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1.
Psychiatr Genet ; 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568069

RESUMO

Studying the relationship between mental illnesses and their environmental and genetic risk factors in low-income countries holds excellent promises. These studies will improve our understanding of how risk factors identified predominantly in high-income countries also apply to other settings and will identify new, sometimes population-specific risk factors. Here we report the successful completion of two intertwined pilot studies on khat abuse, trauma, and psychosis at the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center in Ethiopia. We found that the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center offers a unique opportunity to collect well-characterized samples for mental health research and to perform genetic studies that, at this scale, have not been undertaken in Ethiopia yet. We also supported service development, education, and research for strengthening the professional profile of psychiatry at the site.

2.
Eur Psychiatry ; 62: 124-129, 2019 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome and impaired insulin sensitivity may occur as side effects of atypical antipsychotic drugs. However, studies of peripheral insulin resistance using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) or oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) suggest that abnormal glucose metabolism is already present in drug-naive first-episode schizophrenia (DNFES). We hypothesized impairments of neuronal insulin signaling in DNFES. METHODS: To gain insight into neuronal insulin-signaling in vivo, we analyzed peripheral blood extracellular vesicles enriched for neuronal origin (nEVs). Phosphorylated insulin signal transduction serine-threonine kinases pS312-IRS-1, pY-IRS-1, pS473-AKT, pS9-GSK3ß, pS2448-mTOR, pT389-p70S6K and respective total protein levels were determined in plasma nEVs from 48 DNFES patients and healthy matched controls after overnight fasting. RESULTS: Upstream pS312-IRS-1 was reduced at trend level (p = 0.071; this condition may amplify IRS-1 signaling). Exploratory omnibus analysis of downstream serine-threonine kinases (AKT, GSK3ß, mTOR, p70S6K) revealed lower phosphorylated/total protein ratios in DNFES vs. controls (p = 0.013), confirming decreased pathway activation. Post-hoc-tests indicated in particular a reduced phosphorylation ratio of mTOR (p = 0.027). Phosphorylation ratios of p70S6K (p = 0.029), GSK3ß (p = 0.039), and at trend level AKT (p = 0.061), showed diagnosis-dependent statistical interactions with insulin blood levels. The phosphorylation ratio of AKT correlated inversely with PANSS-G and PANSS-total scores, and other ratios showed similar trends. CONCLUSION: These findings support the hypothesis of neuronal insulin resistance in DNFES, small sample sizes notwithstanding. The counterintuitive trend towards reduced pS312-IRS-1 in DNFES may result from adaptive feedback mechanisms. The observed changes in insulin signaling could be clinically meaningful as suggested by their association with higher PANSS scores.

3.
J Psychopharmacol ; : 269881119874417, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547761

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serotonin has been implicated in impulsive behaviours such as temporal discounting. While animal studies and theoretical approaches suggest that reduced tonic serotonin levels increase temporal discounting rates and vice versa, evidence from human studies is scarce and inconclusive. Furthermore, an important modulator of serotonin signalling, a genetic variation in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR), has not been investigated for temporal discounting so far. OBJECTIVE: First, the purpose of this study was to test for a significant association between 5-HTTLPR and temporal discounting. Second, we wished to investigate the effect of high/low tonic serotonin levels on intertemporal choice and blood oxygen-level-dependent response, controlling for 5-HTTLPR. METHODS: We tested the association of 5-HTTLPR with temporal discounting rates using an intertemporal choice task in 611 individuals. We then manipulated tonic serotonin levels with acute tryptophan interventions (depletion, loading, balanced) in a subsample of 45 short (S)-allele and 45 long (L)/L-allele carriers in a randomised double-blind crossover design using functional magnetic resonance imaging and an intertemporal choice task. RESULTS: Overall, we did not find any effect of serotonin and 5-HTTLPR on temporal discounting rates or the brain networks associated with valuation and cognitive control. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that serotonin may not be directly involved in choices including delays on longer timescales such as days, weeks or months. We speculate that serotonin plays a stronger role in dynamic intertemporal choice tasks where the delays are on a timescale of seconds and hence are therefore directly experienced during the experiment.

