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1.
J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth ; 34(6): 1622-1635, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276758

RESUMO

SEPARATION from cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) after cardiac surgery is a progressive transition from full mechanical circulatory and respiratory support to spontaneous mechanical activity of the lungs and heart. During the separation phase, measurements of cardiac performance with transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) provide the rationale behind the diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making process. In many cases, it is possible to predict a complex separation from CPB, such as when there is known preoperative left or right ventricular dysfunction, bleeding, hypovolemia, vasoplegia, pulmonary hypertension, or owing to technical complications related to the surgery. Prompt diagnosis and therapeutic decisions regarding mechanical or pharmacologic support have to be made within a few minutes. In fact, a complex separation from CPB if not adequately treated leads to a poor outcome in the vast majority of cases. Unfortunately, no specific criteria defining complex separation from CPB and no management guidelines for these patients currently exist. Taking into account the above considerations, the aim of the present review is to describe the most common scenarios associated with a complex CPB separation and to suggest strategies, pharmacologic agents, and para-corporeal mechanical devices that can be adopted to manage patients with complex separation from CPB. The routine management strategies of complex CPB separation of 17 large cardiac centers from 14 countries in 5 continents will also be described.

2.
Int J Cardiol ; 184: 323-36, 2015 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25734940

RESUMO

In cardiac surgery, postoperative low cardiac output has been shown to correlate with increased rates of organ failure and mortality. Catecholamines have been the standard therapy for many years, although they carry substantial risk for adverse cardiac and systemic effects, and have been reported to be associated with increased mortality. On the other hand, the calcium sensitiser and potassium channel opener levosimendan has been shown to improve cardiac function with no imbalance in oxygen consumption, and to have protective effects in other organs. Numerous clinical trials have indicated favourable cardiac and non-cardiac effects of preoperative and perioperative administration of levosimendan. A panel of 27 experts from 18 countries has now reviewed the literature on the use of levosimendan in on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting and in heart valve surgery. This panel discussed the published evidence in these various settings, and agreed to vote on a set of questions related to the cardioprotective effects of levosimendan when administered preoperatively, with the purpose of reaching a consensus on which patients could benefit from the preoperative use of levosimendan and in which kind of procedures, and at which doses and timing should levosimendan be administered. Here, we present a systematic review of the literature to report on the completed and ongoing studies on levosimendan, including the newly commenced LEVO-CTS phase III study (NCT02025621), and on the consensus reached on the recommendations proposed for the use of preoperative levosimendan.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/métodos , Hidrazonas/uso terapêutico , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Piridazinas/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/cirurgia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto/métodos , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Simendana
3.
Perfusion ; 30(1): 77-81, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24714521

RESUMO

Hereditary spherocytosis is a genetically determined abnormality of red blood cells. It is the most common cause of inherited haemolysis in Europe and North America within the Caucasian population. We document a patient who underwent an aortocoronary bypass procedure on cardiopulmonary bypass. In view of the uncertain tolerance of the abnormal red cells in hereditary spherocytosis to cardiopulmonary bypass, we reviewed the patient's chart and analyzed recorded values of these parameters: free plasma haemoglobin, renal parameters, cystatin C, bilirubin, liver tests, urine samples. From the results, we can see that slight haemolysis-elevated bilirubin in the blood sample and elevated bilirubin and urobilinogen in the urine sample occurred on the first postoperative day. The levels of these parameters slowly decreased during the next postoperative days. There was no real clinical effect of this haemolysis on renal functions.


Assuntos
Anquirinas/deficiência , Ponte Cardiopulmonar/efeitos adversos , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Esferocitose Hereditária/etiologia , Idoso , Hemólise , Humanos , Masculino , Esferocitose Hereditária/terapia
4.
Heart Lung Vessel ; 6(2): 79-87, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25024989

