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1.
Autoimmun Rev ; 19(2): 102452, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838157

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (LcSSc) is the most common subset of SSc but it has been overlooked in the past years. At a time at which clinical trials focus on diffuse cutaneous SSc (DcSSc) we aimed at clarifying the outcomes of LcSSc and at evaluating whether potential drug positioned in DcSSc may also be used in LcSSc. METHODS: The EUSTAR database was used to investigate skin, lung and peripheral vasculopathy outcomes in LcSSc. Worsening of skin fibrosis, ILD and peripheral vasculopathy were defined by an increase in modified Rodnan skin score (mRSS) > 3.5 points, a decrease of FVC > 10% in patients with ILD at baseline, and by the development of new digital ulcers (DU) in patients without DU at baseline. RESULTS: 8013 LcSSc and 4786 DcSSc patients were included. In contrast to DcSSc, skin disease was remarkably stable in the majority of LcSSc patients with >80% having a change lower than ±4 units of mRSS at 12, 24 and 36 months follow-up. Conversely, FVC changes over time were very similar between LcSSc and DcSSc. Regarding DU, numbers of patients with new DU over time seemed to be almost similar between the two subsets. CONCLUSIONS: LcSSc patients have a low mRSS at baseline with marginal changes with time. Conversely, SSc-ILD can be as progressive as in DcSSc supporting the inclusion of LcSSc patients in SSc-ILD trials and suggesting potential benefit of any anti-ILD drugs. Similarly, although slightly less common, DU should receive the same attention in the two subsets.

2.
Internist (Berl) ; 60(12): 1251-1269, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754753

RESUMO

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare fibrosing rheumatic multi-systemic disease involving many medical specialties. The mortality of SSc is determined by lung fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension and cardiac involvement. With early and intensive treatment, the disease can be stabilized and symptoms relieved. This review summarizes insights into pathophysiology, disease classification, clinical manifestations and successful therapies, as well as recent studies on new immunosuppressant, biological and vasoactive therapies.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Imunossupressores/uso terapêutico , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/terapia
3.
Cells ; 8(10)2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614462

RESUMO

An acquired deficiency of interleukin-2 (IL-2) and related disturbances in regulatory T cell (Treg) homeostasis play an important role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Low-dose IL-2 therapy was shown to restore Treg homeostasis in patients with active SLE and its clinical efficacy is currently evaluated in clinical trials. Lupus nephritis (LN), a challenging organ manifestation in SLE, is characterized by the infiltration of pathogenic CD4+ T cells into the inflamed kidney. However, the role of the Treg-IL-2 axis in the pathogenesis of LN and the mode of action of IL-2 therapy in the inflamed kidneys are still poorly understood. Using the (NZB × NZW) F1 mouse model of SLE we studied whether intrarenal Treg are affected by a shortage of IL-2 in comparison with lymphatic organs and whether and how intrarenal T cells and renal inflammation can be influenced by IL-2 therapy. We found that intrarenal Treg show phenotypic signs that are reminiscent of IL-2 deprivation in parallel to a progressive hyperactivity of intrarenal conventional CD4+ T cells (Tcon). Short-term IL-2 treatment of mice with active LN induced an expansion the intrarenal Treg population whereas long-term IL-2 treatment reduced the activity and proliferation of intrarenal Tcon, which was accompanied by a clinical and histological amelioration of LN. The association of these immune pathologies with IL-2 deficiency and their reversibility by IL-2 therapy provides important rationales for an IL-2-based immunotherapy of LN.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 14552, 2019 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601947

RESUMO

Although several risk factors exist for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) no biomarkers for survival or risk of re-infarction have been validated. Previously, reduced serum concentrations of anti-ß1AR Ab have been implicated in poorer ACS outcomes. This study further evaluates the prognostic implications of anti-ß1AR-Ab levels at the time of ACS onset. Serum anti-ß1AR Ab concentrations were measured in randomly selected patients from within the PLATO cohort. Stratification was performed according to ACS event: ST-elevation myocardial infarct (STEMI) vs. non-ST elevation myocardial infarct (NSTEMI). Antibody concentrations at ACS presentation were compared to 12-month all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, as well as 12-month re-infarction. Sub-analysis, stratifying for age and the correlation between antibody concentration and conventional cardiac risk-factors was subsequently performed. Serum anti-ß1AR Ab concentrations were measured in 400/799 (50%) STEMI patients and 399 NSTEMI patients. Increasing anti-ß1AR Ab concentrations were associated with STEMI (p = 0.001). Across all ACS patients, no associations between anti-ß1AR Ab concentration and either all-cause cardiovascular death or myocardial re-infarction (p = 0.14) were evident. However among STEMI patients ≤60 years with anti-ß1AR Ab concentration median (14/198 (7.1%) vs. 2/190 (1.1%)); p = 0.01). Similarly, the same sub-group demonstrated greater risk of cardiovascular death in year 1, including re-infarction and stroke (22/198 (11.1%) vs. 10/190 (5.3%); p = 0.017). ACS Patients ≤60 years, exhibiting lower concentrations of ß1AR Ab carry a greater risk for early re-infarction and cardiovascular death. Large, prospective studies quantitatively assessing the prognostic relevance of Anti-ß1AR Ab levels should be considered.