4.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441562

RESUMO

Previous studies have linked the low expression variant of a variable number of tandem repeat polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA-L) to the risk for impulsivity and aggression, brain developmental abnormalities, altered cortico-limbic circuit function, and an exaggerated neural serotonergic tone. However, the neurobiological effects of this variant on human brain network architecture are incompletely understood. We studied healthy individuals and used multimodal neuroimaging (sample size range: 219-284 across modalities) and network-based statistics (NBS) to probe the specificity of MAOA-L-related connectomic alterations to cortical-limbic circuits and the emotion processing domain. We assessed the spatial distribution of affected links across several neuroimaging tasks and data modalities to identify potential alterations in network architecture. Our results revealed a distributed network of node links with a significantly increased connectivity in MAOA-L carriers compared to the carriers of the high expression (H) variant. The hyperconnectivity phenotype primarily consisted of between-lobe ("anisocoupled") network links and showed a pronounced involvement of frontal-temporal connections. Hyperconnectivity was observed across functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of implicit emotion processing (pFWE = .037), resting-state fMRI (pFWE = .022), and diffusion tensor imaging (pFWE = .044) data, while no effects were seen in fMRI data of another cognitive domain, that is, spatial working memory (pFWE = .540). These observations are in line with prior research on the MAOA-L variant and complement these existing data by novel insights into the specificity and spatial distribution of the neurogenetic effects. Our work highlights the value of multimodal network connectomic approaches for imaging genetics.

5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 210, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462630

RESUMO

Cognitive deficits are a core feature of psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Evidence supports a genome-wide polygenic score (GPS) for educational attainment (GPSEDU) can be used to explain variability in cognitive performance. We aimed to identify different cognitive domains associated with GPSEDU in a transdiagnostic clinical cohort of chronic psychiatric patients with known cognitive deficits. Bipolar and schizophrenia patients from the PsyCourse cohort (N = 730; 43% female) were used. Likewise, we tested whether GPSs for schizophrenia (GPSSZ) and bipolar disorder (GPSBD) were associated with cognitive outcomes. GPSEDU explained 1.5% of variance in the backward verbal digit span, 1.9% in the number of correctly recalled words of the Verbal Learning and Memory Test, and 1.1% in crystallized intelligence. These effects were robust to the influences of treatment and diagnosis. No significant associations between GPSSZ or GPSBD with cognitive outcomes were found. Furthermore, these risk scores did not confound the effect of GPSEDU on cognitive outcomes. GPSEDU explains a small fraction of cognitive performance in adults with psychiatric disorders, specifically for domains related to linguistic learning and working memory. Investigating such a proxy-phenotype longitudinally, could give intriguing insight into the disease course, highlighting at what time genes play a more influential role on cognitive performance. Better understanding the origin of these deficits might help identify those patients at risk for lower levels of functioning and poor social outcomes. Polygenic estimates may in the future be part of predictive models for more personalized interventions.

6.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 80(4)2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318184

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicidal ideation is a frequent and difficult-to-treat clinical challenge among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known regarding the differential development during antidepressant treatment and whether some patients may suffer from persistent suicidal ideation. METHODS: Among 811 patients with Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN)-verified MDD from 2004-2007 assessed weekly for 12 weeks of escitalopram or nortriptyline antidepressant treatment, we applied item response theory to integrate a suicidality score based on 3 rating scales. We performed latent growth mixture modeling analysis to empirically identify trajectories. Multinomial logistic regression analyses estimated associations with potential predictors. RESULTS: We identified 5 distinct classes of suicidal ideation. The Persistent-low class (53.7%) showed no suicidal ideation whereas the Persistent-high class (9.8%) had high suicidal ideation throughout 12 weeks. Two classes showed a fluctuating course: the Fluctuating class (5.2%) ended at a low level of suicidal ideation, whereas the Slow-response-relapse class (4.8%) initially responded slowly but then experienced a large increase to a high level of suicidal ideation after 12 weeks. The Fast-response class (26.5%) had a high baseline severity similar to the Persistent-high class but responded quickly within a few weeks and remained at a low level. Previous suicide attempts and higher mood symptom severity were associated with worse suicidal ideation trajectories, whereas living with a partner showed a trend toward better response. CONCLUSION: Approximately 1 of 5 patients with MDD showed high or fluctuating suicidal ideation despite antidepressant treatment. Studies should investigate whether suicidal ideation may persist for longer periods and more targeted treatment possibilities. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN​​ identifier: ISRCTN03693000​​​​.

