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1.
Nutrients ; 13(1)2020 Dec 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375712

RESUMO

Latin American (LA) women have been exposed to demographic and epidemiologic changes that have transformed their lifestyle, with increasing sedentary and unhealthy eating behaviors. We aimed to identify characteristics of LA women to inform public policies that would benefit these women and their future children. The Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples in eight Latin American countries (n = 9218) with a standardized protocol to investigate dietary intake, anthropometric variables, physical activity, and socioeconomic characteristics. Here we included the subsample of all 3254 women of childbearing age (15 to <45 years). The majority of ELANS women had a low socioeconomic status (53.5%), had a basic education level (56.4%), had a mostly sedentary lifestyle (61.1%), and were overweight or obese (58.7%). According to the logistic multiple regression model, living in Peru and Ecuador predicts twice the risk of being obese, and an increased neck circumference is associated with a 12-fold increased obesity risk. An increased obesity risk was also predicted by age <19 years (Relative Risk (RR) 19.8) and adequate consumption of vitamin D (RR 2.12) and iron (RR 1.3). In conclusion, the identification of these risk predictors of obesity among Latin American women may facilitate targeted prevention strategies focusing on high-risk groups to promote the long-term health of women and their children.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33207718

RESUMO

Chile is currently experiencing a progressive epidemiological transition towards chronic diseases. In this country, >50% of annual deaths are attributed to cardiovascular disease and cancer. Moreover, health surveys have shown high prevalence of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and elevated cardiovascular disease risk. In addition, mental health issues are also frequent among Chilean adults. On the other hand, the agri-food system contributes to 21-37% of greenhouse gases emissions worldwide. Overall, current health and food chain situation calls out for design and implementation of evidence-based feasible and effective nutritional interventions needed to promote physical and mental health along with addressing food sustainability in Chile. Nowadays, the Mediterranean diet is recognized as one of the healthiest dietary patterns based on observational and interventional studies linked to a wide variety of health outcomes. However, a Mediterranean lifestyle goes well beyond food intake: it includes promotion of psychosocial resources, community life as well as cultural traditions. Indeed, Mediterranean lifestyle is a true modus vivendi that integrally promotes physical, mental, and social well-being. In addition, the Mediterranean diet stands out for its environmental sustainability because it is characterized mainly as a plant-based dietary pattern with low carbon and water footprints. Remarkably, Central Chile has a Mediterranean-like setting with plant and animal food production and availability patterns comparable to those present in countries located around the Mediterranean Sea. Therefore, this article reviews how promotion of Mediterranean lifestyle adherence in Chile offers great potential for management of the ongoing epidemiological transition to chronic diseases as well to promote psychological well-being within a unique food system and dietary sustainability vision for this Latin American country.

3.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 125, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33004078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Characteristics of the neighborhood built environment are associated with physical activity (PA). However, few studies with representative samples have examined environmental correlates of domain-specific PA in Latin America. We examined the associations of the perceived neighborhood built environment with domain-specific PA in a large sample of adults from eight Latin American countries. METHODS: This study examined data from 8185 adults (aged 18-65 years) from eight Latin American countries. The Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Survey - Abbreviated (NEWS-A) scale was used to assess perceptions of land use mix-diversity, land use mix-access, street connectivity, walking/cycling facilities, aesthetics, safety from traffic, and safety from crime. Perceived proximity from home to public open spaces (metropolitan parks, playgrounds, public squares) and to shopping centers was also measured. Transport-related and leisure-time PA were assessed using the long form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Both logistic and linear regression models were estimated on pooled data. RESULTS: Perceptions of higher land use mix-access (OR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.22,1.61), the existence of many alternative routes in the neighbourhood (1.12; 1.04,1.20), slow speed of traffic (1.19; 1.03,1.35) and few drivers exceeding the speed limits (1.09; 1.03,1.15) were associated with greater odds of reporting at least 10 min/week of transport-related PA. Perceptions of higher levels of land use mix-diversity, better aesthetics and greater safety from crime, the presence of crosswalks and pedestrian signals, and greater proximity of shopping centers were associated with more min/week of transport-related PA. Perceptions of higher land use mix-diversity (1.12; 1.05,1.20), higher land use mix-access (1.27; 1.13,1.43), more walking/cycling facilities (1.18; 1.09,1.28), and better aesthetics (1.10; 1.02,1.18) were associated with greater odds of engaging in at least 10 min/week of leisure-time PA versus none. Perceptions of higher land use mix-diversity were associated with more min/week of leisure PA. CONCLUSIONS: Different perceived neighborhood built environment characteristics were associated with domain-specific PA among adults from Latin America countries. Interventions designed to modify perceptions of the neighbourhood built environment might influence initiation or maintenance of domain-specific PA. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials. Gov NCT02226627 . Retrospectively registered on August 27, 2014.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961771

