Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(9): 1423-1427, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199061

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study contributes to the literature on the income and wealth consequences of obesity by exploiting recent discoveries about the genetic basis of BMI. METHODS: The relation between a genetic risk score (GRS) for BMI, which reflects the genetic predisposition to have a higher body weight, and income and wealth was analyzed in a longitudinal data set comprising 5,962 individuals (22,490 individual-year observations) from the US Health and Retirement Study. RESULTS: Empirical analyses showed that the GRS for BMI lowers individual income and household wealth through the channel of lower educational attainment. Sex-stratified analyses showed that this effect is particularly significant among females. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides support for the negative effects of the GRS for BMI on individual income and household wealth through lower education for females. For males, the effects are estimated to be smaller and insignificant. The larger effects for females compared with males may be due to greater labor market taste-based discrimination faced by females.

2.
Eur J Health Econ ; 20(7): 949-967, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049764

RESUMO

This study analyzes the relation between attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and later-life labor market outcomes in the United States and whether these relationships are mediated by educational attainment. To overcome endogeneity concerns in the estimation of these relationships, we exploit the polygenic risk score (PRS) for ADHD in a cohort where the diagnosis of and treatment for ADHD were generally not available. We find that an increase in the PRS for ADHD reduces the likelihood of employment, individual income, and household wealth. Moreover, it increases the likelihood of receiving social security disability benefits, unemployment or worker compensation, and other governmental transfers. We provide evidence that educational attainment mediates these relationships to a considerable extent (14-58%).

3.
Nat Genet ; 51(2): 245-257, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643258

RESUMO

Humans vary substantially in their willingness to take risks. In a combined sample of over 1 million individuals, we conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of general risk tolerance, adventurousness, and risky behaviors in the driving, drinking, smoking, and sexual domains. Across all GWAS, we identified hundreds of associated loci, including 99 loci associated with general risk tolerance. We report evidence of substantial shared genetic influences across risk tolerance and the risky behaviors: 46 of the 99 general risk tolerance loci contain a lead SNP for at least one of our other GWAS, and general risk tolerance is genetically correlated ([Formula: see text] ~ 0.25 to 0.50) with a range of risky behaviors. Bioinformatics analyses imply that genes near SNPs associated with general risk tolerance are highly expressed in brain tissues and point to a role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We found no evidence of enrichment for genes previously hypothesized to relate to risk tolerance.


Assuntos
Comportamento/fisiologia , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Genética Comportamental/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
4.
Int J Epidemiol ; 47(4): 1279-1288, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28338774

RESUMO

Background: The potential of Mendelian randomization studies is rapidly expanding due to: (i) the growing power of genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses to detect genetic variants associated with several exposures; and (ii) the increasing availability of these genetic variants in large-scale surveys. However, without a proper biological understanding of the pleiotropic working of genetic variants, a fundamental assumption of Mendelian randomization (the exclusion restriction) can always be contested. Methods: We build upon and synthesize recent advances in the literature on instrumental variables (IVs) estimation that test and relax the exclusion restriction. Our pleiotropy-robust Mendelian randomization (PRMR) method first estimates the degree of pleiotropy, and in turn corrects for it. If (i) a subsample exists for which the genetic variants do not affect the exposure; (ii) the selection into this subsample is not a joint consequence of the IV and the outcome; (iii) pleiotropic effects are homogeneous, PRMR obtains unbiased estimates of causal effects. Results: Simulations show that existing MR methods produce biased estimators for realistic forms of pleiotropy. Under the aforementioned assumptions, PRMR produces unbiased estimators. We illustrate the practical use of PRMR by estimating the causal effect of: (i) tobacco exposure on body mass index (BMI); (ii) prostate cancer on self-reported health; and (iii) educational attainment on BMI in the UK Biobank data. Conclusions: PRMR allows for instrumental variables that violate the exclusion restriction due to pleiotropy, and it corrects for pleiotropy in the estimation of the causal effect. If the degree of pleiotropy is unknown, PRMR can still be used as a sensitivity analysis.

