(5): 1610-1618.e4, 2019 May - Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30682573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH) is characterized by swelling of subcutaneous and/or submucosal tissues. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate efficacy/safety of fixed-dose subcutaneous plasma-derived C1-INH (pdC1-INH) liquid for HAE attack prevention (NCT02584959). METHODS: Eligible patients were ≥12 years with ≥2 monthly attacks prescreening or pre-long-term prophylaxis. In a partial crossover design, 80% of patients were randomized to placebo or pdC1-INH liquid for 14 weeks and crossed over from active to placebo or vice versa for another 14 weeks. The remainder were randomized to pdC1-INH liquid for 28 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was normalized number of attacks (NNA) versus placebo. Key additional endpoints were the proportion of patients achieving NNA reduction ≥50%, attack severity, number of attack-free days, and safety. RESULTS: Seventy-five patients were randomized and 58 (77%) completed the study. Mean age 41 years; 88% HAE type I. Least-squares means of NNA were reduced from 3.9 with placebo to 1.6 with pdC1-INH (from day 1; P < .0001). Most patients had ≥50% NNA reduction with pdC1-INH (from day 1, 78%). A total of 8.8% of placebo-treated patients were attack-free and 5.3%, 22.8%, and 63.2% had mild, moderate, and severe attacks, respectively; 37.5% of pdC1-INH-treated patients were attack-free and 8.9%, 26.8%, and 26.8% had mild, moderate, and severe attacks, respectively. Treatment-emergent adverse event rates were similar between groups (52% vs 56% for pdC1-INH crossover vs placebo, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Fixed-dose subcutaneous pdC1-INH liquid was superior to placebo in preventing HAE attacks and demonstrated a favorable safety profile.

3.
BioDrugs ; 33(1): 33-43, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30539362

RESUMO

Hereditary angioedema (HAE) with C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare disease characterized by diminished levels or dysfunctional activity of C1-INH, leading to dysregulated plasma kallikrein activity within the kallikrein-kinin pathway. Symptoms manifest as painful, potentially life-threatening swelling of subcutaneous tissues throughout the body and/or submucosal edema in the upper airway or gastrointestinal tract. Attacks recur with unpredictable frequency, intensity, and duration, placing a heavy burden on patients' daily lives. Despite improved availability of medications for on-demand treatment during attacks and prophylaxis of future attacks, unmet needs remain. Lanadelumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody, may help address some of the limitations of existing prophylactic options (e.g., the need for intravenous administration or frequent dosing). Preclinical studies demonstrate that it is highly potent and specifically inhibits plasma kallikrein, and findings from phase Ia and Ib studies suggest this agent is well tolerated and provides sustained inhibition of plasma kallikrein, allowing for less frequent dosing. The phase III HELP Study (NCT02586805) evaluating the efficacy and safety of lanadelumab in preventing HAE attacks has been completed, and its open-label extension (NCT02741596) is ongoing. Lanadelumab is now approved in the USA and Canada for prophylaxis to prevent attacks of HAE in patients aged ≥ 12 years. This review provides an overview of the discovery and clinical development of lanadelumab, from preclinical through phase Ib studies, characterizing its safety/tolerability, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. It also highlights how this agent may positively impact clinical care of patients with C1-INH-HAE.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Angioedemas Hereditários/prevenção & controle , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Calicreína Plasmática/antagonistas & inibidores , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioedemas Hereditários/patologia , Angioedemas Hereditários/fisiopatologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacocinética , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase I como Assunto , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Calicreína Plasmática/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
4.
JAMA ; 320(20): 2108-2121, 2018 11 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30480729