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine the associations of the perceived neighborhood built environment with walking and cycling for transport in inhabitants from Latin American countries. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved 9218 participants (15-65 years) from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health, which included a nationally representative sample of eight countries. All participants completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Long Form for measure walking and cycling for transport and the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-Abbreviated. Furthermore, perceived proximity from home to public open spaces and shopping centers was assessed. RESULTS: Perceived land use mix-access (OR: 1.32; 95%CI: 1.16,1.50) and the existence of many alternative routes in the neighbourhood (1.09 1.01,1.17) were associated with higher odds of reporting any walking for transport (≥10 min/week). Perceived slow speed of traffic (1.88 1.82,1.93) and few drivers exceeding the speed limits (1.92; 1.86,1.98) were also related to higher odds of reporting any walking for transport. The odds of reporting any cycling for transport (≥10 min/week) were higher in participants perceiving more walking/cycling facilities (1.87 1.76,1.99), and better aesthetics (1.22 1.09,1.38). CONCLUSIONS: Dissimilar perceived neighborhood built environment characteristics were associated with walking and cycling for transport among inhabitants from Latin America.


Assuntos
Ambiente Construído , Caminhada , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Características de Residência , Transportes
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987637

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the association between active transportation and obesity indicators in adults from eight Latin American countries. METHODS: Data from the ELANS study, an observational multi-country study (n: 8336; 18-65 years), were used. Active transportation (walking and cycling) and leisure time physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version). The obesity indicators considered were: body mass index, and waist and neck circumference. RESULTS: In the total sample, the average time dedicated to active transportation was 24.3 min/day, with the highest amount of active transportation being Costa Rica (33.5 min/day), and the lowest being Venezuela (15.7 min/day). The countries with the highest proportion of active transportation were Ecuador (71.9%), and the lowest was Venezuela (40.5%). Results from linear regression analyses suggest that active transportation was significantly and independently associated with a lower body mass index (ß: -0.033; 95% CI: -0.064; -0.002), but not with waist circumference (ß: -0.037; 95% CI: -1.126; 0.390 and neck circumference (ß: -0.007; 95% CI: -0.269; 0.130). CONCLUSIONS: Active transportation is significantly associated with a lower body mass index. Governments should incentivize this type of transportation as it could help to reduce the obesity pandemic in Latin America.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756330

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic correlates of total and domain-specific sedentary behavior (SB). METHODS: Cross-sectional findings are based on 9218 participants (15-65 years) from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health. Data were collected between September 2014 and February 2015. Participants reported time spent in SB across specific domains. Sex, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic (SEL), and education level were used as sociodemographic indicators. RESULTS: Participants spent a total of 373.3 min/day engaged in total SB. Men, younger adults, other ethnicities, higher SEL and educational level presented higher total SB when compared with women, older adults, white/Caucasian, and low SEL and educational level. Men spent more time on the playing videogames (b: 32.8: 95% CI: 14.6;51.1) and riding in an automobile (40.5: 31.3; 49.8). Computer time, reading, socializing or listening to music was higher in younger participants (<30 years) compared with those ≥50 years in the total sample. Compared to the low SEL and educational level groups, middle (11.7: 5.7; 17.6) and higher (15.1: 5.3; 24.9) SEL groups as well as middle (9.8: 3.6; 15.9) and higher (16.6: 6.5; 26.8) education level groups reported more time spent reading. CONCLUSION: Socio-demographic characteristics are associated with SB patterns (total and specific) across Latin American countries.