RESUMO

There has been significant progress throughout 2013 in cardiothoracic and vascular anaesthesia and intensive care. There has been a revolution in the medical and interventional management of atrial fibrillation. The medical advances include robust clinical risk scoring systems, novel oral anticoagulants, and growing clinical experience with a new antiarrhythmic agent. The interventional advances include left atrial appendage occlusion for stroke reduction, generalization of ablation techniques in cardiac surgery, thoracoscopic ablation techniques, and the emergence of the hybrid ablation procedure. Recent European guidelines have defined the organization and practice of two subspecialties, namely general thoracic surgery and grown-up congenital heart disease. The pivotal role of an effective multidisciplinary milieu is a central theme in both these clinical arenas. The anaesthesia team features prominently in each of these recent guidelines aimed at harmonizing delivery of perioperative care for these patient cohorts across Europe. Web-Enabled Democracy-Based Consensus is a system that allows physicians worldwide to agree or disagree with statements and expert consensus meetings and has the potential to increase the understanding of global practice and to help clinicians better define research priorities. This "Democratic based medicine", firstly used to assess the interventions that might reduce perioperative mortality has been applied in 2013 to the setting of critically ill patient with acute kidney injury. These advances in 2013 will likely further improve perioperative outcomes for our patients.

5.
Physiol Res ; 63(1): 83-94, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24182337

RESUMO

Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) is a novel adipokine involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism and inflammation. To evaluate its potential role in the development of postoperative hyperglycemia and insulin resistance we assessed A-FABP serum concentrations and mRNA expression in skeletal and myocardial muscle, subcutaneous and epicardial adipose tissue and peripheral monocytes in 11 diabetic and 20 age- and sex-matched non-diabetic patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Baseline serum A-FABP did not differ between the groups (31.1+/-5.1 vs. 25.9+/-4.6 ng/ml, p=0.175). Cardiac surgery markedly increased serum A-FABP in both groups with a rapid peak at the end of surgery followed by a gradual decrease to baseline values during the next 48 h with no significant difference between the groups at any timepoint. These trends were analogous to postoperative excursions of plasma glucose, insulin and selected proinflammatory markers. Cardiac surgery increased A-FABP mRNA expression in peripheral monocytes, while no effect was observed in adipose tissue or muscle. Our data suggest that circulating A-FABP might be involved in the development of acute perioperative stress response, insulin resistance and hyperglycemia of critically ill irrespectively of the presence of diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/biossíntese , Monócitos/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/biossíntese , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23734284

RESUMO

There was major progress through 2012 in cardiovascular anesthesia and intensive care. Although recent meta-analysis has supported prophylactic steroid therapy in adult cardiac surgery, a large Dutch multicenter trial found no outcome advantage with dexamethasone. A second large randomized trial is currently testing the outcome effects of methyprednisolone in this setting. Due to calibration drift, the logistic EuroSCORE has recently been recalibrated. Despite this model revision, EuroSCORE II still overestimates mortality after transcatheter aortic valve implantation. It is likely that a specific perioperative risk model will be developed for this unique patient population. Recent global consensus has prioritized 12 non-surgical interventions that merit further study for reducing mortality after surgery. There is currently a paradigm shift in the conduct of adult aortic arch repair. Recent advances have facilitated aortic arch reconstruction with routine antegrade cerebral perfusion at mild-to-moderate hypothermia. Further integration of hybrid endovascular techniques may allow future aortic arch repair without hypothermia or circulatory arrest. These advances will likely further improve patient outcomes.

7.
Physiol Res ; 61(4): 419-23, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22670699

RESUMO

Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) has become an important modality for the assessment of cardiac structure and function in animal experiments. The acquisition of echocardiographic images in rats requires sedation/anesthesia to keep the rats immobile. Commonly used anesthetic regimens include intraperitoneal or inhalational application of various anesthetics. Several studies have compared the effects of anesthetic agents on echocardiographic parameters in rats; however, none of them examined the effects of different concentrations of inhalational anesthetics on echocardiographic parameters. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of different concentrations of isoflurane used for anesthesia during TTE examination in rats on basic echocardiographic parameters of left ventricular (LV) anatomy and systolic function. TTE examinations were performed in adult male Wistar rats (n=10) anesthetized with isoflurane at concentrations of 1.5-3 %. Standard echocardiograms were recorded for off-line analysis. An absence of changes in basic echocardiographic parameters of LV anatomy and systolic function was found under isoflurane anesthesia using concentrations between 1.5-2.5 %. An isoflurane concentration of 3 % caused a small, but statistically significant, increase in LV chamber dimensions without a concomitant change in heart rate or fractional shortening. For the purpose of TTE examination in the rat, our results suggest that isoflurane concentrations

Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Isoflurano/farmacologia , Anestésicos Inalatórios/farmacologia , Animais , Ecocardiografia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sístole , Função Ventricular Esquerda/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Ventricular Esquerda/fisiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23440086