6.
Arch Rheumatol ; 34(3): 253-261, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31598589

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of depressive symptoms among systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients using the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), identify possible risk factors, and analyze the current standard of care to raise awareness and improve clinical care for SSc patients. Patients and methods: The study included 94 SSc patients (12 males, 82 females; mean age 58.3±13.6 years; range, 28 to 83 years) who completed the MDI, Short Form 36 Health Survey, Scleroderma Health Assessment Questionnaire, Brief Fatigue Inventory and Physical Activity Questionnaire. Clinical parameters were assessed according to standardized procedures. Discharge letters were analyzed for evaluation of depressive symptoms. Results: The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 22.3%. It correlated with female sex (p=0.047), underweight (p=0.002), fatigue (p<0.001), decreased quality of life (p<0.001) and less physical activity (p=0.048). The latter three were confirmed as independent risk factors in a multivariable regression analysis. The analysis of the current standard of care revealed no assessment of depressive symptoms in the majority of patients (89.4%), including 19 with depressive symptoms according to the MDI score. Conclusion: This study confirms the high prevalence of depressive symptoms in SSc patients. There is an unmet need of regular assessment of mental health during SSc consultations. Fatigue, decreased quality of life and reduced physical activity were ascertained as independent risk factors, while special attention should also be paid to weight loss and underweight.

7.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(11): 1576-1582, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of vasodilator drugs on the occurrence of features depending on myocardial ischaemia/fibrosis (ventricular arrhythmias, Q waves, cardiac blocks, pacemaker implantation, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <55%, and/or congestive heart failure and sudden cardiac death) in systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: 601 patients with SSc were enrolled from 1 December 2012 to 30 November 2015 and had a second visit 0.5-4 years apart. 153 received no vasodilators; 448 received vasodilator therapy (ie, calcium channel blockers and/or ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers or combinations of them), 89 of them being also treated with either endothelin receptor antagonists or PDE5 inhibitors or prostanoids. Associations between the occurrence of myocardial disease manifestations and any demographic, disease and therapeutic aspect were investigated by Cox regression analysis. A Cox frailty survival model with centre of enrolment as random effect was performed. RESULTS: During 914 follow-up patient-years, 12 ventricular arrhythmias, 5 Q waves, 40 cardiac blocks, 6 pacemaker implantations and 19 reduced LVEF and/or congestive heart failure (CHF) occurred. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, vasodilator therapy was associated with a lower incidence of ventricular arrhythmias (p=0.03); low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) with a lower incidence of cardiac blocks and/or Q waves and/or pacemaker implantation (p=0.02); active disease with a higher incidence of LVEF <55% and/or CHF and cardiac blocks and/or Q waves and/or pacemaker implantation (p=0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present study might suggest a preventative effect on the occurrence of distinct myocardial manifestations by vasodilator therapy and low-dose ASA.

9.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8993, 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222024

RESUMO

Epoxy-fatty-acids (EpFAs), cytochrome P450 dependent arachidonic acid derivatives, have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory properties, though their effects on autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have yet to be investigated. We assessed the influence of EpFAs and their metabolites in lupus prone NZB/W F1 mice by pharmacological inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH, EPHX2). The sEH inhibitor 1770 was administered to lupus prone NZB/W F1 mice in a prophylactic and a therapeutic setting. Prophylactic inhibition of sEH significantly improved survival and reduced proteinuria. By contrast, sEH inhibitor-treated nephritic mice had no survival benefit; however, histological changes were reduced when compared to controls. In humans, urinary EpFA levels were significantly different in 47 SLE patients when compared to 10 healthy controls. Gene expression of EPHX2 was significantly reduced in the kidneys of both NZB/W F1 mice and lupus nephritis (LN) patients. Correlation of EpFAs with SLE disease activity and reduced renal EPHX gene expression in LN suggest roles for these components in human disease.