Assuntos
Comportamento Sedentário , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Demografia , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635544

RESUMO

Dietary diversity, an important component of diet quality, is associated with an increased probability of adequate micronutrient intake. Women of childbearing age (WCA) are particularly vulnerable to micronutrient inadequacy. The Minimum Dietary Diversity for Women (MDD-W) has been used widely as a proxy measurement of micronutrient adequacy. This study aimed to assess the association between MDD-W and nutrients adequacy among WCA of eight Latin American countries. Nutrient intakes from 3704 WCA were analyzed with two 24-hour dietary recalls. Dietary diversity was calculated based on ten food groups with a cut-off point of intake ≥5 groups. The mean dietary diversity score was 4.72 points, and 57.7% of WCA achieved MDD-W. Vitamin D and E showed a mean Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR) of 0.03 and 0.38, respectively. WCA with a diverse diet (MDD-W > 5) reported a significantly higher intake of most micronutrients and healthy food groups with less consumption of red and processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages. MDD-W was significantly associated with the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) of 18 micronutrients evaluated. Nevertheless, even those women with a diverse diet fell short of meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) for vitamins D and E. MDD-W is an appropriate tool to evaluate micronutrients adequacy in WCA from Latin America, showing that women who achieved the MDD-W reported higher adequacy ratios for most micronutrients and an overall healthier diet.

8.
Nutrients ; 12(6)2020 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32485840

RESUMO

After enforcement of a new food labeling law in 2016, Chile exhibits a greater offer to reduced sugar products with addition of non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS). Many of these products are consumed by children, who are at greater risk of reaching the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of these food additives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intake levels of NNS in Chilean schoolchildren after the enactment of the aforementioned law. A total of 250 Chilean children 6-12 years old were surveyed. NNS intake was assessed through a food frequency questionnaire. All children evaluated consumed at least one NNS during the previous month. Sucralose had the highest consumption frequency reaching 99.2%, followed by acesulfame-K (92.8%), stevia (86.0%), and aspartame (85.2%). Aspartame showed the highest median intake, which came mainly from beverages (96%). No children exceeded the ADI of any NNS. Smaller children exhibited a higher body weight-adjusted intake of sucralose, acesulfame-K, stevia, and aspartame (p < 0.05). In Chile, a wide range of processed foods with NNSs is available and all schoolchildren evaluated consumed at least one product containing NNS. However, this consumption does not exceed defined ADIs for any of the six sweeteners authorized for food use in Chile.

9.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0232420, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32343753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most population-based studies from Latin America have used questionnaires to measure physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB). Low reliability and validity of the questionnaires has limited the capacity to examine associations between PA and health. The purpose of this study was to compare self-reported and accelerometer-measured PA and SB and their associations with body composition in Latin American countries. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (aged 15-65 years), collected from September 2014 to February 2015. PA and SB were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long version) and the Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer. Outcomes of interest included: body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and neck circumference (NC). We used the Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficient, Bland-Altman plots, and multilevel linear regression models. RESULTS: Mean moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by accelerometer and IPAQ were 34.4 min/day (95% CI: 33.4 to 35.4) and 45.6 min/day (95% CI: 43.2 to 48.1), respectively. For SB (accelerometer and IPAQ) the means were 573.1 (95% CI: 568.2 to 577.9) and 231.9 min/day (95% CI: 225.5 to 238.3). MVPA, measured by the accelerometer was negatively associated with BMI (ß = -1.95; 95% CI: -2.83 to -1.08), WC (ß = -5.04; 95% CI: -7.18 to -2.89) and NC (ß = -1.21; 95% CI: -1.79 to -0.63). The MVPA estimated through IPAQ was not significantly associated with any of the three outcome variables. SB, measured by the accelerometer, was positively associated with BMI (ß = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.08 to 0.44) and WC (ß = 0.48; 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.91). SB estimated through IPAQ was positively associated with NC only. CONCLUSIONS: Low correlation coefficients were observed for accelerometer-derived and IPAQ-reported estimates of PA and SB. Caution is advised when making comparisons between accelerometer-measured and self-reported PA and SB. Further, studies examining associations between movement and health should discuss the impact of PA and SB measurement methodology on the results obtained.