RESUMO

The past year has witnessed major advances in of cardiovascular anesthesia and intensive care. Perioperative interventions such as anesthetic design, inotrope choice, glycemic therapy, blood management, and noninvasive ventilation have significant potential to enhance perioperative outcomes even further.The major theme for 2011 is the international consensus conference that focused on ancillary interventions likely to reduce mortality in cardiac anesthesia and intensive care. This landmark conference prioritized volatile anesthetics, levosimendan, and insulin therapy for their promising life-saving perioperative potential. Although extensive evidence has demonstrated the cardioprotective effects of volatile anesthetics, levosimendan as well as glucose, insulin and potassium therapy, the clinical relevance of these beneficial effects remains to be fully elucidated. Furthermore, controversy still persists about how tight perioperative glucose control should be in adult cardiac surgery because of the risk of hypoglycemia.A second major theme in 2011 has been perioperative hemostasis with the release of multispecialty guidelines. Furthermore, hemostatic agents such as recombinant factor VIIa and tranexamic acid have been studied intensively, even in the setting of major non-cardiac surgery. This review then highlights the remaining two major themes for 2011, namely the expanding role of noninvasive ventilation in our specialty and the formation of the Roland Hetzer International Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery Society.In conclusion, it is time for large adequately powered multicenter trials to test whether prioritized perioperative interventions truly reduce mortality and morbidity in cardiac surgical patients. This essential paradigm shift represents a major clinical opportunity for the global cardiovascular anesthesia and critical care community.

9.
Physiol Res ; 61(1): 63-72, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22188112

RESUMO

Inhalational anesthetics have demonstrated cardioprotective effects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Clinical studies in cardiac surgery have supported these findings, although not with the consistency demonstrated in experimental studies. Recent investigations have questioned the advantages of inhalational over intravenous anesthetics with respect to cardiac protection. Ketamine has been shown to be comparable with sufentanil, and has even demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties. Dexmedetomidine has been established as a sedative/anesthetic drug with analgesic properties, and has also demonstrated myocardial protective effects. In this retrospective observational study, the influence of ketamine-dexmedetomidine-based anesthesia (KET-DEX group; n=17) on the release of cardiac biomarkers was compared with that of sevoflurane-sufentanil-based anesthesia (SEVO group; n=21) in patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting. Compared with the SEVO group, the KET-DEX group exhibited significantly reduced cardiac troponin I (2.22+/-1.73 vs. 3.63+/-2.37 microg/l; P=0.02) and myocardial fraction of creatine kinase (CK-MB) levels (12.4+/-10.4 vs. 20.3+/-11.2 microg/l; P=0.01) on the morning of the first postoperative day. Furthermore, cardiac troponin I release, evaluated as the area under the curve, was significantly reduced in the KET-DEX group (32.1+/-20.1 vs. 50.6+/-23.2; P=0.01). These results demonstrate the cardioprotective effects of ketamine-dexmedetomidine anesthesia compared with those of sevoflurane-sufentanil anesthesia.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Combinados , Anestésicos Inalatórios , Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dexmedetomidina , Feminino , Humanos , Ketamina , Masculino , Éteres Metílicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sevoflurano , Sufentanil , Cirurgia Torácica
10.
Physiol Res ; 60(4): 709-14, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21916525

RESUMO

Inhalational anesthetic-induced preconditioning (APC) has been shown to reduce infarct size and attenuate contractile dysfunction caused by myocardial ischemia. Only a few studies have reported the effects of APC on arrhythmias during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, focusing exclusively on reperfusion. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to examine the influence of APC on ventricular arrhythmias evoked by regional no-flow ischemia. APC was induced in adult male Wistar rats by 12-min exposures to two different concentrations (0.5 and 1.0 MAC) of isoflurane followed by 30-min wash-out periods. Ventricular arrhythmias were assessed in the isolated perfused hearts during a 45-min regional ischemia and a subsequent 15-min reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was determined after an additional 45 min of reperfusion. The incidence, severity and duration of ventricular arrhythmias during ischemia were markedly reduced by APC. The higher concentration of isoflurane had a larger effect on the incidence of ventricular fibrillation than the lower concentration. The incidence of ventricular tachycardia and reversible ventricular fibrillation during reperfusion was also significantly reduced by APC; the same was true for myocardial infarct size. In conclusion, we have shown that preconditioning with isoflurane confers profound protection against myocardial ischemia- and reperfusion-induced arrhythmias and lethal myocardial injury.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Inalatórios/administração & dosagem , Precondicionamento Isquêmico Miocárdico/métodos , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Ventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Coração/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Isquemia Miocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Isquemia Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fibrilação Ventricular/fisiopatologia
11.
Physiol Res ; 60(5): 769-75, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21812520