RESUMO

Importance: Current treatments for long-term prophylaxis in hereditary angioedema have limitations. Objective: To assess the efficacy of lanadelumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that selectively inhibits active plasma kallikrein, in preventing hereditary angioedema attacks. Design, Setting, and Participants: Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 41 sites in Canada, Europe, Jordan, and the United States. Patients were randomized between March 3, 2016, and September 9, 2016; last day of follow-up was April 13, 2017. Randomization was 2:1 lanadelumab to placebo; patients assigned to lanadelumab were further randomized 1:1:1 to 1 of the 3 dose regimens. Patients 12 years or older with hereditary angioedema type I or II underwent a 4-week run-in period and those with 1 or more hereditary angioedema attacks during run-in were randomized. Interventions: Twenty-six-week treatment with subcutaneous lanadelumab 150 mg every 4 weeks (n = 28), 300 mg every 4 weeks (n = 29), 300 mg every 2 weeks (n = 27), or placebo (n = 41). All patients received injections every 2 weeks, with those in the every-4-week group receiving placebo in between active treatments. Main Outcome and Measures: Primary efficacy end point was the number of investigator-confirmed attacks of hereditary angioedema over the treatment period. Results: Among 125 patients randomized (mean age, 40.7 years [SD, 14.7 years]; 88 females [70.4%]; 113 white [90.4%]), 113 (90.4%) completed the study. During the run-in period, the mean number of hereditary angioedema attacks per month in the placebo group was 4.0; for the lanadelumab groups, 3.2 for the every-4-week 150-mg group; 3.7 for the every-4-week 300-mg group; and 3.5 for the every-2-week 300-mg group. During the treatment period, the mean number of attacks per month for the placebo group was 1.97; for the lanadelumab groups, 0.48 for the every-4-week 150-mg group; 0.53 for the every-4-week 300-mg group; and 0.26 for the every-2-week 300-mg group. Compared with placebo, the mean differences in the attack rate per month were -1.49 (95% CI, -1.90 to -1.08; P < .001); -1.44 (95% CI, -1.84 to -1.04; P < .001); and -1.71 (95% CI, -2.09 to -1.33; P < .001). The most commonly occurring adverse events with greater frequency in the lanadelumab treatment groups were injection site reactions (34.1% placebo, 52.4% lanadelumab) and dizziness (0% placebo, 6.0% lanadelumab). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with hereditary angioedema type I or II, treatment with subcutaneous lanadelumab for 26 weeks significantly reduced the attack rate compared with placebo. These findings support the use of lanadelumab as a prophylactic therapy for hereditary angioedema. Further research is needed to determine long-term safety and efficacy. Trial Registration: EudraCT Identifier: 2015-003943-20; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02586805.

5.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 180, 2018 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30314518

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world data on usage and associated outcomes with hereditary angioedema (HAE)-specific medications introduced to the United States (US) market since 2009 are very limited. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate real-world treatment patterns of HAE-specific medications in the US and to assess their impact on healthcare resource utilization (HCRU). This analysis used IMS PharMetrics PlusTM database records (2006-2014) of patients with HAE, ≥1 insurance claim for an HAE-specific medication, and continuous insurance enrollment for ≥3 months following the first HAE prescription claim. RESULTS: Of 631 total patients, 434 (68.8%) reported C1-INH(IV) use; 396 (62.8%) reported using ecallantide and/or icatibant. There were 306 episodes of prophylactic use of C1-INH(IV) (defined by continuous refills averaging ≥1500 IU/week for ≥13 weeks) in 155 patients; use of ≥1 on-demand rescue medication was implicated during 53% (163/306) of those episodes. Sixty-eight (20.2%) of 336 C1-INH(IV) users eligible for the HCRU analysis were hospitalized at least once, and 191 (56.8%) visited the emergency department (ED). Eighteen patients (5.4%) had a central venous access device (CVAD); of these, 5 (27.7%) required hospitalization and 14 (77.7%) had an ED visit. The adjusted relative risk of hospitalization and/or ED visits for patients with a CVAD was 2.6 (95% CI: 0.17, 39.23) compared to C1-INH(IV) users without a CVAD. CONCLUSIONS: Despite widespread availability of modern HAE medications in the US, we identified a subset of patients requiring long-term prophylaxis who continue to be burdened by frequent rescue medication usage and/or complications related to the use of CVADs for intravenous HAE medication.

