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1.
J Chem Phys ; 147(21): 214706, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29221400

RESUMO

We report on the assembly of a highly ordered array of copper tetrameric clusters, coordinated into a metal-organic network. The ordered cluster array has been achieved by the deposition of tetrahydroxyquinone molecules on the Cu(111) surface at room temperature, and subsequent thermally activated dehydrogenation with the formation of tetraoxyquinone tetra-anions with a 4 × 4 periodicity. The supramolecular organic network acts as a spacer for the highly ordered two-dimensional network of copper tetramers at the very surface.

2.
Chemistry ; 22(24): 8105-12, 2016 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27071489

RESUMO

Two-dimensional metal-organic nanostructures based on the binding of ketone groups and metal atoms were fabricated by depositing pyrene-4,5,9,10-tetraone (PTO) molecules on a Cu(111) surface. The strongly electronegative ketone moieties bind to either copper adatoms from the substrate or codeposited iron atoms. In the former case, scanning tunnelling microscopy images reveal the development of an extended metal-organic supramolecular structure. Each copper adatom coordinates to two ketone ligands of two neighbouring PTO molecules, forming chains that are linked together into large islands through secondary van der Waals interactions. Deposition of iron atoms leads to a transformation of this assembly resulting from the substitution of the metal centres. Density functional theory calculations reveal that the driving force for the metal substitution is primarily determined by the strength of the ketone-metal bond, which is higher for Fe than for Cu. This second class of nanostructures displays a structural dependence on the rate of iron deposition.

3.
ACS Nano ; 8(12): 12356-64, 2014 Dec 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25419580

RESUMO

The unique electronic properties and functional tunability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have recently fostered high hopes for their use in flexible, green, portable, and cheap technologies. Most applications require the deposition of thin molecular films onto conductive electrodes. The growth of the first few molecular layers represents a crucial step in the device fabrication since it determines the structure of the molecular film and the energy level alignment of the metal-organic interface. Here, we explore the formation of this interface by analyzing the interplay between reversible molecule-substrate charge transfer, yielding intermolecular repulsion, and van der Waals attractions in driving the molecular assembly. Using a series of ad hoc designed molecules to balance the two effects, we combine scanning tunnelling microscopy with atomistic simulations to study the self-assembly behavior. Our systematic analysis identifies a growth mode characterized by anomalous coarsening that we anticipate to occur in a wide class of metal-organic interfaces and which should thus be considered as integral part of the self-assembly process when depositing a molecule on a conducting surface.

4.
J Phys Chem B ; 118(47): 13689-96, 2014 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25380225

RESUMO

The conformational behavior of o-phenylene 8-mers and 10-mers solvated in a series of linear alkane solvents by means of classical molecular dynamics and first-principles calculations was studied. Irrespective of the solvent used, we find that at ambient pressure the molecule sits in the well-defined close-helical arrangement previously observed in light polar solvents. However, for pressures greater than 50 atm, and for tetradecane or larger solvent molecules, our simulations predict that o-phenylene undergoes a conformational transition to an uncoiled, extended geometry with a 35% longer head-to-tail distance and a much larger overlap between its lateral aromatic ring groups. The free energy barrier for the transition was studied as a function of pressure and temperature for both solute molecules in butane and hexadecane. Gas-phase density functional theory-based nudged elastic band calculations on 8-mer and 10-mer o-phenylene were used to estimate how the pressure-induced transition energy barrier changes with solute length. Our results indicate that a sufficiently large solvent molecule size is the key factor enabling a configuration transition upon pressure changes and that longer solute molecules associate with higher conformation transition energy barriers. This suggests the possibility of designing systems in which a solute molecule can be selectively "activated" by a controlled conformation transition achieved at a predefined set of pressure and temperature conditions.

5.
Chemistry ; 20(37): 11856-62, 2014 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25079120

RESUMO

Two borazine derivatives have been synthesised to investigate their self-assembly behaviour on Au(111) and Cu(111) surfaces by scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) and theoretical simulations. Both borazines form extended 2D networks upon adsorption on both substrates at room temperature. Whereas the more compact triphenyl borazine 1 arranges into close-packed ordered molecular islands with an extremely low density of defects on both substrates, the tris(phenyl-4-phenylethynyl) derivative 2 assembles into porous molecular networks due to its longer lateral substituents. For both species, the steric hindrance between the phenyl and mesityl substituents results in an effective decoupling of the central borazine core from the surface. For borazine 1, this is enough to weaken the molecule-substrate interaction, so that the assemblies are only driven by attractive van der Waals intermolecular forces. For the longer and more flexible borazine 2, a stronger molecule-substrate interaction becomes possible through its peripheral substituents on the more reactive copper surface.


Assuntos
Compostos de Boro/síntese química , Cobre/química , Prata/química , Compostos de Boro/química , Modelos Moleculares , Propriedades de Superfície
6.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 52(29): 7410-4, 2013 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23737102

RESUMO

It's a kind of magic: Hydroxy pentaaryl borazine molecules self-assemble into small clusters (see structure) on Cu(111) surfaces, whereas with symmetric hexaaryl borazine molecules large islands are obtained. Simulations indicate that the observed "magic" cluster sizes result from long-range repulsive Coulomb forces arising from the deprotonation of the B-OH groups of the hydroxy pentaaryl borazine.

7.
Biotechnol Bioeng ; 109(12): 3119-32, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22674472

RESUMO

The therapeutic potential of human pluripotent stem (hPS) cells is threatened, among various problems, by the difficulty to homogenously direct cell differentiation into specific lineages. The transition from hPSC into committed differentiated cells is accompanied by secretome activity, remodeling of extracellular matrix and self-organization into germ layers. In this work, we aimed to investigate how different three-dimensional microenvironments regulate the early differentiation of the three germ layers in human embryonic stem (hES) cells derived embryoid bodies. In particular, a permeable, biocompatible, hydrogel microwell array was specifically designed for recreating a confined niche in which EB secreted molecules accumulate in accordance with hydrogel diffusional cut-off. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique was performed to accurately evaluate hydrogel permeability, mesh size and diffusional cutoff for soluble molecules. Three different culture conditions of EB culture were analyzed: suspension, confinement in microwells of width/depth ratio 1:1 and 1:2. Results show that EBs cultured in microwells are viable and have comparable average size after 8 days culture. Whole genome microarrays show that significative differential gene expression was observed between suspension and confined EBs culture. In particular, EBs culture in microwells promotes the expression of genes involved in pattern specification processes, brain development, ectoderm and endoderm differentiation. On the contrary, suspension EBs express instead genes involved in mesoderm specification and heart development. These results suggest that local accumulation of EBs secreted molecules drives differentiation patterns, as confirmed by immunofluorescence of germ layer markers, in hydrogel confined EB culture from both hES cells and human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells. Our findings highlight an additional potential role of biomaterial in controlling hPSC differentiation through secreted factor niche specification.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Corpos Embrioides/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/fisiologia , Nicho de Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/instrumentação , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Corpos Embrioides/citologia , Recuperação de Fluorescência Após Fotodegradação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Camadas Germinativas/citologia , Camadas Germinativas/fisiologia , Humanos , Hidrogel de Polietilenoglicol-Dimetacrilato/química , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Tamanho da Partícula , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia
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