10.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 71(9): 1553-1570, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30969034

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a heterogeneous connective tissue disease that is typically subdivided into limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc) and diffuse cutaneous SSc (dcSSc) depending on the extent of skin involvement. This subclassification may not capture the entire variability of clinical phenotypes. The European Scleroderma Trials and Research (EUSTAR) database includes data on a prospective cohort of SSc patients from 122 European referral centers. This study was undertaken to perform a cluster analysis of EUSTAR data to distinguish and characterize homogeneous phenotypes without any a priori assumptions, and to examine survival among the clusters obtained. METHODS: A total of 11,318 patients were registered in the EUSTAR database, and 6,927 were included in the study. Twenty-four clinical and serologic variables were used for clustering. RESULTS: Clustering analyses provided a first delineation of 2 clusters showing moderate stability. In an exploratory attempt, we further characterized 6 homogeneous groups that differed with regard to their clinical features, autoantibody profile, and mortality. Some groups resembled usual dcSSc or lcSSc prototypes, but others exhibited unique features, such as a majority of lcSSc patients with a high rate of visceral damage and antitopoisomerase antibodies. Prognosis varied among groups and the presence of organ damage markedly impacted survival regardless of cutaneous involvement. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that restricting subsets of SSc patients to only those based on cutaneous involvement may not capture the complete heterogeneity of the disease. Organ damage and antibody profile should be taken into consideration when individuating homogeneous groups of patients with a distinct prognosis.

11.
J Rheumatol ; 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30936287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Scleroderma renal crisis (SRC) is a severe life-threatening manifestation in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). However, the knowledge about risk factors for SRC is limited. We determined here the frequency of SRC and identified risk factors for the prediction of SRC. METHODS: Based on regular followup data from the German Network for Systemic Scleroderma, we used univariate and multivariate generalized estimating equations to analyze the association between clinical variables, SSc subsets, therapy [i.e., angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi), corticosteroids], and the occurrence of SRC. RESULTS: Data of 2873 patients with 10,425 visits were available for analysis with a mean number of registry visits of 3.6 ± 2.8 and a mean time of followup of 3.6 ± 3.8 years. In total, 70 patients developed SRC (70/2873, 2.4%). Of these patients, 57.1% (40/70) were diagnosed with diffuse cutaneous SSc, 31.4% (22/70) with limited cutaneous SSc, and 11.4% (8/70) with SSc-overlap syndromes. Predictive independent factors with the highest probability for SRC were positive anti-RNA polymerase antibodies (RNAP), a history of proteinuria prior to SRC onset, diminished DLCO, and a history of hypertension. Interestingly, positive antitopoisomerase autoantibodies did not predict a higher risk for SRC. Further, patients with SRC were significantly more frequently treated with ACEi and corticosteroids without being independently associated with SRC. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, SRC has become a rare complication. By far the highest risk for SRC was associated with the detection of anti-RNAP and proteinuria.

12.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 24: 1037-1049, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30844728

RESUMO

An autoimmune reaction directed against the cardiac b1-adrenergic receptor (beta1-ADR) leading to the generation of autoantibodies (AA) against this G-coupled receptor has been described in patients with heart failure (HF). Agonist-like beta1-ADR-AA are associated with morbidity in HF patients and even predict mortality. Standardised and valid diagnostic tools to detect beta 1-ADR-AA in clinical routine are lacking. We used a novel ELISA approach to investigate beta 1-ADR-AA in a cohort of 574 HF patients of the CIBIS-ELD trial with follow up. The CIBIS-ELD trial compared the titration of bisoprolol and carvedilol to recommended target doses in regard to BB tolerability in patients aged 65 years and older. Patient with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) less than 50% or LV diameter end diastolic (DED) more than 55 cm showed significantly higher levels of beta1-ADR-AA. Although not yet fully validated, this ELISA allowed for a negative correlation of beta1-ADR-AA with the EF at baseline and at the follow up, beta1-ADR-AA further correlated positively with basal heart rate at follow up 12 weeks later. beta1-ADR-AA levels thus determined  significantly increased under titration with beta-blockers (pless  than 0.01). Changes in beta1-ADR-AA between F-Up and baseline were significantly higher in patients who used beta blockers (p=0.016) before study inclusion. The type of beta-blocker titrated in this study did not affect log beta1-ADR-AA levels at baseline (p=0.132), follow-up (p=0.058), nor the change (p=0.426). beta1-ADR-AA levels were estimated using a novel, commercially available ELISA. Although not yet fully validated, this ELISA allowed for pathophysiological insights: beta1-ADR-AA levels thus determined significantly increased under titration with beta-blockers (pless  than 0.01), irrespective of type of BB. Higher levels of beta1-ADR-AA at baseline are associated with higher heart rates, lower ejection fraction and enlarged left ventricles. The relevance of the beta1-ADR-AA biomarker should be further evaluated.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/sangue , Insuficiência Cardíaca/imunologia , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 1/imunologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Bisoprolol/uso terapêutico , Carvedilol/uso terapêutico , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Seguimentos , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento , Função Ventricular Esquerda
13.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(3): 189-193, 2019 02.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30703839