6.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 48(10): 1325-1332, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29998524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term prophylaxis with subcutaneous (SC) administration of a highly concentrated plasma-derived C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) formulation was recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for hereditary angioedema (HAE) attack prevention. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the population pharmacokinetics of C1-INH (SC) (HAEGARDA® ; CSL Behring) in healthy volunteers and HAE patients, and assess the variability and influence of covariates on pharmacokinetics. METHODS: C1-INH functional activity data obtained after administration of various C1-INH (intravenous; IV) and C1-INH (SC) doses from 1 study in healthy volunteers (n = 16) and 2 studies in subjects with HAE (n = 108) were pooled to develop a population pharmacokinetic model (NONMEM v7.2). Pharmacokinetic parameters derived from steady-state simulations based on the final model were also evaluated. RESULTS: C1-INH functional activity following C1-INH (SC) administration was described by a linear one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination, with inter-individual variability in all parameters tested. The mean population bioavailability of C1-INH (SC), and pharmacokinetic parameters for clearance (CL), volume of distribution, and absorption rate were estimated to be ~43%, 1.03 mL/hour/kg, 0.05 L/kg and 0.0146 hour-1 , respectively. The effect of bodyweight on CL of C1-INH functional activity was included in the final model, estimated to be 0.74. Steady-state simulations of C1-INH functional activity vs time profiles in 1000 virtual HAE patients revealed higher minimum functional activity (Ctrough ) levels after twice-weekly dosing with 40 IU/kg (~40%) and 60 IU/kg (~48%) compared with 1000 IU IV (~30%). Based on the population pharmacokinetic model, the median time to peak concentration was ~59 hours and the median apparent plasma half-life was ~69 hours. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Twice-weekly bodyweight-adjusted dosing of C1-INH (SC) exhibits linear pharmacokinetics and dose-dependent increases in Ctrough levels at each dosing interval. In this analysis, SC dosing led to maintenance of higher Ctrough levels than IV dosing.

7.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 121(6): 673-679, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056152

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the criteria for long-term prophylaxis therapy in patients with hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE), describe how these criteria have evolved over time, and anticipate how criteria may change in the future with the availability of new C1-INH-HAE treatment options. DATA SOURCES: Treatment guidelines, consensus statements, and expert reviews. STUDY SELECTIONS: Manuscripts that described long-term prophylaxis therapy in patients with C1-INH-HAE were selected. RESULTS: Historically, patients with C1-INH-HAE were considered to be candidates for long-term prophylaxis therapy if they had at least 1 attack per month, had at least 5 days of disability per month because of C1-INH-HAE, or did not sufficiently respond to on-demand treatment. More recently, guidelines and reviews state that thresholds of number of attacks or days of disability are arbitrary and that treatment plans should be individualized to the patient's needs. Furthermore, all patients should have a comprehensive management plan that is reviewed periodically and should have at least 2 doses of on-demand treatment available. Prophylaxis therapy should be discussed as a potential treatment option for each patient; however, the decision for its use will depend on the patient's individual needs and the course of their symptoms. CONCLUSION: The criteria for long-term prophylaxis therapy in C1-INH-HAE have changed with the recognition that treatments should be individualized to the patient's needs and with the availability of new medications that have more favorable benefit-risk profiles, are easier to use, and improve patients' quality of life.

8.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 39(5): 359-364, 2018 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29954477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) may occur at or spread to multiple anatomic locations during an acute attack. Recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor (rhC1-INH) is approved for treating acute HAE attacks. OBJECTIVE: To examine the time to the beginning of symptom relief with rhC1-INH by attack location. METHODS: Data for patients ≥12 years of age with an acute HAE attack who received rhC1-INH 50 IU/kg or placebo were pooled from two double-blind clinical trials with open-label extensions. The time to the beginning of symptom relief was defined as the first time point that the visual analog scale severity score at an attack location decreased by ≥20 mm versus baseline, with persistence. Data were reported as median time values (95% confidence interval [CI]). RESULTS: For abdominal attacks, the median time to the beginning of symptom relief was 60.0 minutes (95% CI, 47.0-62.0 minutes; n = 194 attacks) with rhC1-INH versus 240.0 minutes (95% CI, 45.0-720.0 minutes; n = 15 attacks) with placebo. The median time to the beginning of symptom relief for peripheral attacks was 105.0 minutes (95% CI, 90.0-120.0 minutes; n = 169 attacks) with rhC1-INH versus 303.0 minutes (95% CI, 180.0-720.0 minutes; n = 17 attacks) with placebo. For oro-facial-pharyngeal-laryngeal attacks or urogenital attacks, the median time to the beginning of symptom relief with rhC1-INH was 64.5 minutes (95% CI, 60.0-120.0 minutes; n = 36 attacks) and 119.0 minutes (95% CI, 40.0-270.0 minutes; n = 13 attacks), respectively, versus 306.0 minutes (95% CI, 30.0-495.0 minutes; n = 6 attacks) and 320.0 minutes (n = 1 attack) with placebo. CONCLUSION: In shortening the median time to the beginning of symptom relief of acute HAE attacks, rhC1-INH 50 IU/kg was efficacious, regardless of attack location.