7.
Schizophr Bull ; 2019 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31206164

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a clinically important feature of schizophrenia. Polygenic risk score (PRS) methods have demonstrated genetic overlap between schizophrenia, bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), educational attainment (EA), and IQ, but very few studies have examined associations between these PRS and cognitive phenotypes within schizophrenia cases. METHODS: We combined genetic and cognitive data in 3034 schizophrenia cases from 11 samples using the general intelligence factor g as the primary measure of cognition. We used linear regression to examine the association between cognition and PRS for EA, IQ, schizophrenia, BD, and MDD. The results were then meta-analyzed across all samples. A genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of cognition was conducted in schizophrenia cases. RESULTS: PRS for both population IQ (P = 4.39 × 10-28) and EA (P = 1.27 × 10-26) were positively correlated with cognition in those with schizophrenia. In contrast, there was no association between cognition in schizophrenia cases and PRS for schizophrenia (P = .39), BD (P = .51), or MDD (P = .49). No individual variant approached genome-wide significance in the GWAS. CONCLUSIONS: Cognition in schizophrenia cases is more strongly associated with PRS that index cognitive traits in the general population than PRS for neuropsychiatric disorders. This suggests the mechanisms of cognitive variation within schizophrenia are at least partly independent from those that predispose to schizophrenia diagnosis itself. Our findings indicate that this cognitive variation arises at least in part due to genetic factors shared with cognitive performance in populations and is not solely due to illness or treatment-related factors, although our findings are consistent with important contributions from these factors.

8.
Schizophr Res ; 208: 67-75, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076262

RESUMO

Schizotypy is a multidimensional risk phenotype distributed in the general population, constituting of subclinical, psychotic-like symptoms. It is associated with psychosis proneness, and several risk genes for psychosis are associated with schizotypy in non-clinical populations. Schizotypy might also modulate cognitive abilities as it is associated with attentional deficits in healthy subjects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that established genetic risk variants ZNF804A rs1344706 and CACNA1C rs1006737 are associated with psychometric schizotypy and that schizotypy mediates their effect on attention or vice versa. In 615 healthy subjects from the FOR2107 cohort study, we analysed the genetic risk variants ZNF804A rs1344706 and CACNA1C rs1006737, psychometric schizotypy (schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief SPQB), and a neuropsychological measure of sustained and selective attention (d2 test). ZNF804A rs1344706 C (non-risk) alleles were significantly associated with higher SPQ-B Cognitive-Perceptual subscores in women and with attention deficits in both sexes. This schizotypy dimension also mediated the effect of ZNF804A on attention in women, but not in men. CACNA1C rs1006737-A showed a significant sex-modulated negative association with Interpersonal schizotypy only in men, and no effect on attention. Our multivariate model demonstrates differential genetic contributions of two psychosis risk genes to dimensions of schizotypy and, partly, to attention. This supports a model of shared genetic influence between schizotypy and cognitive functions impaired in schizophrenia.