RESUMO

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) unresponsive to pharmacological intervention is considered a contraindication for orthotopic heart transplantation (OHTX) due to risk of postoperative right-heart failure. In this prospective study, we describe our experience with a treatment strategy of improving severe PH in heart transplant candidates by means of ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation and subsequent OHTX. In 11 heart transplantation candidates with severe PH unresponsive to pharmacological intervention we implanted VAD with the aim of achieving PH to values acceptable for OHTX. In all patients we observed significant drop in pulmonary pressures, PVR and TPG (p < 0.001 for all) 3 months after VAD implantation to values sufficient to allow OHTX. Seven patients underwent transplantation (mean duration of support 216 days) while none of patients suffered right-side heart failure in postoperative period. Two patients died after transplantation and five patients are living in very good condition with a mean duration of 286 days after OHTX. In our opinion, severe PH is not a contraindication for orthotopic heart transplantation any more.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/cirurgia , Transplante de Coração , Coração Auxiliar , Hipertensão Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Terapia Combinada , Contraindicações , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/complicações , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Physiol Res ; 60(5): 757-67, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21812521

RESUMO

We studied the changes in serum fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) concentrations, its mRNA, and protein expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of 15 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Blood samples were obtained: prior to initiation of anesthesia, prior to the start of extracorporeal circulation, upon completion of the surgery, and 6, 24, 48, and 96 hours after the end of the surgery. Tissue sampling was performed at the start and end of surgery. The mean baseline serum FGF-21 concentration was 63.1 (43.03-113.95) pg/ml and it increased during surgery with peak 6 hours after its end [385.5 (274.55-761.65) pg/ml, p < 0.001], and returned to baseline value [41.4 (29.15-142.83) pg/ml] 96 hours after the end of the surgery. Serum glucose, insulin, CRP, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha concentrations significantly increased during the surgery. Baseline FGF-21 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was higher than in both adipose tissue depots and it was not affected by the surgery. Epicardial fat FGF-21 mRNA increased after surgery. Muscle FGF-21 mRNA positively correlated with blood glucose levels at the end of the surgery. Our data suggest a possible role of FGF-21 in the regulation of glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity in surgery-related stress.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Pericárdio/metabolismo , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/etiologia , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/metabolismo , Idoso , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
13.
Rozhl Chir ; 90(2): 88-94, 2011 Feb.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21638844

RESUMO

AIM: Severe right heart failure remains unfrequent but fatal complication of cardiac surgical procedures. Implantation of temporary right ventricular assist device may be life-saving procedure in various situations of right heart failure as: heart transplantation, LVAD therapy and post-cardiotomy failure. The aim of the study is an introduction of the implantation technique and retrospective review of current experience with the method. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since January 2007 isolated right ventricular assist device Levitronix CentriMag has been implanted in 16 patients. Patients were divided into 3 groups: post transplantation (post-Tx), post LVAD implantation (post-LVAD) and other cardiac procedures (OCP). Success rate of weaning from RVAD, 30-days mortality and major complications has been assessed. OUTCOMES: Distribution of implants in groups was: post-Tx 5 pts (31%), post-LVAD 6 pts (38%) and 5 in OCP group (31%). The mean support time was 12 days. Off-pump implantation was achieved in 9 pts. The device was successfully weaned in 13 (81%) patients. 30-days mortality occurred in 1 case only. CONCLUSION: Presented outcomes are encouraging for broader acceptance of the therapy. Excellent success rate has been reached in post-Tx and post-LVAD. This study emphasises decesive role of proactive approach in early indication of RVAD implantation for achieving satisfactory results.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/terapia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23439884

