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1.
Chem Sci ; 11(29): 7599-7608, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033610

RESUMO

The development of purely organic materials showing multicolor fluorescent and phosphorescent behaviour represents a formidable challenge in view of practical applications. Herein the rich photophysical behaviour of 3-(pyridin-2-yl)triimidazotriazine (TT-Py) organic molecule, comprising excitation-dependent fluorescence and phosphorescence under ambient conditions in both blended films and the crystalline phase, is investigated by means of steady state, time resolved and ultrafast spectroscopies and interpreted on the basis of X-ray diffraction studies and DFT/TDDFT calculations. In particular, by proper excitation wavelength, dual fluorescence and dual phosphorescence of molecular origin can be observed together with low energy phosphorescences resulting from aggregate species. It is demonstrated that the multiple emission properties originate from the copresence, in the investigated system, of an extended polycyclic nitrogen-rich moiety (TT), strongly rigidified by π-π stacking interactions and short C-H···N hydrogen bonds, and a fragment (Py) having partial conformational freedom.

2.
Inorg Chem ; 59(11): 7561-7570, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412749

RESUMO

In this work, we have prepared a series of A4 ZnII porphyrins, carrying in the ß-pyrrolic-position one or two π-delocalized ethynylphenyl moieties with a -NO2 acceptor or a -NMe2 donor pendant, and measured their second-order NLO response in CHCl3 solution at 1907 nm via the electric-field-induced second harmonic generation (EFISH) technique. For some of these compounds, we have recorded an unexpected sign and/or absolute value of µß1907. Since their sterically hindered A4 structure should ensure the lack of significant aggregation processes in solution, we explain such anomalous EFISH results by invoking a non-negligible contribution of the electronic cubic term γ(-2ω; ω, ω, 0) to γEFISH, as supported by a qualitative evaluation of the third-order response through the measure of the cubic hyperpolarizability (γTHG) and by computational evidence.

3.
Dalton Trans ; 49(6): 1854-1863, 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967141

RESUMO

New Y-shaped ferrocene conjugated imidazole chromophores were prepared and fully characterized. The Y-shaped structure was confirmed by the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. The chromophores show interesting second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties in solution, as determined by the Electric-Field Induced Second Harmonic generation (EFISH) technique. Remarkably, the trifluoro substituted compound 3 is characterized by a high µßEFISH value and has good potential as a molecular building block for composite films with Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) properties. For all compounds, the dipole moments and frontier orbital energies were calculated by the Density Functional Theoretical method.

4.
Molecules ; 24(14)2019 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337009

RESUMO

Organic room temperature persistent luminescence is a fascinating but still largely unexplored phenomenon. Cyclic-triimidazole and its halogenated (Br, I) derivatives have recently revealed as intriguing phosphors characterized by multifaceted emissive behavior including room temperature ultralong phosphorescence (RTUP) associated with the presence of H-aggregates in their crystal structure. Here, we move towards a multicomponent system by incorporating a fluoropyridinic fragment on the cyclic-triimidazole scaffold. Such chromophore enhances the molecular properties resulting in a high photoluminescence quantum yield (PL QY) in solution but preserves the solid-state RTUP. By means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, theoretical calculations, steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopy on solutions, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) blends and crystals, the nature of the different radiative deactivation channels of the compound has been disclosed. In particular, the molecular fluorescence and phosphorescence, this latter observed in frozen solution and in PMMA blends, are associated to deactivation from S1 and T1 respectively, while the low energy RTUP, observed only for crystals, is interpreted as originated from H aggregates.


Assuntos
Fluorescência , Luminescência , Temperatura , Triazinas/química , Teoria da Densidade Funcional , Análise Espectral
5.
Dalton Trans ; 48(30): 11217-11234, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232401