9.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 106: 284-292, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31039525

RESUMO

Altered reproductive hormone levels have been associated with the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and this risk may be imparted by their modulatory effect upon hippocampal structure and function. Currently it is unclear whether altered levels of reproductive hormones are causally associated with hippocampal volume reductions and the risk of depressive disorders. Here, we utilize genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics from a GWAS focusing on reproductive hormones, consisting of 2913 individuals. Using this data, we generated polygenic risk scores (PRS) for estradiol, progesterone, prolactin and testosterone in the European RADIANT cohort consisting of 176 postpartum depression (PPD) cases (100% female, mean age: 41.6 years old), 2772 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases (68.6% female, mean age: 46.9 years old) and 1588 control participants (62.5% female, mean age: 42.4 years old), for which there was also a neuroimaging subset of 111 individuals (60.4% female, mean age: 50.0 years old). Only the best-fit PRS for estradiol showed a significant negative association with hippocampal volume, as well as many of its individual subfields; including the molecular layer and granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1, CA2/3 and CA4 regions. Interestingly, several of these subfields are implicated in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. When we tested the same estradiol PRS for association with case-control status for PPD or MDD there was no significant relationship observed. Here, we provide evidence that genetic risk for higher plasma estradiol is negatively associated with hippocampal volume, but this does not translate into an increased risk of MDD or PPD. This work suggests that the relationship between reproductive hormones, the hippocampus, and depression is complex, and that there may not be a clear-cut pathway for etiology or risk moderation.

10.
Biol Psychiatry ; 85(12): 1065-1073, 2019 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31003785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is moderately heritable, with a high prevalence and a presumed high heterogeneity. Copy number variants (CNVs) could contribute to the heritable component of risk, but the two previous genome-wide association studies of rare CNVs did not report significant findings. METHODS: In this meta-analysis of four cohorts (5780 patients and 6626 control subjects), we analyzed the association of MDD to 1) genome-wide burden of rare deletions and duplications, partitioned by length (<100 kb or >100 kb) and other characteristics, and 2) individual rare exonic CNVs and CNV regions. RESULTS: Patients with MDD carried significantly more short deletions than control subjects (p = .0059) but not long deletions or short or long duplications. The confidence interval for long deletions overlapped with that for short deletions, but long deletions were 70% less frequent genome-wide, reducing the power to detect increased burden. The increased burden of short deletions was primarily in intergenic regions. Short deletions in cases were also modestly enriched for high-confidence enhancer regions. No individual CNV achieved thresholds for suggestive or significant association after genome-wide correction. p values < .01 were observed for 15q11.2 duplications (TUBGCP5, CYFIP1, NIPA1, and NIPA2), deletions in or near PRKN or MSR1, and exonic duplications of ATG5. CONCLUSIONS: The increased burden of short deletions in patients with MDD suggests that rare CNVs increase the risk of MDD by disrupting regulatory regions. Results for longer deletions were less clear, but no large effects were observed for long multigenic CNVs (as seen in schizophrenia and autism). Further studies with larger sample sizes are warranted.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912305

RESUMO

Recent breakthroughs in psychiatric genetics have identified genetic risk factors of yet unknown clinical value. A main ethical principal in the context of psychiatric research as well as future clinical genetic testing is the respect for a person's autonomy to decide whether to undergo genetic testing, and whom to grant access to genetic data. However, experience within the psychiatric genetic research setting has indicated controversies surrounding attitudes toward this ethical principal. This study aimed to explore attitudes concerning the right of individuals to self-determine testing and disclosure of results, and to determine whether these attitudes are context-dependent, that is, not directly related to the test result but rather to specific circumstances. N = 160 individuals with major depression or bipolar disorder and n = 29 relatives of individuals with either illness completed an online-questionnaire assessing attitudes toward genetic testing, genetic research, disclosure of results, incidental findings, and access to psychiatric genetic test results. Generally, the right of the person's autonomy was considered very important, but attitudes varied. For example, half of those who considered that children should have the right to refuse psychiatric genetic testing even against their parents' will, also state that they should be tested upon their parents' wishes. Also, the majority of respondents considered the physician entitled to disregard their stated wishes concerning the disclosure of incidental findings in case of good treatment options. Thus, researchers and clinicians must be aware that attitudes toward psychiatric genetic testing are often mutable and should discuss these prior to testing.