Assuntos
Acelerometria , Composição Corporal , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Sedentário , Autorrelato , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
10.
Rev. chil. cardiol ; 39(1): 24-33, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1115446

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Los ratones SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h que son alimentados con una dieta rica en grasas saturadas, desarrollan enfermedad coronaria aterosclerótica severa, complicaciones isquémicas e insuficiencia cardíaca, con alta mortalidad. Los estudios con este modelo se han enfocado fundamentalmente en la enfermedad coronaria y menos en el remodelado cardíaco. El OBJETIVO del trabajo ha sido caracterizar el remodelado miocárdico, evaluar la evolución temporal de la función ventricular izquierda y la sobrevida asociada a enfermedad cardíaca por ateromatosis. MÉTODO: Ratones homocigotos SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h fueron alimentados por 8 semanas con dieta aterogénica o dieta normal y se comparó la sobrevida en ambos grupos. A las 4 semanas se realizó un ecocardiograma bidimensional. En los ratones eutanasiados se evaluó en la pared cardíaca fibrosis miocárdica y tamaño de los cardiomiocitos por morfometría, apoptosis con técnica de TUNEL e infiltración por células inflamatorias mononucleares (ED1) por inmunohistoquímica. RESULTADOS: En el grupo que recibió dieta aterogénica la sobrevida se redujo en 46,7% (p < 0.001), debido a muerte súbita y a falla cardíaca progresiva. En este grupo, a las 4 semanas se observó dilatación de cavidades izquierdas y disminución de la fracción de eyección del ventrículo izquierdo en comparación con el grupo control (79,3 ± 1,3% vs 66 ± 3,7%, p<0,01). También se observó aumento de la masa cardíaca relativa de 2.1 veces (p<0,001) y del peso pulmonar relativo en 80% (p<0,001), sin cambios en las dimensiones de los cardiomiocitos. En el miocardio de los ratones que recibieron dieta aterogénica hubo un aumento de la fibrosis cardíaca de 7.9 veces (p < 0.01) y del número de cardiomiocitos apoptóticos en 55.9 veces (p < 0.01), junto a un aumento del número de células inflamatorias mononucleares ED1. CONCLUSIONES: En el modelo de falla cardíaca severa de etiología isquémica con alta mortalidad en el ratón homocigoto SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h sometido a una dieta aterogénica, con falla cardíaca izquierda por disfunción sistólica, el remodelado patológico del miocardio está dado fundamentalmente por apoptosis y fibrosis. También se observa un aumento discreto de macrófagos en la pared cardíaca. Es posible que el edema parietal también pueda ser un mecanismo de remodelado relevante en este modelo.


Abstract: SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h mice fed a high saturated fat diet develop severe coronary atheromatosis, and cardiac failure with a high mortality rate. Cardiac remodeling under these conditions has not been well studied. AIM: To evaluate the time course of left ventricular function, cardiac remodeling and survival associated to the administration of an atherogenic diet. METHOD: Homozygote SR-B1 KO/ApoER6 1h/h mice received an atherogenic diet for 8 weeks. Mice receiving a normal diet served as controls. Survival rate, myocardial fibrosis, cardiomyocyte size, apoptosis and infiltration by inflammatory or mononuclear cells were compared between groups. A TUNEL technique was used to evaluate apoptosis. RESULTS: A 46.7% survival reduction compared to controls was observed in the experimental group (p<0.01), due to left ventricular and atrial dilatation associated to a decrease in ejection fraction (79,3 ± 1,3% vs 66 ± 3,7%, p<0,01, respectively). Also, an increased cardiac weight, 2.6 times greater was observed in the experimental group, compared to controls. Mice receiving the atherogenic diet showed an 80% increased lung weight. There was no evident change in cardiomyocytes, but there was more (7.9 times) cardiac fibrosis (p<0.01) and 55.9 times more apoptotic cells. (p<0.01), along with a greater number of inflammatory cells and ED1 mononuclear cells. CONCLUSION: Mice receiving an atherogenic diet develop heart failure and reduced survival rate. This is associated with cardiac remodeling with underlying apoptosis an ventricular wall fibrosis. It is posible that wall edema might contribute to the observed cardiac remodeling.