RESUMO

Significant variability in transfusion practice persists despite guidelines. Although the lysine analogues are effective antifibrinolytics, safety concerns exist with high doses tranexamic acid. Despite recombinant activated factor VII promising results in massive bleeding after cardiac surgery, it significantly increases arterial thromboembolic risk. Aortic valve repair may evolve to standard of care. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is an established therapy for aortic stenosis. The cardiovascular anesthesiologist features prominently in the new guidelines for thoracic aortic disease. Although intense angiotensin blockade improves outcomes in heart failure, it might aggravate the maintenance of perioperative systemic vascular tone. Ultrafiltration is an alternative to diuresis for volume overload in heart failure. Management of heart failure titrated to brain natriuretic peptide activity reduces mortality. A major surgical advance has been the significant outcome improvement achieved with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices. Advanced liver disease is a significant predictor for perioperative bleeding, transfusion and mortality after ventricular assist device insertion. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome is not only common in patients with these devices but often aggravating bleeding and transfusion in this setting. Metabolic myocardial modulation with perhexilene significantly enhances effort tolerance in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. A landmark report has highlighted future priorities in this disease. Pediatric cardiac surgical trials have revealed the importance of perioperative cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring and the Sano shunt. Advances in pediatric-specific ventricular assist devices will likely revolutionize pediatric heart failure. Recent reports have highlighted the priorities for future perioperative trials and for training models in pediatric cardiac anesthesia.

15.
Physiol Res ; 59(5): 703-10, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20406031

RESUMO

Hemorrhagic shock (HS) represents an acute event with high mortality. The optimal combination of anesthetics that would prevent hemodynamic collapse and allow damage control surgery has not yet been determined. We tested the hypothesis that a combination of dissociative anesthetic ketamine with alpha2-agonist medetomidine (MK group, n=10) would provide superior hemodynamic control compared to propofol-remifentanil (PR group, n=10) during HS in minipigs. A modified Wiggers' model of HS with a target mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mm Hg and 2 h duration was used. All minipigs survived. HS led to a ~50 % decrease in cardiac output in both groups (P<0.001 for baseline vs. HS 120 min) with no differences between groups. Total volume of removed blood was larger in the MK group (1321+/-133 ml vs. 1111+/-246 ml in the PR group, respectively; P<0.05). MAP was higher during the initial phases of HS in the MK group than in PR group (P<0.05 at HS 30-90 min). HR was lower in the MK group at the late phases of HS (P<0.05 at HS 60-120 min). In conclusion, medetomidine-ketamine provides a feasible and possibly a more favorable alternative to the propofol-remifentanil combination in our model of HS in minipigs.


Assuntos
Anestésicos Dissociativos/farmacologia , Hemodinâmica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Ketamina/farmacologia , Medetomidina/farmacologia , Choque Hemorrágico/fisiopatologia , Anestesia/métodos , Animais , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Volume Sanguíneo , Débito Cardíaco/efeitos dos fármacos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Propofol/farmacologia , Remifentanil
16.
Physiol Res ; 59(1): 127-31, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20345190

RESUMO

Perinatal hypoxemia may have serious long-term effects on the adult cardiovascular system and may lead to sex-dependent changes in cardiac tolerance to acute ischemia in adult life. The aim of the study was to answer the question whether gonadectomy of the male and female rats in the early phase of ontogenetic development affects the late effect of perinatal hypoxia. Pregnant Wistar rats were placed into a normobaric hypoxic chamber (12 % O(2)) 7 days before the expected date of delivery. Newborn pups were kept in the chamber with their mothers for another 5 days after birth. After hypoxic exposure all animals were kept for 3 months in room air. Some of the pups were gonadectomized right after removal from the hypoxic chamber. Ventricular arrhythmias were assessed on isolated perfused hearts. Castration did not influence arrhythmogenesis in the adult normoxic or perinatally hypoxic female hearts. Nevertheless, the number of arrhythmias was decreased in perinatally hypoxic gonadectomized males. In conclusion, we have shown that perinatal normobaric hypoxia increased cardiac tolerance to acute ischemia in adult male rats; however, it had no late effect in females. Gonadectomy did not affect arrhythmogenesis in both normoxic and hypoxic female hearts, whereas in males significantly decreased the number of arrhythmias.