7.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 1107-1112, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28530673

RESUMO

Intelligence is associated with important economic and health-related life outcomes. Despite intelligence having substantial heritability (0.54) and a confirmed polygenic nature, initial genetic studies were mostly underpowered. Here we report a meta-analysis for intelligence of 78,308 individuals. We identify 336 associated SNPs (METAL P < 5 × 10-8) in 18 genomic loci, of which 15 are new. Around half of the SNPs are located inside a gene, implicating 22 genes, of which 11 are new findings. Gene-based analyses identified an additional 30 genes (MAGMA P < 2.73 × 10-6), of which all but one had not been implicated previously. We show that the identified genes are predominantly expressed in brain tissue, and pathway analysis indicates the involvement of genes regulating cell development (MAGMA competitive P = 3.5 × 10-6). Despite the well-known difference in twin-based heritability for intelligence in childhood (0.45) and adulthood (0.80), we show substantial genetic correlation (rg = 0.89, LD score regression P = 5.4 × 10-29). These findings provide new insight into the genetic architecture of intelligence.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Inteligência/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS Genet ; 13(1): e1006495, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28095416

RESUMO

Large-scale genome-wide association results are typically obtained from a fixed-effects meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from multiple studies spanning different regions and/or time periods. This approach averages the estimated effects of genetic variants across studies. In case genetic effects are heterogeneous across studies, the statistical power of a GWAS and the predictive accuracy of polygenic scores are attenuated, contributing to the so-called 'missing heritability'. Here, we describe the online Meta-GWAS Accuracy and Power (MetaGAP) calculator (available at www.devlaming.eu) which quantifies this attenuation based on a novel multi-study framework. By means of simulation studies, we show that under a wide range of genetic architectures, the statistical power and predictive accuracy provided by this calculator are accurate. We compare the predictions from the MetaGAP calculator with actual results obtained in the GWAS literature. Specifically, we use genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood to estimate the SNP heritability and cross-study genetic correlation of height, BMI, years of education, and self-rated health in three large samples. These estimates are used as input parameters for the MetaGAP calculator. Results from the calculator suggest that cross-study heterogeneity has led to attenuation of statistical power and predictive accuracy in recent large-scale GWAS efforts on these traits (e.g., for years of education, we estimate a relative loss of 51-62% in the number of genome-wide significant loci and a relative loss in polygenic score R2 of 36-38%). Hence, cross-study heterogeneity contributes to the missing heritability.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Software , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto
11.
Nature ; 533(7604): 539-42, 2016 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27225129

RESUMO

Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Escolaridade , Feto/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Cognição , Biologia Computacional , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Esquizofrenia/genética , Reino Unido
12.
Nat Genet ; 48(6): 624-33, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27089181

RESUMO

Very few genetic variants have been associated with depression and neuroticism, likely because of limitations on sample size in previous studies. Subjective well-being, a phenotype that is genetically correlated with both of these traits, has not yet been studied with genome-wide data. We conducted genome-wide association studies of three phenotypes: subjective well-being (n = 298,420), depressive symptoms (n = 161,460), and neuroticism (n = 170,911). We identify 3 variants associated with subjective well-being, 2 variants associated with depressive symptoms, and 11 variants associated with neuroticism, including 2 inversion polymorphisms. The two loci associated with depressive symptoms replicate in an independent depression sample. Joint analyses that exploit the high genetic correlations between the phenotypes (|ρ^| ≈ 0.8) strengthen the overall credibility of the findings and allow us to identify additional variants. Across our phenotypes, loci regulating expression in central nervous system and adrenal or pancreas tissues are strongly enriched for association.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/genética , Depressão/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Neuroticismo , Fenótipo
13.
Econ Hum Biol ; 21: 137-46, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26874780

RESUMO

Many studies in economics use quarter of birth as an instrument for identifying the causal effect of schooling on outcomes such as earnings and health. The key assumption in these studies is that people born in different quarters of the year do not differ systematically in their unobserved abilities. This study uses genetic data from the US Health and Retirement Study to analyze the validity of the quarter of birth instrument. We find some evidence that genetic factors influencing education are not randomly distributed over the year. However, these factors only slightly change the effect of quarter of birth on schooling.