Assuntos
Animais , Camundongos , Remodelação Ventricular , Dieta Aterogênica , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Hiperlipidemias/patologia , Isquemia/etiologia , Fibrose , Análise de Sobrevida , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Apoptose , Camundongos Knockout , Disfunção Ventricular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/patologia , Isquemia/fisiopatologia , Isquemia/mortalidade , Isquemia/patologia
11.
MethodsX ; 7: 100843, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32211304

RESUMO

Worldwide studies of physical activity and sedentary time have historically under-represented low- and middle-income countries due to the lack of surveillance data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods and procedures used for the assessment of physical activity and sedentary time in the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud; ELANS). ELANS is a multicentre, cross-sectional and surveillance study of a nationally representative sample from eight Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Two instruments were used to evaluate different domains and intensities of physical activity and sedentary time: self-reported data and a triaxial accelerometer (model GT3X+). ELANS will generate important self-reported and objective information for the Latin American populations, namely:•evidence on the distribution of physical activity and sedentary time across population subgroups (e.g. sex, age, socioeconomic- and educational level). These sets of information will increase the evidence base and can help to inform future intervention strategies in Latin America;•self-reported and objective information on physical activity and sedentary time.

12.
BMC Pediatr ; 20(1): 24, 2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964386

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although there is high prevalence of obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors among Latin American adolescents, there is limited evidence on dietary intake and physical activity (PA) patterns in this population. Therefore, we characterized anthropometry, dietary intake, PA and sitting time (ST) in adolescents aged 15-17 years from eight Latin American countries. METHODS: Six hundred seventy-one adolescents (41.4% girls) from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) were included. Nutritional status was classified by four BMI (kg/m2) categories. Waist circumference (WC) was categorized as above or below thresholds. Dietary intake was assessed through two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. PA and ST were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). We calculated overall and country-specific estimates by sex and tested for differences between boys and girls. RESULTS: Differences in the prevalence of overweightness (15.1 and 21.6%) and obesity (8.5 and 6.5%) between boys and girls, respectively, were statistically insignificant (p = 0.059). Average energy intake was 2289.7 kcal/day (95% CI: 2231-2350) for boys and 1904.2 kcal/day (95% CI: 1840-1963) for girls (p < 0.001). In relation to macronutrient intake for boys and girls, respectively, the average intake (expressed as percentage of total energy) was 15.0 and 14.9% for protein; 55.4 and 54.9% for carbohydrates; 14.1 and 14.5% for added sugar; 29.5 and 30.1% for total fat; and 9.6 and 9.9% for saturated fat (p > 0.05 for all outcomes). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of total energy (TE) saturated fat and added sugar (>10% of TE) between girls and boys (49.6% versus 44.8 and 81.7% versus 76.1%, respectively). Prevalence of physical inactivity was 19% in boys and 43.7% in girls (p < 0.001). Median levels of vigorous-intensity PA and total PA were significantly higher for boys than for girls (p < 0.05 for both outcomes); whereas levels of ST were similar (273.7 versus 220.0 min/day for boys and girls, respectively; p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight the high prevalence of poor dietary intake and physical inactivity in adolescents from Latin American countries. Therefore, effective and sustainable strategies and programmes are needed that promote healthier diets, regular PA and reduce ST among Latin American adolescents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials NCT02226627. Retrospectively registered on August 27, 2014.

13.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 20(5): 670-681, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603392