RESUMO

New push-pull (A-D) nickel(ii) compounds of general formula [Ni(5-A-5'-D-saltn)] (3a-3l) with unsymmetrically-substituted N2O2 tetradentate Schiff base ligands are reported here. The ligands 5-A-5'-D-saltn2- (H2saltn = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)diaminopropane) possess differently-substituted salicylaldehyde (A/Dsal) moieties condensed to 1,3-diaminopropane (tn), and carry either an electron acceptor (A = H, Br, or NO2) or donor (D = H, Me, or OMe) group in the para position with respect to the coordinated phenoxido oxygen atoms. These compounds could be obtained by template synthesis involving derivatives [Ni(Gsal)2(H2O)2], 1a-e (G = NO2, Br, H, Me and OMe, respectively) and [Ni(GL)2], 2a-d (GL- = (E)-2-((3-aminopropylimino)methyl)-4-G-phenolate, G = NO2, Br, H and Me, respectively). Scrambling of the ligands and condensation to compounds 3 was suitably achieved by refluxing compounds 1 and 2 that carry the G groups suitable for the desired final A-D combination. Dinuclear intermediates [Ni2(µ-GL)2(G'sal)2] (4a,b,e,f,g) were also detected and isolated. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction structures of [Ni(5'-OMe-saltn)]·CHCl3 (3c·CHCl3), [Ni(5-Br-5'-OMe-saltn)]·EtOH (3g·EtOH) and [Ni(5-NO2-saltn)] (3j) show different degrees of distortion around the central core, leading to saddle-like (3c), planar (3g) and step-like (3j) molecular conformations. DFT geometrical optimization of the compounds showed that, for isolated molecules, the saddle-like conformation is slightly more stable with respect to the other conformations. UV-visible absorption spectra showed structured absorption profiles at about 320-440 nm, whose intensity was amplified by the presence of the nitro group, and this was assigned to a convolution of one metal-to-ligand charge transfer and two intra-ligand charge transfer transitions by TDDFT computations. Surprisingly, UV-visible spectra of the derivatives with Br were comparable to the derivatives with Me, suggesting that in this case the behaviour of the halogen was as a weak electron donor group. The experimental investigation (through electric-field-induced second-harmonic and solvatochromic measurements) of the second-order NLO responses of compounds 3, in conjunction with the theoretical calculations, revealed that the observed NLO efficiency is determined by the combined effect of two almost orthogonal charge transfer directions within the molecules, one along the axis approximately bisecting the donor and the accepting moieties and the other along the A-D axis.

6.
Chem Asian J ; 14(6): 853-858, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30600907

RESUMO

Four coordination compounds [Zn3 (CH3 COO)6 (H2 O)2 ](TT)2 [Cd(H2 O)6 ](ClO4 )2 (TT)2 , [Cd(H2 O)6 ](BF4 )2 (TT)2 , [Zn(H2 O)6 ](BF4 )2 (TT)2 (1-4) accommodating the crystallization induced emissive triimidazo[1,2-a:1',2'-c:1'',2''-e][1,3,5]triazine (TT) as a guest in their crystal lattice are isolated and fully photophysically and structurally characterized. Their emission properties are compared with those of afterglow TT and interpreted taking into account the heavy atom effect and crystal packing similarities and differences. In the case of 1, due to the closeness of the TT H-aggregates arrangement with that of the phosphor's pure phase, the observed intensification of the phosphorescent emission at the expense of the prompt one is attributed to the extrinsic heavy atom effect of Zn. In 2 and 3, the heavier Cd atom is responsible for a decrease in the lifetimes of the afterglow emission, despite the presence of tightly overlapped H-dimers in the crystal structure. Finally, for 4, isostructural with 3, the Zn atom reveals in RTUP lifetime comparable with that of 1.

7.
Chemistry ; 25(10): 2452-2456, 2019 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561845

RESUMO

Considering that heavy halogen atoms can be used to tune the emissive properties of organic luminogens, the understanding of their role in photophysics is fundamental for materials engineering. Here, the extrinsic and intrinsic heavy-atom effects on the photophysics of organic crystals were separately evaluated by comparing cyclic triimidazole (TT) with its monoiodo derivative (TTI) and its co-crystal with diiodotetrafluorobenzene (TTCo). Crystals of TT showed room-temperature ultralong phosphorescence (RTUP) originated from H-aggregation. TTI and TTCo displayed two additional long-lived components, the origin of which is elucidated through single-crystal X-ray and DFT/TDDFT studies. The results highlight the different effects of the I atom on the three phosphorescent emissions. Intrinsic heavy-atom effects play a major role on molecular phosphorescence, which is displayed at room temperature only for TTI. The H-aggregate RTUP and the I⋅⋅⋅N XB-induced (XB=halogen bond) phosphorescence on the other side depend only on packing features.

8.
Chemistry ; 24(59): 15801-15805, 2018 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30161274

RESUMO

Twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) chromophores exhibit extraordinary hyperpolarizabilities, ß, and are therefore promising for electro-optic technologies. Nevertheless, centrosymmetric aggregate formation severely diminishes ß in concentrated solutions or in polymer matrices. Herein, the remarkable effects of organic salts on the linear and nonlinear optical response of a high ß benzimidazolium-based TICT chromophore, B2TMC-2, are reported. Addition of Bu4 P+ Br- to B2TMC-2 solution in CHCl3 induces a halochromic blueshift, primarily reflecting interactions between Bu4 P+ Br- and the B2TMC-2 cationic portion. DC electric-field induced second-harmonic generation (EFISH) measurements on B2TMC-2+Bu4 P+ Br- solution reveal a large µß=-22,160×10-48  esu, unprecedented for any chromophore with such a broad optical transparency window. Moreover, Bu4 P+ Br- is shown to suppress B2TMC-2 aggregation, thereby preserving high µß in concentrated solutions. This phenomenon should be applicable to many other NLO chromophores.

9.
Dalton Trans ; 47(25): 8292-8300, 2018 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892764

RESUMO

The synthesis and characterisation of six new cationic iridium(iii) complexes bearing either 4,4'-di-tert-butyl-2,2'-bipyridine (dtBubpy) or 5-NO2-1,10-phenanthroline along with two cyclometallated 2-phenylpyridine derivative ligands, decorated with triphenylamine groups either meta or para to the Ir-CC^N bond or para to the Ir-NC^N bond, are reported. The second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of all the compounds have been determined by the electric field induced second harmonic generation technique and show that the µßEFISH value can be tuned by the nature of the iridium coordination sphere. The dipole moment, µ, necessary to evaluate the quadratic hyperpolarizability ßEFISH, was theoretically determined. The linear optical properties of the complexes are also presented and rationalised by quantum-chemical calculations. One of the prepared iridium compounds was incorporated into a polystyrene film, affording the first example of a second-order NLO active polymeric film based on a cationic organometallic complex.

10.
J Am Chem Soc ; 140(28): 8746-8755, 2018 07 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909629

RESUMO

Twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) chromophores exhibit uniquely large second-order optical nonlinearities ( µß). However, their promise as electro-optic (E-O) materials is yet untapped, reflecting a strong tendency to aggregate in low-polarity media, leading to a dramatic fall in µß. Until now, TICT chromophores in deaggregating polar solvents suffered decreased response due to polarity-driven changes in electronic structure. Here we report a new series of benzimidazolium-based TICT chromophores with interaryl torsional angles in the range of 64-77°. The most twisted, B2TMC-2, exhibits a large µßvec = -26,000 × 10-48 esu (at 1907 nm) in dilute nonpolar CH2Cl2 solution, which is maintained in polar DMF ( µßvec= -20,370 × 10-48 esu) as measured by DC electric field-induced second harmonic generation (EFISH). Sterically enforced interaryl torsional angles are confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and solution phase Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) NMR, and spectroscopic characterization reveals a zwitterionic/aromatic ground state electronic structure associated with the high µß. We show that increasingly disrupted conjugation is correlated with increased µß even at intermediate twist angles. The excellent performance and reduced aggregation in polar solvents opens new avenues for bridging microscopic and macroscopic chromophore performance.

11.
Inorg Chem ; 57(12): 7051-7063, 2018 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29869490

RESUMO

We disclose a new family of photochromic cyclometalated platinum(II) complexes (PtDTE1 and PtDTE2), where a dithienylethene (DTE) unit is connected at the para-position of the central phenyl ring of (N^C^N) cyclometalated ligand, through two different linkages. Their syntheses are presented along with the X-ray characterizations of both the open and closed isomers of PtDTE1. The investigation of their photophysical properties is made, including absorption, photochromism, emission, and second-order nonlinear properties. We report a quantitative photoisomerization for both PtDTE1 and PtDTE2, irrespective of the nature of the connecting mode between the DTE unit and the platinum(II) moiety. The efficient photochromism allows a significant NLO photomodulation, both in solution and in thin films. In addition, we show that the photoluminescence of the PtDTE1 and PtDTE2 can be controlled by the open/closed isomerization of the DTE unit.

12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(51): 16302-16307, 2017 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29106768

RESUMO

The performance of solid luminogens depends on both their inherent electronic properties and their packing status. Intermolecular interactions have been exploited to achieve persistent room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) from organic molecules. However, the design of organic materials with bright RTP and the rationalization of the role of interchromophoric electronic coupling remain challenging tasks. Cyclic triimidazole has been shown to be a promising scaffold for such purposes owing to its crystallization-induced room-temperature ultralong phosphorescence (RTUP), which has been associated with H-aggregation. Herein, we report three triimidazole derivatives as significant examples of multifaceted emission. In particular, dual fluorescence, RTUP, and phosphorescence from the molecular and supramolecular units were observed. H-aggregation is responsible for the red RTUP, and Br substituents favor yellow molecular phosphorescence while halogen-bonded Br⋅⋅⋅Br tetrameric units are involved in the blue-green phosphorescence.

13.
Inorg Chem ; 56(11): 6438-6450, 2017 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28475347

RESUMO

A series of 5,15 push-pull meso-diarylzinc(II) porphyrinates, carrying one or two -COOH or -COOCH3 acceptor groups and a -OCH3 or a -N(CH3)2 donor group, show in N,N-dimethylformamide and CHCl3 solutions a negative and solvent-dependent second-order nonlinear-optical (NLO) response measured by the electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation (EFISH) technique, different from the structurally related zinc(II) porphyrinate carrying a -N(CH3)2 donor group and a -NO2 acceptor group, where a still solvent-dependent but positive EFISH second-order response was previously reported. Moreover, when a -N(CH3)2 donor group and a -COOH acceptor group are part of a sterically hindered 2,12 push-pull ß-pyrrolic-substituted tetraarylzinc(II) porphyrinate, the EFISH response is positive and solvent-independent. In order to rationalize these rather intriguing series of observations, EFISH measurements have been integrated by electronic absorption and IR spectroscopic investigations and by density functional theory (DFT) and coupled-perturbed DFT theoretical and 1H pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR investigations, which prompt that the significant concentration effects and the strong influence of the solvent nature on the NLO response are originated by a complex whole of different aggregation processes induced by the -COOH group.

14.
J Phys Chem Lett ; 8(8): 1894-1898, 2017 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28388077

RESUMO

Solid-state luminescent materials with long lifetimes are the subject of ever-growing interest from both a scientific and a technological point of view. However, when dealing with organic compounds, the achievement of highly efficient materials is limited by aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) phenomena on one side and by ultrafast deactivation of the excited states on the other. Here, we report on a simple organic molecule, namely, cyclic triimidazole (C9H6N6), 1, showing crystallization-induced emissive (CIE) behavior and, in particular, ultralong phosphorescence due to strong coupling in H-aggregated molecules. Our experimental data reveal that luminescence lifetimes up to 1 s, which are several orders of magnitude longer than those of conventional organic fluorophores, can be realized under ambient conditions, thus expanding the class of organic materials for phosphorescence applications.

15.
Inorg Chem ; 56(9): 5141-5151, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28418662

RESUMO

On the way to copper(I) iodide coordination polymers with specific luminescent properties, the in situ reduction of Cu(II) in the presence of KI and bidentate N-heteroatomic ligand, either pyrazine (pyz) or 4,4'-bipyridine (bpy), resulted in one two-dimensional and two three-dimensional new coordination networks. Starting from Cu(NO3)2·3H2O in the presence of pyz, successive precipitation of known yellow [(CuII)2(pyz)]n, new orange [CuII(pyz)]n, and new dark blue {[CuI(pyz)2]·I5}n polymeric solids was observed. Starting from the same salt in the presence of bpy resulted in the successive precipitation of known yellow [(CuII)2(bpy)]n and new brown {[CuII(NO3)(bpy)2]·I3·(dmf·H2O)}n coordination polymers. By using either Cu(CH3COO)2·H2O or Cu(BF4)2 as starting materials, both known forms, yellow [(CuII)2(bpy)]n and orange [CuII(bpy)]n, precipitated successively. The new solids were characterized by IR spectroscopy and X-ray analysis. [CuII(pyz)]n represents the missing member in the row of two-dimensional coordination networks with general formula [CuIX(pyz)]n (X = Cl, Br, I). Its steady state and time-resolved characterization together with DFT and TDDFT calculations revealed that the emission at room temperature is mainly delayed fluorescence originating from mixed singlet metal-to-ligand charge transfer and halide-to-ligand charge transfer states, while that at 77 K is phosphorescence, associated with the small singlet-triplet energy differences (ΔE = 70 meV).