Assuntos
Escolaridade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Tempo , Humanos , Renda , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Econ Hum Biol ; 21: 84-9, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26794274

RESUMO

The literature dealing with health and entrepreneurship has focused on developed countries. We use a sample of almost 5000 business owners and wage-workers from four Caribbean Basin countries to study this relationship. Analyses are performed using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor along with the Visual Analogue Scale of the EQ-5D-5L instrument as an overall health rating. The results show that business owners are healthier than wage-workers, which is in line with the findings from studies in developed countries. Furthermore, better health is associated with a lower likelihood for fear of business failure to be a deterrent to new business formation, a greater likelihood of self-belief in having the skills to run a business, and an increased recognition of start-up business opportunities among wage-workers. These positive associations between health and entrepreneurial perceptions provide new evidence about why less healthy individuals refrain from entrepreneurship. Finally, we find that the healthiest business owners run the companies with the highest growth expectations.


Assuntos
Contrato de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Nível de Saúde , Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Região do Caribe/epidemiologia , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Autoeficácia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Evol Econ ; 26(3): 519-550, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28163391

RESUMO

This cross-country study adopts a competing theories approach in which both a value perspective and a social capital perspective are used to understand the relation between religion and a country's business ownership rate. We distinguish among four dimensions of religion: belonging to a religious denomination, believing certain religious propositions, bonding to religious practices, and behaving in a religious manner. An empirical analysis of data from 30 OECD countries with multiple data points per country covering the period 1984-2010 suggests a positive relationship between religion and business ownership based on those dimensions that reflect the internal aspects of religiosity (i.e., believing and behaving). We do not observe a significant association for those dimensions that reflect more external aspects of religion (i.e., belonging and bonding). These results suggest that the social capital perspective prevails the value perspective, at least when internal aspects of religiosity are concerned. More generally, our study demonstrates the importance of distinguishing between different dimensions of religion when investigating the link between religion and entrepreneurship.

16.
Emotion ; 15(4): 531-7, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26214572

RESUMO

The discovery of genetic variants associated with psychological traits deepens our knowledge about causes and consequences of individual differences. In psychology, the standard approach to identify these variants is the "candidate gene study." In a candidate gene study, a limited set of genetic variants is selected based on their hypothesized or known biological function, and these variants are tested for association with the psychological trait of interest. The successful replication of published candidate gene studies, however, is alarmingly scarce. In this article we describe the challenges to successfully identifying genetic associations, and review the candidate gene studies published in Emotion. We conclude that the implementation of 4 methodological guidelines developed by the Behavior Genetics Association for evaluating candidate gene studies will help to increase the credibility of candidate gene study findings.


Assuntos
Emoções , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Estudos de Associação Genética/normas , Pesquisa Comportamental/métodos , Pesquisa Comportamental/normas , Pesquisa em Genética , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto
17.
Nature ; 523(7561): 459-462, 2015 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26131930

RESUMO

Homozygosity has long been associated with rare, often devastating, Mendelian disorders, and Darwin was one of the first to recognize that inbreeding reduces evolutionary fitness. However, the effect of the more distant parental relatedness that is common in modern human populations is less well understood. Genomic data now allow us to investigate the effects of homozygosity on traits of public health importance by observing contiguous homozygous segments (runs of homozygosity), which are inferred to be homozygous along their complete length. Given the low levels of genome-wide homozygosity prevalent in most human populations, information is required on very large numbers of people to provide sufficient power. Here we use runs of homozygosity to study 16 health-related quantitative traits in 354,224 individuals from 102 cohorts, and find statistically significant associations between summed runs of homozygosity and four complex traits: height, forced expiratory lung volume in one second, general cognitive ability and educational attainment (P < 1 × 10(-300), 2.1 × 10(-6), 2.5 × 10(-10) and 1.8 × 10(-10), respectively). In each case, increased homozygosity was associated with decreased trait value, equivalent to the offspring of first cousins being 1.2 cm shorter and having 10 months' less education. Similar effect sizes were found across four continental groups and populations with different degrees of genome-wide homozygosity, providing evidence that homozygosity, rather than confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been.