RESUMO

Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours (SB) are two independent risk factors for non-communicable diseases. However, there is a lack of objectively measured information on PA and SB in low- and middle-income countries. The aim of this study was to use objective data to characterise socio-demographic patterns of PA and SB in eight Latin American countries. 2732 participants (aged 15-65 years) from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) were included. PA and SB data were collected using accelerometers. Overall and country-specific average levels of time spent in PA and SB were compared by sex, age, socioeconomic and education level. Overall, the mean time spent in SB was 571.6 min/day, ranging from 553.8 min/day in Chile to 596.7 min/day in Peru. Average levels of light, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total PA were 311.1 min/day (95% CI: 307.7; 314.5), 34.9 min/day (95% CI: 34.0; 35.9) and 7531.2 MET-min/week (95% CI: 7450.4; 7611.9), respectively. MVPA and total PA were higher in men than women. The prevalence of physical inactivity was 40.6%, ranging from 26.9% (Chile) to 47% (Costa Rica and Venezuela). Women were more physically inactive than men (47.7% versus 33.0%). SB levels were highest among those with higher education; PA graded positively with socioeconomic level. Our findings can inform the planning of health policies and programmes designed to reduce levels of physical inactivity, as well as inform the local and cultural adaptation of these policies and programmes for implementation in Latin America. Highlights Worldwide studies of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviours (SB) have historically under-represented Latin American countries due to the lack of surveillance data. Across eight Latin American countries, the ELANS study collected data on PA and SB using an objective method (accelerometers) which we have analysed to quantify and characterise socio-demographic patterns. Over four-in-ten participants were physically inactive (40.6%); with a gender gap (47.7% women; 33.0% men); and striking differences between countries (47% Costa Rica and Venezuela; 26.9% Chile). In all countries, levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were lowest, and levels of SB were highest, among participants in the higher education groups. Our findings on the unequal distribution of PA and SB increases the evidence base and can help to inform future intervention strategies in Latin America.

14.
Biol Reprod ; 102(2): 348-361, 2020 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31423535

RESUMO

High density lipoproteins (HDL) take up cholesterol from peripheral tissues via ABC transporters and deliver it to the liver via scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-B1). HDL are the main lipoproteins present in follicular fluid (FF). They are thought to derive from plasma, but their origin is still controversial. SR-B1 knock-out (KO) mice have provided important evidence linking HDL metabolism and female fertility. These mice have cholesterol-rich circulating HDL and female infertility that can be restored by treating mice with the cholesterol-lowering drug probucol. Ovulated oocytes from SR-B1 KO females are dysfunctional and show excess cholesterol. The mechanisms explaining the contribution of FF HDL to oocyte cholesterol homeostasis are unknown. Here, using quantitation of filipin fluorescence we show that in SR-B1 KO ovaries, cholesterol excess is first observed in immature oocytes in antral follicles. By performing cross-transplant experiments between WT and apolipoprotein A-I deficient (ApoA-I KO) mice, which lack the main protein component of HDL, we provide evidence supporting the plasmatic origin of FF HDL. Also, we demonstrate that probucol treatment in SR-B1 KO females results in lowering of cholesterol content in their oocytes. Incubation of oocytes from SR-B1 KO mice with purified WT HDL reduces their cholesterol content, suggesting that HDL promote efflux of excess cholesterol from oocytes. In agreement with this hypothesis, we identified ABC transporters in oocytes and observed that ABCA1 KO oocytes have excess cholesterol and lower viability than WT oocytes.

15.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 147(11): 1365-1373, nov. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1094165

RESUMO

Background Despite aggressive treatment aimed at lowering LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels with statins, there is a high residual prevalence of cardiovascular diseases, which may depend on plasma cholesterol transported in other atherogenic lipoproteins. Aims To describe non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels in the Chilean population and their association with diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. To evaluate compliance with non-HDL-C therapeutic goals -according to individual cardiovascular risk- at different levels of triglycerides, in comparison with LDL-C goal achievement. Material and Methods: We analyzed data from 2,792 Chilean subjects aged ≥ 15 years who were included in the 2009-2010 National Health Survey and had valid data for blood lipids, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Results Forty five percent of subjects had high non-HDL-C levels. The proportion of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects with high non-HDL-C levels was 81 and 42%, respectively (p < 0.01). A significant discordance was observed in the achievement of therapeutic objectives when LDL-C or non-HDL-C levels were considered, particularly in presence of triglycerides ≥ 150 mg/dl. Namely, 8% of the population showed elevated levels of high non-HDL-C despite adequate LDL-C levels. Conclusions Evaluation and management of elevated non-HDL-C in patients with adequate levels of LDL-C seems worthwhile considering the discordance observed between these blood cholesterol fractions. This strategy may be effective to reduce the residual cardiovascular risk in the Chilean population.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Adulto Jovem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Fatores de Risco , Estudos de Coortes
16.
Nutrients ; 11(9)2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500172