RESUMO

This literature review summarizes the main findings in systemic sclerosis (SSc) made in the last few years. Accordingly, the disease pathogenesis is mainly driven by the adaptive immune system, which is proven by the effects of autologous stem cell transplantation. Particularly, autoantibodies can activate both adaptive as well as innate immune cells as identified for the anti-angiotensin receptor antibodies. In addition, major achievements come from the early recognition of organ complications, which mainly appear in the first years upon Raynaud`s phenomenon. This implicates screening for organ complications such as for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) or interstitial lung disease (ILD) even without any clinical symptoms at the beginning. On the other hand, the presence of anti-polymerase III antibodies indicates a risk or the presence of malignant diseases, which should be identified. Several studies in the last years showed the high burden of the disease, which is often underscored by physicians. Pain, depressions, fatigue, and incontinence often determine quality of life and should be recognized and treated, if possible. Systemic sclerosis is a disease with the highest disease-related mortality among the rheumatic diseases. More than half of the SSc patients die from SSc manifestations particularly from cardiac and lung involvement such as PAH and ILD. Ventricular tachycardias should be recognized by Holter-ECG. Finally, intensive therapies such as autologous stem cell transplantation or combination therapies seem to be most successful in SSc as well as in SSc-related PAH. Currently, several studies are ongoing, which will hopefully change the outcome and quality of life.


Assuntos
Escleroderma Sistêmico , Humanos , Escleroderma Sistêmico/diagnóstico , Escleroderma Sistêmico/mortalidade , Escleroderma Sistêmico/terapia
15.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 24: 18-34, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468645

RESUMO

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form a most diverse family of integral membrane proteins that mediate homeostatic and pathological processes, most notably by orchestrating cell distribution throughout the body, their infiltration, and time of presence in inflamed tissues. Here we discuss loss-of-orientation-effects in GPCR-mediated cell trafficking and migration and their impact on the phenotype of autoimmune diseases. In this context, we provide a systemic and integrative view of the contribution of abnormal GPCR expression as well as the levels of natural ligands and functional autoantibodies to the phenotype of autoimmune diseases. Currently, several studies propose that functional autoantibodies (including those targeting GPCRs) constitute an exclusively pathogenic or pathognomonic phenomenon. Here we reinforce the need of revising this point of view, and suggest that functional autoantibodies primary play a role in normal human physiology, while dysregulation of their functions causes autoimmune disease. Because patients with autoimmune diseases still suffer from severe morbidity and mortality rates, we consider expanding our knowledge on (patho)physiological roles of GPCR as a prerequisite for the development of novel specific therapeutic modalities.


Assuntos
Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/imunologia , Animais , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Doenças Autoimunes/metabolismo , Citocinas/imunologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Mediadores da Inflamação/imunologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Modelos Imunológicos , Receptores de Quimiocinas/imunologia , Receptores de Quimiocinas/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo
16.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(3): 511-521, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508148

