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1.
Physiol Behav ; 211: 112636, 2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404539

RESUMO

Eating behaviors, especially the control of intake, are modulated by both internal and external factors. The objective of our study was to examine the effect of the interaction between eating motivation (as an internal factor) and food partition (as an external factor) on chocolate intake in children, with the hypothesis, based on the paradigm of motivated perception, that the effect of partition, i.e. reduced intake, is higher for children with a high level of eating motivation than for other children. A mixed model design was used in which 80 children aged 8-11 yrs. were offered, in their natural setting, two standardized afternoon snacks that included, among other things, 100 g of chocolate presented once as a whole (one bar) and once segmented (six pieces). The amount of chocolate eaten was weighed and compared between conditions (Bar vs Pieces). Children completed questionnaires in order to assess two of their eating motivational features (appetite arousal, chocolate specific appetite). Results indicated no effect of Partition: children ate the same quantity of chocolate in the two conditions (Bar or Pieces). Only chocolate specific appetite was associated with the amount of chocolate eaten, with children with a higher level eating more than other children (+13 g). Contrary to adults, children are not influenced by the "many is more effect". Methodological and developmental interpretations were suggested, linked to the size of the portion, the network of attention and the sensibility to the external cues underlying the control of intake.

2.
Appetite ; 138: 174-183, 2019 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926418

RESUMO

Young children have an innate ability to self-regulate food intake, driven primarily by hunger and satiety cues, but this ability tends to decrease during early childhood. The study aimed to first examine the development and initial validation of a self-report questionnaire suitable for French samples that assess two dimensions of children's self-regulation of eating (eating in the absence of hunger, poor eating compensation abilities) and potential related parental feeding practices. The second aim was to assess the links between children's self-regulation of eating and parental feeding practices as well as the links between children's self-regulation and children's body mass index. An initial 28-item questionnaire was developed. It included items related to the child's eating in the absence of hunger and eating compensation, which were selected mainly from interviews conducted with 45 mothers, and items related to parental feeding practices selected from existing tools. This questionnaire was then completed by 793 parents. A 21-item questionnaire was validated using a confirmatory factor analysis that showed satisfying fit indices. The structural equation modeling indicated that the use of food as reward was positively associated with eating in the absence of hunger, whereas parental awareness of children's cues was negatively associated with both children's eating in the absence of hunger and poor eating compensation ability. Interestingly, positive associations between eating in the absence of hunger and child's BMI, and between poor eating compensation ability and child's BMI were reported. The current study offered an initial validation of a new questionnaire that combines parental feeding practices and constructs involved in children's self-regulation of eating. Further studies are needed to disentangle these links and their directionality as well as the associations with children's body mass index.

3.
Soc Sci Med ; 228: 111-116, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909154

RESUMO

During childhood, the amount of food consumed, associated with adiposity and overweight risk, depends mainly on the amount of food that is served, especially by parents. This study focuses on the food amount served by parents ("Portion"), with two objectives: 1/to confirm (or not) its link with the food amount eaten ("Intake") by their child; 2/to identify some of its correlates, i.e., maternal education, and child's appetite arousal. Five hundred and three French children aged between 8 and 11 years and one of their parents completed different self-administrated questionnaires online. Results indicated that Portion and Intake were highly correlated, and that mothers with lower levels of education gave larger portions to their child, especially if he/she had a high appetite arousal. Moreover, these mothers, compared to others, were more concerned by taste preferences and less by health with regard to their child's diet. Such differences in taste and health considerations may contribute to underlie the educational inequality in food portion size.

4.
Appetite ; 123: 82-90, 2018 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29229411

RESUMO

The links between parental restriction of food intake, child's eating behaviour and child's adiposity are still unclear. Our aim was to validate a model suggesting an underlying mechanism for the impact of parental restriction on child's adiposity through a broad dimension of child's eating temperament entitled the appetite reactivity (including both appetite arousal and appetite persistence). Using an online questionnaire administered at home to children aged between 8 and 11 years (N = 414) with one or both of their parents, we measured: based on child's reports, the perceived maternal restriction of child's food intake, the appetite reactivity and both the desired and the eaten mean food portion sizes; based on parental reports, the mean food portion size given to the child and the child's BMI. Structural equation modelling was used to test a model linking measured variables. A well-fitting structural model (AGFI = 0.91; RMSEA = 0.07; SRMR = 0.08) was identified, showing that: (i) perceived maternal restriction of child's food intake negatively impacts child's appetite arousal and food portion size but positively influences child's appetite persistence; (ii) the two components of appetite reactivity have a positive effect on child's adiposity which is partly mediated by child's actual food portion size. Results suggest an explanation for the controversy surrounding the links between parental food restriction and child's adiposity: through its negative impact on child's appetite arousal and food portion size, parental control may protect against overweight, but because of its positive effect on appetite persistence, it can also be detrimental.


Assuntos
Sobrepeso/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Adiposidade , Apetite , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Tamanho da Porção/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
J Child Health Care ; 21(4): 404-414, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29110520

RESUMO

A qualitative study was conducted to identify how parents describe and attribute their toddler's food pickiness, a common pediatric problem during childhood. Parental strategies to respond to picky behaviors were also explored in this study. Focus groups were used with 38 parents of children aged 18-38 months. Results highlighted several consequences of child pickiness such as parental concerns about child's growth and health, conflicts at mealtime, and feelings of guilt. Parents attributed food pickiness mainly as a manifestation of opposition and assertiveness by their child. Some strategies known to be effective were applied by parents (such as repeated exposure, modeling, co-preparing meals, and using a flavor-based approach) but some strategies that are counterproductive were also highlighted (such as rewards for eating). Parents need to be better informed about food pickiness and the strategies that help to overcome it. Understanding parental beliefs may help pediatricians to offer appropriate guidance adapted to parental experiences and feelings.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , Adulto , Assertividade , Pré-Escolar , Conflito Familiar , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Appetite ; 110: 6-14, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27940311

RESUMO

Rothbart's model of temperament, defined as individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation, has a strong heuristic value with applications in a wide variety of children's outcomes. Our objective was to test Rothbart's model applied to children's food behaviours and BMI outcome through behavioural measures. Our hypotheses, according to Rothbart's model, were as follows: (i) self-regulation in eating modulates appetite reactivity; (ii) appetite reactivity increases the risk of excess BMI, whereas self-regulation in eating limits this risk. One hundred and four children aged between 7 and 12 years completed four behavioural tasks to assess scores for two components of appetite reactivity (i.e. appetite arousal and appetite persistence) and two components of self-regulation in eating (i.e. self-regulation in eating without hunger and self-regulation in eating speed). Their heights and weights were measured in order to calculate their BMI-for-age. T-tests and regression analysis were used to verify our hypotheses. None of the scores of self-regulation in eating was directly associated with BMI but we observed a significant impact of self-regulation in eating without hunger on appetite arousal (p-value = 0.04), together with a modest but significant association between appetite persistence and BMI (p-value = 0.02). We can thus conclude that our behavioural measures could be used for the determination of the child's eating temperament. Further studies are needed to investigate how to use these measures to improve the treatment of overweight in children.


Assuntos
Apetite , Índice de Massa Corporal , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Temperamento , Criança , Comportamento Infantil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Fome , Masculino
7.
Infant Behav Dev ; 43: 5-12, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27043272

RESUMO

The aim of our study is to evaluate the validity of the "Caregiving×Temperament Paradigm" in the food domain. In this study, two prototypes of caregiving control have been contrasted: Harsh (forceful measures to curve the child's behavior) versus Gentle control (supportive measures to direct the child's behavior). In food domain, the most effective control to help a child to overcome initial dislike is repeated exposure. Our first objective was to test whether the repeated exposure displayed in a gentle context has a more benefical effect on dislike shifting than the one displayed in a harsh context. Our second objective was to assess whether this effect was moderated by a temperamental characteristic (child's inhibitory control). A randomized experimental protocol was used in day care-centers, involving 98 children aged 21-41 months. Children were asked to consume an initially rejected target food on five occasions either with a Gentle or a Harsh instruction. Children's dislike for the target food was assessed via intake before and after the familiarization phase. Inhibitory control level was measured in 78 of these children using validated questionnaire. Four groups were created: Instructions (Gentle vs Harsh)×Inhibitory control (Lower vs Higher). After the familiarization phase, the consumption of the target food increased in all groups, but with a higher increase in children with high Inhibitory control with Gentle instruction, than for children with low Inhibitory control with Harsh instruction, the two other groups being in between. Our data fit a model of cumulative effects, and show that both gentle control strategies and high inhibitory control in children contribute to regulate disgusts experienced in some feeding contexts.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Cuidado da Criança/métodos , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Inibição Psicológica , Temperamento , Cuidadores/psicologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 13: 20, 2016 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26876058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying the determinants of child's liking for different foods may help to prevent future choices of unhealthy food. OBJECTIVE: To study early-life food-related characteristics associated with child's liking for different foods at 5y with a longitudinal study. DESIGN: 1142 5y- old children completed a liking test for "fruit and vegetables", "meat, fish and eggs", desserts and cheese. Data related to maternal food intake before pregnancy, infant feeding during the first year of life, maternal feeding practices at 2y, child's food intake at 3y, and child's food neophobia from 1 to 4y were collected prospectively from the mother. The associations between these factors and child's liking for each category of foods were analyzed using structural equation modelling. RESULTS: High food neophobia at 4 y was related to lower child's liking for all food groups. Maternal feeding practices at 2y were associated with liking for dessert: negatively for the practices allowing child to control his/her own food intake, positively for restriction of child's food intake for weight reasons. Moreover, child's food intake at 3y was positively associated with child's liking for "fruit and vegetables" as well as for cheese. Finally, adherence to the infant feeding pattern "long breastfeeding, later introduction of main meal components and use of home-made products" was positively associated with child's liking for meat/fish/eggs. CONCLUSIONS: For all food groups, food neophobia was a common determinant of child's liking for food at 5y, whereas other factors were associated with food liking for specific food groups.


Assuntos
Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Preferências Alimentares , Relações Mãe-Filho , Personalidade , Adulto , Animais , Peso Corporal , Aleitamento Materno , Pré-Escolar , Comportamento de Escolha , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães , Poder Familiar , Transtornos Fóbicos , Gravidez , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Appetite ; 95: 303-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26208908

RESUMO

Previous research has identified relationships between chemosensory reactivity and food neophobia in children. However, most studies have investigated this relationship using declarative data and without separately analysing smell and taste reactivity. Our first objective was to assess the relationships between smell and taste differential reactivity in toddlers (i.e. reactivity towards several stimuli), using experimental behavioural measurements. The second objective was to determine the relationships between smell (or taste) differential reactivity and food neophobia in toddlers, with the hypothesis that the more responsive a toddler was across food odours or tastes, the more neophobic s/he would be. An additional objective was to determine whether the potential relationships between smell (or taste) differential reactivity and food neophobia differ according to gender. One hundred and twenty-three toddlers aged from 20 to 22 months from the Opaline birth cohort (Observatory of Food Preferences in Infants and Children) were involved. A questionnaire was used to assess child's food neophobia. Toddlers' differential reactivity for smell (and for taste) was defined as the variability of behavioural responses over 8 odorants, and over the five basic tastes. Smell and taste differential reactivities were not correlated. Food neophobia scores were modestly but significantly positively correlated with smell differential reactivity but not with taste differential reactivity. When gender was considered, smell reactivity and neophobia were correlated only among boys. This indicates the need to study smell and taste reactivity separately to determine their associations with eating behaviours. This suggests that the rejection of novel foods in neophobic boys could be partly due to food odour. This finding is new and clearly requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares , Comportamento do Lactente , Odorantes , Percepção Olfatória , Olfato , Percepção Gustatória , Paladar , Ingestão de Alimentos , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Alimentos , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento do Lactente/fisiologia , Comportamento do Lactente/psicologia , Masculino , Transtornos Fóbicos , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
J Acad Nutr Diet ; 112(10): 1578-602, 1602.e1-8, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23017568

RESUMO

We reviewed tools developed to measure parental feeding practices and eating behavior and food intake or preferences of children aged 0 to 5 years. Two electronic literature databases (Medline and Psycinfo) were used to search for both observational and experimental studies in human beings. The articles selected for review were those presenting tools with data on internal consistency and/or test-retest reliability and/or construct validity. A total of 3,445 articles were retrieved, and further searching of reference lists and contact with experts produced an additional 18 articles. We identified three tools on the qualitative dimension of children's eating behavior, two tools on food intake or preferences, and one tool on parental feeding practices with rigorous testing of internal consistency, construct validity, and test-retest reliability. All other tools presented in this review need further evaluation of their validity or reliability. Because major gaps exist, we highlight the need for more tools on parental attention to children's hunger and satiety cues, and the need to evaluate the degree of control allowed to children younger than age 2 years in feeding events. Food avoidance (ie, behaviors or strategies to take away and to reject food) and food approach (ie, attractiveness for food stimuli) have not been assessed in children aged 12 to 24 months. Food preference tests based on sensory aspects rather than nutritional quality may be worth investigating. We identified a need for further evaluation of quality, especially test-retest reliability and construct validity, for most tools developed for use in studying children aged 0 to 5 years.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Avaliação Nutricional , Pais/psicologia , Apetite/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/fisiologia , Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Relações Pais-Filho , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas
11.
Appetite ; 58(2): 629-37, 2012 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22245135

RESUMO

The main objectives of the present study were to validate measures of young children's eating difficulties and maternal feeding practices in a French sample, as well as to assess the links between these practices and children's eating difficulties. Mothers (n=502) of French children aged 20-36 months completed four questionnaires that were validated using a Structural Equation Modelling approach. Links between children and maternal components were investigated using a PLS regression. The Children's Eating Difficulties Questionnaire yielded a 4-dimension solution: Neophobia, Pickiness, Low Appetite and Low Enjoyment in food. The Feeding Style Questionnaire assessed three dimensions: Authoritarian, Authoritative and Permissive Styles. The Feeding Strategy Questionnaire, designed to evaluate strategies used by mothers to make their child taste rejected foods, resulted in four factors: Coercion, Explanation, Contingency and Preference. The Questionnaire relating to Parental Motivations when buying food for children presented a 6-dimension solution: Convenience, Weight-control, Natural, Health-concern, Preference and Price. The factors associated positively with the four dimensions of the Children's Eating Difficulties Questionnaire were on the one hand Permissive Style and Practices to fulfil child's desires, and on the other hand Authoritarian Style, Contingent and Coercive Practices aimed at forcing children to taste rejected foods.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Comportamento Materno/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Apetite , Autoritarismo , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , França , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Motivação
12.
Appetite ; 57(1): 161-6, 2011 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21565236

RESUMO

About 18% of 6-11-year-old French children are overweight, of whom 3.3% are obese. Parental feeding practices, especially restriction and pressure-to-eat, seem to promote overeating in children. Since no tool was available for the perception of parental feeding practices of French children, our aim was to validate a French version of the Kids'Child Feeding Questionnaire (KCFQ, Carper, Orlet Fischer, & Birch, 2000), and to determine the relationship between KCFQ's dimensions and children's standardised body mass index (BMI z-scores). The questionnaire was completed by 240 normal-weighted or overweight children between the age of 9 and 11. The validation was based on a confirmatory factor analysis. The internal consistency of factors was confirmed using Cronbach's coefficients. After deleting some items (3 for the pressure-to-eat subscale and 3 for the restriction subscale), the two-factor model (pressure-to-eat, restriction) provided an acceptable fit (χ² (34)=64; RMSEA=.06; CFI=0.93; NNFI=.90), and satisfactory internal consistency. Children's perception of restriction was significantly and positively correlated with BMI z-scores (r=36, p<.001), whereas their perception of pressure-to-eat was not significantly associated with BMI z-scores (r=-.09, p=.24). This scale appears to be a sound tool for highlighting children's perceptions of parental feeding practices, and their links to weight status.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Idioma , Masculino , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Análise de Regressão
13.
Appetite ; 50(2-3): 408-14, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18023918

RESUMO

The study was designed to develop and validate a self-report questionnaire on food neophobia in French children. We evaluated food neophobia in a specific cultural context, examining an age group that has hardly been studied (5- to 8-year-olds). The questionnaire items were based on methods known for changing neophobic behavior (imitation, information, flavor principle and external stimulation) in order to diversify food presentation situations. In addition, we used colored pictures of food for seven items. Thirteen items that referred to acceptance of unfamiliar food were selected out of 25 items tested in an earlier stage. Six hundred and three children filled out the food neophobia questionnaire and a food task used to check its predictive validity was given to 503 of them. A factor analysis emphasized the one-dimensional structure of the questionnaire. Results showed satisfactory internal consistency and good test-retest reliability. The children's choices and their willingness to try new types of food were significantly correlated with the questionnaire scores. Food neophobia conceived as a personality trait was discussed.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Autorrevelação , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Revelação da Verdade , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Características Culturais , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , França , Humanos , Masculino , Psicologia da Criança , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
14.
Appetite ; 50(2-3): 302-7, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17904687

RESUMO

The relationship between taste acuity and food neophobia, food familiarity and liking has been studied in the context of a residential weight reduction session (WRS; mean duration: 10 months) in 39 obese adolescents. Taste acuity was assessed using recognition thresholds for sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride and 6-n propylthiouracil (PROP) and supra-threshold perceived intensities for sucrose, sodium chloride and PROP. Food neophobia was assessed by using the food neophobia scale at the beginning and at the end of the WRS. At these time points we used also a food familiarity and liking questionnaire to assess changes in food familiarity and likes or dislikes for different food categories. Taste acuity appeared to mediate behavioural food-related changes during the WRS. High taste acuity was associated with limited reductions in food neophobia; less sensitive subjects showed greater increases in the acceptability of healthy foods, especially fruits and vegetables. Therefore, taste perception (and particularly PROP perception) appears to be a predictor of the magnitude of food-related behavioural change achieved during a WRS.


Assuntos
Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Obesidade/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Limiar Gustativo/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente/fisiologia , Criança , Ácido Cítrico/administração & dosagem , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Percepção , Cloreto de Sódio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Uracila/administração & dosagem , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Perda de Peso
15.
Appetite ; 46(2): 207-14, 2006 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16499998

RESUMO

Previous studies in humans have shown that short to middle-term pre-exposure to multiple foods can reduce the negative response to novel foods (neophobia). In order to explore the effects of a long-term exposure to varied foods on food neophobia, we studied a population of obese adolescents observed in a longitudinal protocol in which the multiple food experiences are induced by a residential weight reduction program (WRP) that encourages the consumption of a wide variety of foods. Seventy-two massively obese adolescents (22 boys) filled the food neophobia scale (FNS, [Pliner, P., & Hobden, K. (1992). Development of a scale to measure the trait of food neophobia in humans. Appetite 19, 105-120]) and an ad hoc food familiarity and liking questionnaire at the beginning and at the end of the program (mean duration: 8.9 months). Their scores were compared to those of a control group of 51 adolescents (14 boys) tested within a similar period. FNS results show a decrease of food neophobia, without significant difference between the control group and the WRP subjects, although only WRP have encountered new foods experiences as attested by the familiarity and liking results. Methodological considerations, concerning the characteristics of the participants, the nature of the multiple food exposure and the food neophobia measurements, will be proposed to explain differences among studies.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição do Adolescente , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Obesidade Mórbida/dietoterapia , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Adolescente , Análise de Variância , Criança , Feminino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Perda de Peso
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