12.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874608

RESUMO

Predicting antidepressant response has been a clinical challenge for mood disorder. Although several genome-wide association studies have suggested a number of genetic variants to be associated with antidepressant response, the sample sizes are small and the results are difficult to replicate. Previous animal studies have shown that knockout of the serotonin receptor 7 gene (HTR7) resulted in an antidepressant-like phenotype, suggesting it was important to antidepressant action. In this report, in the first stage, we used a cost-effective pooled-sequencing strategy to sequence the entire HTR7 gene and its regulatory regions to investigate the association of common variants in HTR7 and clinical response to four selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs: citalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine and sertraline) in a retrospective cohort mainly consisting of subjects with bipolar disorder (n = 359). We found 80 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with false discovery rate < 0.05 associated with response to paroxetine. Among the significant SNPs, rs7905446 (T/G), which is located at the promoter region, also showed nominal significance (P < 0.05) in fluoxetine group. GG/TG genotypes for rs7905446 and female gender were associated with better response to two SSRIs (paroxetine and fluoxetine). In the second stage, we replicated this association in two independent prospective samples of SSRI-treated patients with major depressive disorder: the MARS (n = 253, P = 0.0169) and GENDEP studies (n = 432, P = 0.008). The GG/TG genotypes were consistently associated with response in all three samples. Functional study of rs7905446 showed greater activity of the G allele in regulating expression of HTR7. The G allele displayed higher luciferase activity in two neuronal-related cell lines, and estrogen treatment decreased the activity of only the G allele. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay suggested that the G allele interacted with CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta transcription factor (TF), while the T allele did not show any interaction with any TFs. Our results provided novel pharmacogenomic evidence to support the role of HTR7 in association with antidepressant response.

13.
Schizophr Res ; 208: 370-376, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising augmentation treatment for schizophrenia, however there are few controlled studies of rTMS augmentation of clozapine. METHODS: Using data from the 'rTMS for the Treatment of Negative Symptoms in Schizophrenia' (RESIS) trial we examined the impact of rTMS on PANSS total, general, positive and negative symptoms among participants on clozapine. rTMS was applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) for five treatment sessions/week for 3-weeks as augmentation for patients with a predominant negative syndrome of schizophrenia, as rated on PANSS. RESULTS: 26 participants from the RESIS trial were on clozapine, receiving active (N=12) or sham (N=14) rTMS treatment. In our Linear Mixed Model (LMM) analysis, time×group interactions were significant in the PANSS positive subscale (p=0.003) (not being the corresponding behavioral output for DLPFC stimulation), the PANSS general subscale (p<0.001), the PANSS total scale (p=0.015), but not the PANSS negative subscale (p=0.301) (primary endpoint of the RESIS trial), when all PANSS measurements from screening to day 105 were included. Descriptive data suggests that in the active group the improvement was more pronounced compared to the sham rTMS group. CONCLUSIONS: In this largest available clozapine cohort, active rTMS may be more effective than sham rTMS when added to clozapine for positive and total psychotic symptoms. These findings should be interpreted with caution given this is a secondary analysis with a limited number of participants.

15.
Transl Psychiatry ; 9(1): 12, 2019 01 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664633

RESUMO

Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by numerous subtle changes in brain structure and function. Machine learning allows exploring the utility of combining structural and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures for diagnostic application, but this approach has been hampered by sample size limitations and lack of differential diagnostic data. Here, we performed a multi-site machine learning analysis to explore brain structural patterns of T1 MRI data in 2668 individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder, and healthy controls. We found reproducible changes of structural parameters in schizophrenia that yielded a classification accuracy of up to 76% and provided discrimination from ADHD, through it lacked specificity against bipolar disorder. The observed changes largely indexed distributed grey matter alterations that could be represented through a combination of several global brain-structural parameters. This multi-site machine learning study identified a brain-structural signature that could reproducibly differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls, but lacked specificity against bipolar disorder. While this currently limits the clinical utility of the identified signature, the present study highlights that the underlying alterations index substantial global grey matter changes in psychotic disorders, reflecting the biological similarity of these conditions, and provide a roadmap for future exploration of brain structural alterations in psychiatric patients.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
16.
Br J Psychiatry ; 215(2): 494-501, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30698114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) experiencing side-effects or non-response to their first antidepressant, little is known regarding the effect of switching between a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).AimsTo compare the switch between the TCA nortriptyline and the SSRI escitalopram. METHOD: Among 811 adults with MDD treated with nortriptyline or escitalopram for up to 12 weeks, 108 individuals switched from nortriptyline to escitalopram or vice versa because of side-effects or non-response (trial registration: EudraCT No.2004-001723-38 (https://eudract.ema.europa.eu/) and ISRCTN No.03693000 (http://www.controlled-trials.com)). Patients were followed for up to 26 weeks after switching and response was measured with the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating scale (MADRS). We performed adjusted mixed-effects linear regression models with full information maximum likelihood estimation reporting ß-coefficients with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Switching antidepressants resulted in a significant decrease in MADRS scores. This was present for switchers from escitalopram to nortriptyline (n = 36, ß = -0.38, 95% CI -0.51 to -0.25, P<0.001) and from nortriptyline to escitalopram (n = 72, ß = -0.34, 95% CI -0.41 to -0.26, P<0.001). Both switching options resulted in significant improvement among individuals who switched because of non-response or side-effects. The results were supported by analyses on other rating scales and symptom dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that switching from a TCA to an SSRI or vice versa after non-response or side-effects to the first antidepressant may be a viable approach to achieve response among patients with MDD.Declarations of interestK.J.A. holds an Alberta Centennial Addiction and Mental Health Research Chair, funded by the Government of Alberta. K.J.A. has been a member of various advisory boards, received consultancy fees and honoraria, and has received research grants from various companies including Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceuticals Research and Development and Bristol-Myers Squibb Pharmaceuticals Limited. D.S. has served on advisory boards for, and received unrestricted grants from, Lundbeck and AstraZeneca. A.F. and P.M. have received honoraria for participating in expert panels for Lundbeck and GlaxoSmithKline.

17.
Schizophr Res ; 210: 255-261, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611655

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Religious delusions are a common symptom in patients experiencing psychosis, with varying prevalence rates of religious delusions across cultures and societies. To enhance our knowledge of this distinct psychotic feature, we investigated the mutually-adjusted association of genetic and environmental factors with occurrence of religious delusions. METHODS: We studied 262 adult German patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Association with lifetime occurrence of religious delusions was tested by multiple logistic regression for the following putative predictors: self-reported degree of religious activity, DSM-IV diagnosis, sex, age, education level, marital status, presence of acute delusion at the time of interview and an individual polygenic schizophrenia-risk score (SZ-PRS, available in 239 subjects). RESULTS: Of the 262 patients, 101 (39%) had experienced religious delusions. The risk of experiencing religious delusions was significantly increased in patients with strong religious activity compared to patients without religious affiliation (OR = 3.6, p = 0.010). Low or moderate religious activity had no significant effect. The same analysis including the SZ-PRS confirmed the effect of high religious activity on occurrence of religious delusions (OR = 4.1, p = 0.008). Additionally, the risk of experiencing religious delusions increased with higher SZ-PRS (OR 1.4, p = 0.020, using pT = 0.05 for SZ-PRS calculation). None of the other variables were significantly associated with lifetime occurrence of religious delusions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that strong religious activity and high SZ-PRS are independent risk factors for the occurrence of religious delusions in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder.

18.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(2): 171-178, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587400

RESUMO

Although preclinical studies clearly indicate an effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype on 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) expression, studies in humans provided inconclusive results, hypothetically due to environmental factors and differences in individual behavior. For example, nicotine and other constituents of tobacco smoke elevate serotonin (5-HT) levels in the brain and may thereby cause homeostatic adaptations in 5-HTT availability that moderate effects of 5-HTTLPR genotype. To test whether 5-HTT availability in the midbrain is affected by smoking status and 5-HTTLPR genotype, we pooled data from prior studies on in vivo 5-HTT availability (BPND) measured with positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]DASB. In total, we reanalyzed 5-HTT availability in 116 subjects using ANCOVA statistics. ROI analysis revealed that current smokers and non-smokers do not differ in midbrain BPND. Interestingly, smoking status significantly interacted with 5-HTTLPR genotype: active smoking was associated with reduced 5-HTT availability only in LL subjects but not in carriers of the S-allele. From the perspective of genotype effects, non-smokers showed the expected association with 5-HTTLPR, i.e. higher 5-HTT availability in LL subjects compared to carriers of the S-allele, whereas this pattern was actually reversed for active smokers. Our study indicates that smoking status moderates the association of 5-HTTLPR genotype and 5-HTT expression, which may help to explain inconsistent findings in previous studies. Regarding the mechanism, we suggest that smoking may induce epigenetic processes such as methylation of SLC6A4, which can differ depending on its genetic constitution.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/metabolismo , Fumar/genética , Adulto , Benzilaminas/metabolismo , Radioisótopos de Carbono/metabolismo , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/genética , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Serotonina/genética
19.
Med Arch ; 72(5): 352-356, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30524168

RESUMO

Introduction: Schizophrenia(SCZ) and Bipolar disorder (BD) are frequently occurring and impairing disorders that affect around 1% of the population. Important endophenotypes in the genetic research of SCZ and BD are cognitive functions. Core symptoms for SCZ and BD are impairments in working memory, declarative memory and attention, all of which fulfill the criteria for an endophenotype. The FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5) gene codes for a co-chaperone of the glucocorticoid receptor and has been reported to be associated with cognition. Aim: The aims of our research were to determine the degree of cognitive impairment in patients suffering from SCZ and BD and to explore the association of the FKBP5 variant rs3800373 genotype with the cognitive endophenotypes. Material and Methods: Patients and healthy controls were recruited over a period of two years from the Psychiatric Clinic, Clinical Center University of Sarajevo. Genotyping and neuropsychological assessments were performed for 263 subjects (129 SCZ, 53 BD, and 81 healthy controls [HC]). Neuropsychological assessments were performed for all patients with the Trail Making Test-A&B (TMT-A&B) and Digit-span forward&backwards tasks. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs3800373 in the FKBP5 gene was genotyped using Infinium PsychArray Bead Chips. Results and Conclusion: SCZ and BD patients performed lower than HC in the TMT-A&B and in the Digit-span backwards task, while no differences were observed between SCZ and BD patients. While SCZ patients performed lower than HC in the Digit-span forwards task, there were no differences between BD and HC or between BD and SCZ. Rs 3800373 was not associated with performance in the TMT-A&B or Digit-span forwards&backwards tasks. SCZ and BD share largely overlapping neurocognitive characteristics. Rs3800373 was not associated with performance in the neuropsychological tests. However, given the limited sample size, the results do not exclude an association with the rs3800373 variant in a larger sample. Furthermore, as the analysis was limited to one SNP, the results cannot be generalized to other genetic variants in FKBP5.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30507021

RESUMO

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the treatment of choice for severe and treatment-resistant depression; disorder severity and unfavorable treatment outcomes are shown to be influenced by an increased genetic burden for major depression (MD). Here, we tested whether ECT assignment and response/nonresponse are associated with an increased genetic burden for major depression (MD) using polygenic risk score (PRS), which summarize the contribution of disease-related common risk variants. Fifty-one psychiatric inpatients suffering from a major depressive episode underwent ECT. MD-PRS were calculated for these inpatients and a separate population-based sample (n = 3,547 healthy; n = 426 self-reported depression) based on summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium MDD-working group (Cases: n = 59,851; Controls: n = 113,154). MD-PRS explained a significant proportion of disease status between ECT patients and healthy controls (p = .022, R2 = 1.173%); patients showed higher MD-PRS. MD-PRS in population-based depression self-reporters were intermediate between ECT patients and controls (n.s.). Significant associations between MD-PRS and ECT response (50% reduction in Hamilton depression rating scale scores) were not observed. Our findings indicate that ECT cohorts show an increased genetic burden for MD and are consistent with the hypothesis that treatment-resistant MD patients represent a subgroup with an increased genetic risk for MD. Larger samples are needed to better substantiate these findings.

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