RESUMO

BACKGROUD: There is an unmet need for the development of new biomarkers for idiopathic inflammatory myopathy-associated interstitial lung disease (IIM-ILD). METHODS: Peripheral CD4+CXCR4+ T cells, stromal cell-derived factor-1 and Krebs von den Lungen-6 were measured in patients with IIM-ILD (n = 85) and controls. The relation to pulmonary functions, high-resolution CT scores, specific clinical phenotypes and survival was analysed. Cytokine-expression profiling of these CD4+CXCR4+ T cells and their co-culture with pulmonary fibroblasts were conducted. RESULTS: The peripheral percentages of CD4+CXCR4+ T cells were significantly elevated in IIM-ILD patients, and correlated with high-resolution CT score (r = 0.7136, P < 0.0001) and pulmonary function impairments, such as percentage of forced volume vital capacity (r = -0.4734, P = 0.0005). They were associated with anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 autoantibodies and the amyopathic DM phenotype. In IIM-ILD, peripheral percentages of CD4+CXCR4+ T cells ⩾30% revealed a 6-month mortality as high as 47%. These CD4+CXCR4+ T cells express high levels of IL-21 and IL-6. In vitro blockade of IL-21 signalling by neutralization of IL-21 or Janus kinase inhibitor could abolished the fibroblast proliferation. CONCLUSION: Overall, peripheral CD4+CXCR4+ T cells appear to be a potentially valuable novel biomarker associated with the severity and prognosis of IIM-ILD. They promote pulmonary fibroblast proliferation via IL-21, which may herald future targeted treatments for this severe disease.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD4/metabolismo , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/etiologia , Miosite/complicações , Receptores CXCR4/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miosite/imunologia , Prognóstico , Linfócitos T/imunologia
18.
Curr Opin Rheumatol ; 31(2): 208-212, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30562181

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview behind the concept and recent advances of low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). RECENT FINDINGS: A disruption of regulatory T cell homeostasis caused by an acquired deficiency of IL-2 is a crucial event in the pathogenesis of SLE. Here, we highlight the key rationales for the clinical translation of low-dose IL-2 therapy in SLE and summarize the main findings from two independent, early phase uncontrolled clinical studies that investigated the immunological and clinical responses to low-dose IL-2 therapy in patients with active SLE. Important commonalities and differences between these studies with regard to study design and results are discussed. SUMMARY: Low-dose IL-2 therapy is capable to promote the selective expansion of a functionally competent regulatory T cell population in a well-tolerated way and may have the potential to influence the clinical course in patients with active SLE. Although a clearer proof for the clinical efficacy of low-dose IL-2 therapy in SLE is still outstanding, these early studies provide important rationales and the scientific basis for more comprehensive and placebo-controlled trials in the future.

19.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 5224, 2018 12 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30523250

RESUMO

Autoantibodies have been associated with autoimmune diseases. However, studies have identified autoantibodies in healthy donors (HD) who do not develop autoimmune disorders. Here we provide evidence of a network of immunoglobulin G (IgG) autoantibodies targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) in HD compared to patients with systemic sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and ovarian cancer. Sex, age and pathological conditions affect autoantibody correlation and hierarchical clustering signatures, yet many of the correlations are shared across all groups, indicating alterations to homeostasis. Furthermore, we identify relationships between autoantibodies targeting structurally and functionally related molecules, such as vascular, neuronal or chemokine receptors. Finally, autoantibodies targeting the endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA) exhibit chemotactic activity, as demonstrated by neutrophil migration toward HD-IgG in an EDNRA-dependent manner and in the direction of IgG from EDNRA-immunized mice. Our data characterizing the in vivo signatures of anti-GPCR autoantibodies thus suggest that they are a physiological part of the immune system.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/imunologia , Autoanticorpos/imunologia , Homeostase/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/imunologia , Escleroderma Sistêmico/imunologia , Idoso , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Autoanticorpos/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/imunologia , Imunoglobulina G/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/imunologia , Receptor de Endotelina A/genética , Receptor de Endotelina A/imunologia , Receptor de Endotelina A/metabolismo , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/genética , Receptores Acoplados a Proteínas-G/metabolismo , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
20.
Autoimmun Rev ; 17(12): 1225-1234, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30316997

RESUMO

SSc is a complex rheumatoid disease characterized by autoimmunity, fibrosis and vasculopathy. Mouse models provide powerful research tools for exploring the pathogenesis of the human diseases. Each mouse model can represent a specific way leading to the development of disease. Moreover, mouse models can be used to investigate the role of candidate molecule in the pathogenesis of disease. So far, more than twenty mouse models for SSc have been established and provide new insights in the understanding of the pathogenesis of SSc. In this review, we provide an overview on recent advances in the field of experimental SSc. We introduce novel mouse models generated in the recent years and discuss their relevance to the SSc pathogenesis. Moreover, we summarize and discuss recent findings in the pathogenesis of classical SSc mouse models.


Assuntos
Modelos Animais de Doenças , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos
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