16.
Dalton Trans ; 46(4): 1179-1185, 2017 Jan 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28054096

RESUMO

The synthesis and characterization of three 5-π-delocalized-donor-1,3-di(2-pyridyl)benzenes is reported along with that of their related cyclometallated platinum(ii) complexes and N,N-dimethylated iodide salts. The second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of all the compounds have been determined by the Electric Field Induced Second Harmonic generation technique, showing how the µßEFISH absolute value of 1,3-di(2-pyridyl)benzenes can be tuned by the nature of the substituent on position 5 of the central benzene ring, and greatly increased by cyclometallation to Pt or by N-methylation.

17.
Dalton Trans ; 45(30): 11939-43, 2016 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27402322

RESUMO

The first example of a Y-shaped ferrocene quinoxaline derivative with a surprisingly high and stable second harmonic generation (SHG) response in composite polymeric films is reported. The interesting quadratic hyperpolarizability values of different substituted Y-shaped chromophores are also investigated in solution by the EFISH technique.

18.
Dalton Trans ; 45(27): 11052-60, 2016 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27315336

RESUMO

This work reports on the design, synthesis and photo-physical properties of two ruthenium σ-alkynyl complexes. It is shown that, despite similar optical absorption features recorded in solution, the introduction of a benzaldehyde moiety leads to an improved non-linear optical (NLO) response as measured by Electric Field Induced Second Harmonic (EFISH) generation and Third Harmonic Generation (THG) at 1.907 µm, both related to the second order hyperpolarizability. These structure-property relationships are rationalized based on few state modelling. Complex is subsequently processed to afford composite films that demonstrate a χ(2) of 1.4 pm V(-1), quite remarkable given the ease of film processing implemented in this work.

19.
J Am Chem Soc ; 137(39): 12521-38, 2015 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26360110

RESUMO

The systematic synthesis, structural, optical spectroscopic, and second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) characterization of a series of donor-acceptor poly-arylene chromophores which have heretofore unachieved π-extension and substantial twisting from planarity, are reported: specifically, two-ring 2TTMC, dicyano(4-(3,5-dimethyl-1-(2-propylheptyl)pyridin-1-ium-4-yl)-3-methylphenyl)methanide; three-ring 3TTMC, dicyano(4'-(3,5-dimethyl-1-(2-propylheptyl)pyridin-1-ium-4-yl)-2,2',3',5',6'-pentamethyl[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)methanide; and four-ring 4TTMC, dicyano(4″-(3,5-dimethyl-1-(2-propylheptyl)pyridin-1-ium-4-yl)-2,2',3″,6,6'-pentamethyl[1,1':4',1″-terphenyl]-4-yl)methanide. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction, DFT-optimized geometries, and B3LYP/INDO-SOS analysis identify three key features underlying the very large NLO response: (1) For ring catenation of three or greater, sterically enforced π-system twists are only essential near the chromophore donor and acceptor sites to ensure large NLO responses. (2) For synthetic efficiency, deletion of one ortho-methyl group from o,o',o″,o‴-tetramethylbiaryl junctures, only slightly relaxes the biaryl twist angle from 89.6° to ∼80°. (3) Increased arylene catenation from two to three to four rings (2TTMC→ 3TTMC → 4TTMC) greatly enhances NLO response, zwitterionic charge localization, and thus the ground-state dipole moment, consistent with the contracted antiparallel solid-state π-π stacking distances of 8.665 → 7.883 → 7.361 Å, respectively. This supports zwitterionic ground states in these chromophores as do significant optical spectroscopic solvatochromic shifts, with aryl-aryl twisting turning on significant intra-subfragment absorption. Computed molecular hyperpolarizabilities (µß) approach an unprecedented 900,000 × 10(-48) esu, while estimated chromophore figures of merit, µß(vec)/M(w), approach 1500 × 10(-48) esu, 1.5 times larger than the highest known values for twisted chromophores and >33 times larger than that of planar donor-acceptor chromophores.

20.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 50(59): 7986-9, 2014 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24914760

RESUMO

The unexpectedly high quadratic hyperpolarizability values of simple Ru and Pt alkynyl complexes have been measured by the EFISH technique, and this prompted us to investigate their potential as molecular building blocks for composite films with second harmonic generation properties.

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