Assuntos
Estatura/genética , Cognição , Homozigoto , Evolução Biológica , Pressão Sanguínea/genética , LDL-Colesterol/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Humanos , Medidas de Volume Pulmonar , Masculino , Fenótipo
18.
Nat Neurosci ; 18(7): 953-5, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26053403

RESUMO

We tested whether polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder would predict creativity. Higher scores were associated with artistic society membership or creative profession in both Icelandic (P = 5.2 × 10(-6) and 3.8 × 10(-6) for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder scores, respectively) and replication cohorts (P = 0.0021 and 0.00086). This could not be accounted for by increased relatedness between creative individuals and those with psychoses, indicating that creativity and psychosis share genetic roots.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Criatividade , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Sistema de Registros , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Risco , Suécia/epidemiologia
19.
Econ Hum Biol ; 17: 59-74, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25756317

RESUMO

Taller individuals have on average a higher socio-economic status than shorter individuals. In countries where entrepreneurs have high social status, we may therefore expect that entrepreneurs are taller than wage workers. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (2002-2012), we find that a 1cm increase in an individual's height raises the probability of being self-employed (the most common proxy for entrepreneurship) versus paid employed by 0.15 percentage points. Within the self-employed, the probability of being an employer is increased by 0.10 percentage points as a result of a 1cm increase in height, whereas this increase is 0.05 percentage points for an own-account worker. This result corroborates the higher social status of employers compared to own-account workers. We find a height premium in earnings for self-employed and paid-employed individuals: an additional 1cm in height is associated with a 0.39% increase in hourly earnings for paid employees and a 0.52% increase for self-employed individuals. Our analysis reveals that approximately one third of the height premium in earnings is explained by differences in educational attainment. We also establish the existence of a height premium in terms of work and life satisfaction, which is more pronounced for paid employees than for self-employed individuals.


Assuntos
Estatura , Emprego/estatística & dados numéricos , Contrato de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Renda/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação Pessoal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Escolha da Profissão , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Sociol Sci ; 2(6): 82-105, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29051911

RESUMO

Parental education is the strongest measured predictor of offspring education, and thus many scholars see the parent-child correlation in educational attainment as an important measure of social mobility. But if social changes or policy interventions are going to have dynastic effects, we need to know what accounts for this intergenerational association, that is, whether it is primarily environmental or genetic in origin. Thus, to understand whether the estimated social influence of parental education on offspring education is biased owing to genetic inheritance (or moderated by it), we exploit the findings from a recent large genome-wide association study of educational attainment to construct a genetic score designed to predict educational attainment. Using data from two independent samples, we find that our genetic score significantly predicts years of schooling in both between-family and within-family analyses. We report three findings that should be of interest to scholars in the stratification and education fields. First, raw parent-child correlations in education may reflect one-sixth genetic transmission and five-sixths social inheritance. Second, conditional on a child's genetic score, a parental genetic score has no statistically significant relationship to the child's educational attainment. Third, the effects of offspring genotype do not seem to be moderated by measured sociodemographic variables at the parental level (but parent-child genetic interaction effects are significant). These results are consistent with the existence of two separate systems of ascription: genetic inheritance (a random lottery within families) and social inheritance (across-family ascription). We caution, however, that at the presently attainable levels of explanatory power, these results are preliminary and may change when better-powered genetic risk scores are developed.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA