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Nat Commun ; 10(1): 952, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862827


Tools for noninvasively modulating neural signaling in peripheral organs will advance the study of nerves and their effect on homeostasis and disease. Herein, we demonstrate a noninvasive method to modulate specific signaling pathways within organs using ultrasound (U/S). U/S is first applied to spleen to modulate the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAP), and US stimulation is shown to reduce cytokine response to endotoxin to the same levels as implant-based vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). Next, hepatic U/S stimulation is shown to modulate pathways that regulate blood glucose and is as effective as VNS in suppressing the hyperglycemic effect of endotoxin exposure. This response to hepatic U/S is only found when targeting specific sub-organ locations known to contain glucose sensory neurons, and both molecular (i.e. neurotransmitter concentration and cFOS expression) and neuroimaging results indicate US induced signaling to metabolism-related hypothalamic sub-nuclei. These data demonstrate that U/S stimulation within organs provides a new method for site-selective neuromodulation to regulate specific physiological functions.

Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Neuroimunomodulação/fisiologia , Terapia por Ultrassom/métodos , Animais , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/inervação , Fígado/fisiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Nus , Vias Neurais/imunologia , Especificidade de Órgãos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Baço/imunologia , Baço/inervação , Baço/fisiologia , Estimulação do Nervo Vago
Rev Sci Instrum ; 83(6): 065105, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22755660


Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities made of high purity niobium (Nb) are the building blocks of many modern particle accelerators. The fabrication process includes several cycles of chemical and heat treatment at low (∼120 °C) and high (∼800 °C) temperatures. In this contribution, we describe the design and performance of an ultra-high-vacuum furnace which uses an induction heating system to heat treat SRF cavities. Cavities are heated by radiation from the Nb susceptor. By using an all-niobium hot zone, contamination of the Nb cavity by foreign elements during heat treatment is minimized and allows avoiding subsequent chemical etching. The furnace was operated up to 1400 °C with a maximum pressure of ∼1 × 10(-5) Torr and the maximum achievable temperature is estimated to be higher than 2000 °C. Initial results on the performance of a single cell 1.5 GHz cavity made of ingot Nb heat treated at 1200 °C using this new induction furnace and without subsequent chemical etching showed a reduction of the RF losses by a factor of ∼2 compared to cavities made of fine-grain Nb which underwent standard chemical and heat treatments.

Contemp Nurse ; 37(1): 21-30, 2010 Dec-2011 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21591823


The challenge for the future is to embrace a new partnership aimed at closing the gap between Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians on life expectancy, educational achievement and employment opportunities. Significant improvements in contemporary Indigenous health care can be achieved through culturally safe health education programs for Indigenous students. However, while participation rates of Australian Indigenous students in the higher education sector are increasing, attrition rates are markedly higher than those of the general student population. This paper focuses on a unique degree program that is offered exclusively to Indigenous students in the field of mental health in the School of Nursing, Midwifery and Indigenous Health, Charles Sturt University. This qualitative exploratory study aimed to identify strategies that were especially helpful in sustaining students in the program and to identify and address barriers to the retention of students, to empower students to better prepare for the university environment and to inform academics within the course about areas that could be improved to provide a more culturally safe learning environment. The first stage of the study utilised focus group interviews with 36 Indigenous students across all three years of the program. The findings of the study addressing the issues of culturally appropriate pedagogy, curricula and cultural safety in the mental health degree program are discussed.

Competência Cultural , Educação em Saúde/organização & administração , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Humanos , Aprendizagem