9.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 48(11): 1429-1438, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lack of specific biomarkers makes the diagnosis of hereditary angioedema (HAE) with normal levels of C1-inhibitor (C1INH) protein (HAE-nl-C1INH) and idiopathic non-histaminergic angioedema (INHA) difficult. Confirming or excluding these diagnoses is a significant challenge for clinicians evaluating patients with angioedema. OBJECTIVE: To develop a reliable biomarker that would aid the diagnosis of HAE-nl-C1INH and INHA. METHODS: A total of 154 consecutive patients referred for angioedema at a single centre were enrolled and evaluated. Subjects were clinically phenotyped based on clinical history and response to treatment by clinicians blinded to laboratory assay results. Plasma kallikrein activity was measured by the cleavage of the fluorometric substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC-HCL in plasma samples stimulated ex vivo with submaximal doses of dextran sulphate. RESULTS: Stimulated plasma kallikrein activity (mean relative fluorescence units/min ± SD) was significantly increased in both HAE-nl-C1INH (1804 ± 600) and INHA (1579 ± 371) subjects compared to non-swelling controls (171 ± 46) and histaminergic angioedema (133 ± 30) subjects. Using a threshold cut-off based on the normal controls, HAE-nl-C1INH and INHA subjects could be differentiated from histaminergic angioedema subjects with high sensitivity (negative predictive value 86%-89%) and specificity (positive predictive value 80%-100%). CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The stimulated kallikrein activity assay allows differentiation of bradykinin- from histamine-mediated angioedema. The assay could feasibly be considered as a potential clinical tool for the diagnosis of bradykinin-mediated angioedema.

11.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 39(3): 212-223, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We conducted our first patient survey at the 2013 hereditary angioedema (HAE) patient summit and learned that, despite several novel therapies, the burden of disease was high. OBJECTIVE: To determine, from the patient's perspective, if any improvements in the current state of HAE care occurred over a two-year period between HAE patient summits. METHODS: A patient survey was conducted at the 2015 Hereditary Angioedema Association conference by using paper surveys that aimed at understanding the current state of HAE care. Questions included patient characteristics, burden of disease, and satisfaction with care and treatment options. Comparisons between patients with HAE with C1-inhibitor (HAE-C1INH) and patients with HAE with normal C1-inhibitor (HAE-nlC1INH), as well as between patients with HAE in 2013 and 2015, were performed by using χ2 tests. RESULTS: There were 232 surveys distributed, and 143 surveys were identified as complete for inclusion and analysis from patients with self-reported HAE. Most patients had type I or type II HAE (67.5% [n = 106]), with a smaller number of patients with HAE-nlC1INH (23.6% [n = 37]). In 2015, almost half of the patients with HAE-C1INH (47.1%) and 56.7% of the patients with HAE-nlC1INH experienced a delay of ≥10 years between initial symptoms and diagnosis. Among the patients with HAE-C1INH, 25% reported one or more attacks per week and another 48% reported experiencing one or more attacks per month (fewer than one attack per week). The patients with HAE-nlC1INH reported attacks more frequently than did the patients with HAE-C1INH (p = 0.002), with 59.5% who reported attacks at least once a week. Emergency care was reported one or more times per month in 5% of the patients with HAE-C1INH and in 24.3% of the patients with HAE-nlC1INH. CONCLUSION: Similar to 2013, although significant progress has been made, there is still a high burden of disease that faces patients with HAE.

12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 6(5): 1733-1741.e3, 2018 Sep - Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29391286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) impairs health-related quality of life (HRQoL). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess HRQoL outcomes in patients self-administering subcutaneous C1-INH (C1-INH[SC]; HAEGARDA) for routine prevention of HAE attacks. METHODS: Post hoc analysis of data from the placebo-controlled, crossover phase III COMPACT study (Clinical Studies for Optimal Management of Preventing Angioedema with Low-Volume Subcutaneous C1-Inhibitor Replacement Therapy). Ninety patients with C1-INH-HAE were randomized to 1 of 4 treatment sequences: C1-INH(SC) 40 or 60 IU/kg twice weekly for 16 weeks, preceded or followed by 16 weeks of twice weekly placebo injections. All HAE attacks were treated with open-label on-demand treatment as necessary. HRQoL assessments at week 14 (last visit) included the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions Questionnaire (EQ-5D-3L), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (WPAI), and the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM). RESULTS: Compared with placebo (on-demand treatment alone), treatment with twice weekly C1-INH(SC) (both doses combined) was associated with better EQ-5D visual analog scale general health, less HADS anxiety, less WPAI presenteeism, work productivity loss, and activity impairment, and greater TSQM effectiveness and overall treatment satisfaction. More patients self-reported a "good/excellent" response during routine prevention with C1-INH(SC) compared with on-demand only (placebo prophylaxis) management. For each HRQoL measure, a greater proportion of patients had a clinically meaningful improvement during C1-INH(SC) treatment compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with frequent HAE attacks, a treatment strategy of routine prevention with self-administered twice weekly C1-INH(SC) had a greater impact on improving multiple HAE-related HRQoL impairments, most notably anxiety and work productivity, compared with on-demand treatment alone (placebo prophylaxis).

14.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 7: 36, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29043014

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized by recurrent attacks of subcutaneous or submucosal edema. Attacks are unpredictable, debilitating, and have a significant impact on quality of life. Patients may be prescribed prophylactic therapy to prevent angioedema attacks. Current prophylactic treatments may be difficult to administer (i.e., intravenously), require frequent administrations or are not well tolerated, and breakthrough attacks may still occur frequently. Lanadelumab is a subcutaneously-administered monoclonal antibody inhibitor of plasma kallikrein in clinical development for prophylaxis of hereditary angioedema attacks. A Phase 1b study supported its efficacy in preventing attacks. A Phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study has been completed and an open-label extension is currently ongoing. METHODS/DESIGN: The primary objective of the open-label extension is to evaluate the long-term safety of repeated subcutaneous administrations of lanadelumab in patients with type I/II HAE. Secondary objectives include evaluation of efficacy and time to first angioedema attack to determine outer bounds of the dosing interval. The study will also evaluate immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, quality of life, characteristics of breakthrough attacks, ease of self-administration, and safety/efficacy in patients who switch to lanadelumab from another prophylactic therapy. The open-label extension will enroll patients who completed the double-blind study ("rollover patients") and those who did not participate in the double-blind study ("non-rollover patients"), which includes patients who may or may not be currently using another prophylactic therapy. Rollover patients will receive a single 300 mg dose of lanadelumab on Day 0 and the second dose after the patient's first confirmed angioedema attack. Thereafter, lanadelumab will be administered every 2 weeks. Non-rollover patients will receive 300 mg lanadelumab every 2 weeks regardless of the first attack. All patients will receive their last dose on Day 350 (maximum of 26 doses), and will then undergo a 4-week follow-up. DISCUSSION: Prevention of attacks can reduce the burden of illness associated with HAE. Prophylactic therapy requires extended, repeated dosing and the results of this study will provide important data on the long-term safety and efficacy of lanadelumab, a monoclonal antibody inhibitor of plasma kallikrein for subcutaneous administration for the treatment of HAE. Trial registration NCT02741596.

15.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 38(6): 462-466, 2017 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28903805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor (rhC1-INH) is approved for treatment of hereditary angioedema (HAE) in adolescents and adults. HAE attacks that involve the upper airway can be life threatening, and data on the administration of rhC1-INH for these types of attacks are currently limited. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of rhC1-INH for treatment of acute HAE attacks with upper airway involvement. METHODS: A pooled analysis of data from three clinical trials with open-label extensions examined rhC1-INH for treatment of acute HAE attacks with upper airway involvement. Patients with functional plasma C1 esterase inhibitor <50% of normal who had experienced an acute upper airway HAE attack and received rhC1-INH were identified retrospectively based on severity of breathing or swallowing symptoms. The primary end point was the time to beginning of relief (time at which the overall visual analog scale score [0-100 mm] decreased from baseline by ≥20 mm for two consecutive time points [persistence]). RESULTS: Of 683 acute HAE attacks treated with rhC1-INH, data for 45 attacks with upper airway involvement were included. The median time to the beginning of symptom relief was 67 minutes (95% confidence interval, 60-120 minutes) and did not differ by attack number or by baseline breathing or swallowing symptom severity. Most attacks (91.1%) achieved the beginning of relief within 4 hours of rhC1-INH treatment. All attacks resolved without the need for any additional medication, and no patients required intubation or tracheostomy. Treatment with rhC1-INH was well tolerated, with no adverse events reported in more than one patient (except HAE reported as an adverse event [n = 2]). CONCLUSION: This pooled analysis of clinical trial data supports the efficacy of rhC1-INH for treatment of acute HAE attacks with upper airway involvement.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/tratamento farmacológico , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Deglutição/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 37(3): 585-595, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28687111

RESUMO

Remarkable progress has been made in the treatment of bradykinin-mediated angioedema with the advent of multiple new therapies. Patients now have effective medications available for prophylaxis and treatment of acute attacks. However, hereditary angioedema is a burdensome disease that can lead to debilitating and dangerous angioedema episodes associated with significant costs for individuals and society. The burden of treatment must be addressed regarding medication administration difficulties, treatment complications, and adverse side effects. New therapies are being investigated and may offer solutions to these challenges. This article reviews the emerging therapeutic options for the treatment of HAE.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/terapia , Angioedemas Hereditários/diagnóstico , Angioedemas Hereditários/etiologia , Angioedemas Hereditários/metabolismo , Animais , Bradicinina/metabolismo , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Terapia Combinada , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/uso terapêutico , Descoberta de Drogas , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Fator XII/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator XII/metabolismo , Histamina/metabolismo , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Immunol Allergy Clin North Am ; 37(3): xv-xvi, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28687115
18.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 119(1): 59-64, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28668241

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disorder with substantial morbidity and mortality. Despite expanded choices for effective acute treatment, prophylactic options are more limited. Intravenous C1 esterase inhibitor (C1-INH[IV]) is licensed and used to prevent HAE symptoms. OBJECTIVE: To better understand patient experiences with using C1-INH(IV), including level of satisfaction and types and frequency of complications. METHODS: Fifty adult members (≥18 years of age) of the US HAE Association who had HAE type I or II completed a self-administered internet survey. Eligible participants were experiencing at least 1 HAE attack per month and must have been receiving treatment with C1-INH(IV) as prophylaxis or acute therapy. RESULTS: Almost all respondents (n = 47; 94%) were using C1-INH(IV) for HAE prophylaxis. Most patients reported administration of C1-INH(IV) through a peripheral vein (n = 34) and 19 were currently (n = 17) or previously (n = 2) using a central venous port. Most respondents (62%) who used a peripheral vein to administer treatment reported having difficulty finding a usable vein or getting the infusion to work properly at least some of the time. Issues accessing veins, exhausted veins, and frequency of attacks were the main reasons physicians recommended ports to respondents. Although ports allow easier administration of therapy, 47% of respondents with ports experienced problems such as occlusion, thrombosis, and infection. Respondents using C1-INH prophylaxis reported a mean of 2.3 attacks per month during the previous 6 months. CONCLUSION: The survey results identified clinical challenges with IV HAE medication use, including venous access issues and ongoing monthly attack occurrence despite prophylactic C1-INH(IV) administration.


Assuntos
Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/administração & dosagem , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/epidemiologia , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/terapia , Satisfação do Paciente , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/efeitos adversos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/diagnóstico , Angioedema Hereditário Tipos I e II/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Pré-Medicação , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Lancet ; 390(10102): 1595-1602, 2017 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28754491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hereditary angio-oedema is a recurrent, oedematous disorder caused by deficiency of functional C1 inhibitor. Infusions of plasma-derived C1 esterase inhibitor deter attacks of hereditary angio-oedema, but the prophylactic effect of recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor has not been rigorously studied. We aimed to assess the efficacy of recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor for prophylaxis of hereditary angio-oedema. METHODS: We conducted this phase 2, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial at ten centres in Canada, the Czech Republic, Israel, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, Serbia, and the USA. We enrolled patients aged 13 years or older with functional C1-inhibitor concentrations of less than 50% of normal and a history of four or more attacks of hereditary angio-oedema per month for at least 3 months before study initiation. Patients were randomly assigned centrally (1:1:1:1:1:1), via an interactive response technology system with fixed allocation, to receive one of six treatment sequences. During each sequence, patients received intravenous recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor (50 IU/kg; maximum 4200 IU) twice weekly, recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor once weekly and placebo once weekly, and placebo twice weekly, each for 4 weeks with a 1 week washout period between crossover. All patients, investigators, and study personnel who participated in patient care were masked to group allocation during the study. The primary efficacy endpoint was the number of attacks of hereditary angio-oedema observed in each 4 week treatment period. Attack symptoms were recorded daily. The primary efficacy analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one injection of study medication. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02247739. FINDINGS: Between Dec 29, 2014, and May 3, 2016, we enrolled 35 patients, of whom 32 (91%) underwent randomisation (intention-to-treat population) and 26 (81%) completed the study. The mean number of attacks of hereditary angio-oedema over 4 weeks was significantly reduced with recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor twice weekly (2·7 attacks [SD 2·4]) and once weekly (4·4 attacks [3·2]) versus placebo (7·2 attacks [3·6]), with mean differences of -4·4 attacks (p<0·0001) and -2·8 attacks (p=0·0004), respectively. We recorded adverse events in ten (34%) of 29 patients given twice-weekly recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor, 13 (45%) of 29 patients given the once-weekly regimen, and eight (29%) of 28 patients given placebo. Headache (twice-weekly treatment) and nasopharyngitis (once-weekly treatment) were the most common adverse events. Two (7%) adverse events (fatigue and headache) were deemed possibly related to treatment with recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor, but both resolved without additional treatment. No thrombotic or thromboembolic events, systemic allergic reactions (including anaphylaxis), or neutralising antibodies were reported. INTERPRETATION: Prophylaxis with recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor provided clinically relevant reductions in frequency of hereditary angio-oedema attacks and was well tolerated. In view of the pharmacokinetic profile of recombinant human C1 esterase inhibitor, our results suggest that efficacy of C1-inhibitor replacement therapy might not be a direct function of plasma trough concentrations of C1 inhibitor. FUNDING: Pharming Technologies.


Assuntos
Angioedemas Hereditários/prevenção & controle , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Recombinantes/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Angioedemas Hereditários/sangue , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/efeitos adversos , Proteína Inibidora do Complemento C1/farmacocinética , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Taxa de Depuração Metabólica/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Recombinantes/efeitos adversos , Proteínas Recombinantes/sangue , Proteínas Recombinantes/farmacocinética , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 119(3): 258-261, 2017 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28743423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most patients with a history of penicillin allergy can tolerate penicillin. Skin testing can identify tolerant patients, but not all known allergenic determinants are commercially available. Protocols exist that use only available reagents, but the sensitivity and safety of these protocols, particularly for hospitalized patients, are controversial. OBJECTIVE: To determine the number of hospitalized patients referred for penicillin skin testing who showed unique positivity to the minor determinants penicilloate and penilloate. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of all inpatients who underwent penicillin skin testing at 1 institution. Patients were referred by their treating physician. All patients underwent skin prick testing to benzylpenicilloyl polylysine (major determinant), penicillin G, penicilloate, penilloate (minor determinants), amoxicillin, and positive and negative controls. If the result was negative, then intradermal testing was done with the same penicillin determinants and the negative control. A 4-mm wheal with flare was considered a positive reaction. RESULTS: Inpatient penicillin skin testing was done in 528 subjects. Any positive test reaction was found in 107 subjects (20%). Three subjects (3%) reacted to penilloate only, 25 (23%) reacted to penicilloate only, 2 (2%) reacted to penicillin G only, and 8 (8%) reacted to amoxicillin only. Sixty-eight subjects (64%) reacted to a compound other than the major determinant. CONCLUSION: This study found a high rate of exclusively positive skin test reactions to the minor determinants penicilloate and penilloate. Because patients with positive test reactions are at increased risk of reaction to drug challenge, these data support the use of these reagents for penicillin skin testing in hospitalized patients.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Penicilinas/efeitos adversos , Testes Cutâneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados
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