RESUMO

A healthy dietary pattern and high quality nutrient intake reduce atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk. Red wine grape pomace (RWGP)-a rich natural source of dietary fiber and antioxidants-appears to be a potential functional food ingredient. The impact of a dietary supplementation with RWGP flour was evaluated in atherogenic diet-fed SR-B1 KO/ApoER61h/h mice, a model of lethal ischemic heart disease. SR-B1 KO/ApoER61h/h mice were fed with atherogenic (high fat, cholesterol, and cholic acid, HFC) diet supplemented with: (a) 20% chow (HFC-Control), (b) 20% RWGP flour (HFC-RWGP), or (c) 10% chow/10% oat fiber (HFC-Fiber); and survival time was evaluated. In addition, SR-B1 KO/ApoER61h/h mice were fed for 7 or 14 days with HFC-Control or HFC-RWGP diets and plasma lipid levels, inflammation, oxidative damage, and antioxidant activity were measured. Atherosclerosis and myocardial damage were assessed by histology and magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Supplementation with RWGP reduced premature death, changed TNF-α and IL-10 levels, and increased plasma antioxidant activity. Moreover, decreased atheromatous aortic and brachiocephalic plaque sizes and attenuated myocardial infarction and dysfunction were also observed. These results suggest that RWGP flour intake may be used as a non-pharmacological therapeutic approach, contributing to decreased progression of atherosclerosis, reduced coronary heart disease, and improved cardiovascular outcomes.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutas/química , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Miocárdio/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Vitis/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Doenças da Aorta/sangue , Doenças da Aorta/genética , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dieta Aterogênica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-10/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Isquemia Miocárdica/sangue , Isquemia Miocárdica/genética , Isquemia Miocárdica/patologia , Miocárdio/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/sangue , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Placa Aterosclerótica , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/deficiência , Receptores Depuradores Classe B/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
17.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311159

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess diet quality score (DQS), considering healthy and unhealthy foods and nutrients, and diet diversity score (DDS) as indicators of risk of noncommunicable diseases in eight Latin American countries, and to verify the possible differences considering country, sex, age, socioeconomic, and nutritional status. A multicenter household population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted with 9218 individuals (age range 15-65 years). Sociodemographic and anthropometric data were collected. Dietary intake was measured using two non-consecutive 24-h recalls and diet quality and diversity were assessed. In the whole sample, scores were observed from 63.0% ± 9.3% to total DQS, 65.0% ± 13.6% to healthy dietary items and 60.2% ± 13.6% to unhealthy items, and 5.6 ± 1.1 out of 9 points to DDS. Women presented lower DDS compared to men (5.5 ± 1.1 vs. 5.6 ± 1.1, p < 0.001). Healthy DQS was higher as the socio-economic level increased, and unhealthy DQS was the opposite (p < 0.05). Total DQS was significantly lower only at the low socio-economic level (p < 0.05). Chile and Venezuela showed the lowest healthy (62.2 ± 15.2 and 61.9 ± 11.7, p < 0.05) and total DQS (61.4 ± 10.3, 61.2 ± 8.7, p < 0.05). No effects were observed when considering the age and anthropometric measurements. Promoting consumption of a diverse and high-quality diet is an essential challenge to accomplish.


Assuntos
Dieta/normas , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Med Chil ; 147(4): 510-517, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344215

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The burnout syndrome affects more than half of students and professionals involved in healthcare worldwide and is characterized by emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and a low perception of self-efficacy. Several studies indicate that when students are burnt-out, clinical work, professionalism and ethical behavior, as well as empathy, are negatively affected, while the risk of academic attrition, depression and suicidal ideation tend to increase. At a national level, recent information shows that one out of every two medical students suffer burnout at the beginning of the clinical cycle, a situation that does not improve after finishing undergraduate medical training. There is no consensus on which are the most appropriate strategies to face the problem of burnout in students and health-care professionals. Some studies indicate that the experience of medical and health educators may be key to the design of effective strategies to address this problem. AIM: To identify the burnout risk and protection factors of students at different medical schools. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study -in which 34 expert health educators from eight Chilean medical schools and other health-related schools participated- we used a qualitative methodology based on the appreciative inquiry to explore the key elements associated with the occurrence of burnout, identify protective and risk factors, as well as discuss possible effective interventions to prevent it. RESULTS: There are personal, academic and contextual elements that act as protective or risk factors of burnout. In addition, the educators identified key elements to design organizational and curricular interventions to face the problem of burnout at a local level. CONCLUSIONS: Burnout is a serious problem in the formation of health care professionals. Teacher training aimed at promoting student'well-being must include the teaching of communication skills that consider both the generation gap and the profile of the professional medical schools intend to form.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/etiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Chile , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco , Faculdades de Medicina , Autocuidado
19.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 809, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity is a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of obesity. There are relatively few studies that explore the effect of accelerometer-determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on neck circumference (NC), most of them confined to single high-income countries. The present study investigated the association of accelerometer-determined MVPA with NC in adolescents and adults from eight Latin American countries, which are mostly upper-middle income countries. METHODS: The sample consisted of 2370 participants (47.8% male) from the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health, a multicenter cross-sectional nutrition and health surveillance study of a nationally representative sample from eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela). Times (min/day) in MVPA (defined as time accumulated at ≥1952 activity counts/min) was assessed by ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer over 7 days. NC for adolescent was categorized as abnormal if circumference was > 34.5 cm for boys and > 31.25 for girls, whereas for adults the cut-off points for abnormal were > 39 cm for men and > 35 cm women. Multilevel logistic models, including country and region as random effects and adjusted for sex, age, socioeconomic level, and educational level, were used to study the association between MVPA and NC. RESULTS: The average time of MVPA was 34.88 min/day, ranging from 31.16 in Venezuela to 40.27 in Chile. Concerning NC, 37.0% of the sample was classified as having elevated NC. Chile was the country with the highest percentage of people with elevated NC (56.9%), and Colombia had the lowest percentage (24.8%). Overall, the MVPA (min/day) was associated with elevated NC (OR = 0.994, CI95% = 0.990-0.998). In Costa Rica and Peru, there were significant associations between MVPA and NC when analyzed by country. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provided evidence of significant associations between MVPA and NC in adolescents and adults from Latin America, independent of sex, age, socioeconomic level, and educational level. This analysis of accelerometry data and NC represents the first examination of these associations in eight Latin America countries. Further research is required to understand the differences between countries in the observed associations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT02226627 . Retrospectively registered on August 27, 2014.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/estatística & dados numéricos , Tamanho Corporal , Exercício Físico , Pescoço/fisiopatologia , Vigilância da População , Adolescente , Adulto , Argentina/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Chile/epidemiologia , Colômbia/epidemiologia , Costa Rica/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Equador/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , América Latina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Venezuela/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutr Res ; 68: 9-18, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247522

RESUMO

Underreporting and overreporting of energy intake (EI) have been recognized as potential sources of bias. Dietary data mainly rely on proxy respondents, but little is known about the determinants of misreporting of EI among Latin American (LA) populations. This study was conducted using data from the multicenter Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health that consisted of information about sociodemographics, physical activity, and dietary intake from 9218 individuals aged 15 to 65 years who were living in urban areas in 8 LA countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela). Goldberg methodology was applied to classify the participants into categories of overreporter (OR), plausible reporter (PR), or underreporter (UR) of EI. Associations between misreporting and covariates were examined by the Kruskal-Wallis test, logistic regression, and linear regression. The prevalence of UR was 12.1% and OR was 14.1%. Costa Rica had the highest percentage of UR (24.4%) and the lowest of OR (7.3%), and Colombia had the lowest of UR (5.7%) and the highest of OR (22.4%). Furthermore, underreporters were more likely to be females from older groups with minimal education, white, physically active, overweight or obese, and living in Costa Rica. Overreporters were more likely to be younger, single, of low socioeconomic level, nonwhite, physically active, underweight or with normal weight, and from Colombia. The results demonstrated that sex, age, race, education status, and nationality seemed to influence the reporting behavior, which is essential to correctly interpreting potentially biased associations between diet and health outcomes, and improving nutritional interventions and public health policies.

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