Assuntos
Coração/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/complicações , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Taquicardia Ventricular/etiologia , Complexos Ventriculares Prematuros/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Envelhecimento , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Coração/embriologia , Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hipóxia/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/fisiopatologia , Traumatismo por Reperfusão Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Orquiectomia , Ovariectomia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Fatores Sexuais , Taquicardia Ventricular/fisiopatologia , Taquicardia Ventricular/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Tempo , Complexos Ventriculares Prematuros/fisiopatologia , Complexos Ventriculares Prematuros/prevenção & controle
17.
Vnitr Lek ; 56(1): 30-6, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20184109

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The frequency of long-term left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation is increasing. Acute right ventricular dysfunction or right ventricular failure after LVAD implantation has important influence on morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study was to assess the management of right ventricular dysfunction after LVAD implantation. METHODS: The study group comprised 21 patients with implanted HeartMate II LVAD since December, 2006 to April, 2009. We evaluated in retrospective fashion baseline parameters of cardiovascular and other organ systems before LVAD implantation, applied pharmacological and mechanical support for the right ventricle, and important clinical outcomes to the end ofJune, 2009. RESULTS: LVAD was implanted in 18 men and 3 women with mean age of 48.7 +/- 11.2 years. The most frequent diagnosis was dilatational cardiomyopathy (9 patients; 42.9%), and the most frequent indication for implantation was bridge-to-transplantation (19 patients; 90.4%). Pharmacological support of the right ventricle after LVAD implantation comprised dobutamine (21 patients; 100%), milrinone (21 patients; 100%), isoproterenol (1 patient; 4.8%), and levosimendan (5 patients; 23.8%). In 2 (9.5%) cases there was a need for repeated application of levosimendan during postoperative course. Inhalational nitric oxide was used in 14 (66.7%) patients. Despite extensive pharmacological support, 3 (14.3%) patients needed right ventricular assist device (RVAD) implantation. Most patients (9; 42.8%) survived to heart transplantation; in one (4.8%) case LVAD was successfuly explanted; 6 (28.6%) patients is living with LVAD; 5 (23.8%) patients died during LVAD support. CONCLUSION: After LVAD implantation there is a need for aggressive pharmacological, and in some cases mechanical, support of the right ventricular function to provide adequate blood flow to LVAD in order to minimize morbidity and mortality.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/etiologia , Cardiotônicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/tratamento farmacológico , Disfunção Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23440622

RESUMO

The hybrid operating room is the venue for transcatheter therapy with the convergence of three specialties: cardiac surgery, cardiovascular anesthesiology, and interventional cardiology. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement is proof that cardiac specialists have embraced the endovascular revolution. Since pharmacologic and ischemic myocardial conditioning are safe and effective, they are currently the focus of multiple trials. Angiotensin blockade, anemia and endoscopic saphenous vein harvesting worsen outcome after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Although off-pump CABG is equivalent to on-pump CABG, it may improve outcomes in high-risk groups. Although percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) significantly decreases mortality after myocardial infarction, the evidence is less convincing for intra-aortic balloon counterpulsation. Even though prasugrel was recently approved for platlet blockade in PCI, it may be superceded by ticagrelor. Although PCI and CABG appear equivalent for multivessel coronary disease, CABG lowers revascularization rates and also has superior outcomes in diabetics and the elderly. Hetastarch and N-acetylcysteine both increase bleeding and transfusion in cardiac surgery. Factor VII can treat life-threatening bleeding, but its safety requires further evaluation. Since eltrombopag and romiplostim stimulate platelet production, they may have a future role in hemostasis after cardiac surgery. Even though fenoldopam, atrial natriuretic peptide and sodium bicarbonate are nephroprotective, further trials must confirm these findings. Intensive insulin therapy offers no further outcome advantage and significantly increases hypoglycemic risk. The past year has witnessed the advent of a new clinical venue, new devices, and new drugs. The coming year will most likely advance these achievements.

19.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 145(4): 322-4, 2006.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16639934

RESUMO

Vasoplegic syndrome after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is severe complication with high morbidity and mortality. Without appropriate therapy the syndrome advances to the shock state with subsequent multiorgan failure. Basic haemodynamic parameters of vasoplegic syndrome include low systemic vascular resistance with severe hypotension, tachycardia, and normal or increased cardiac output and low filling pressures. In therapy norepinephrine and vasopressin or its analogues are used. Methylene blue is other therapeutic option. The case of successful application of methylene blue for the treatment of vasoplegic syndrome is presented.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Hipotensão/tratamento farmacológico , Azul de Metileno/uso terapêutico , Resistência Vascular , Idoso , Humanos , Hipotensão/etiologia , Masculino , Síndrome , Resistência Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 144(1): 38-42; discussion 42, 2005.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15789780

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Implantation of mechanical assist device is widely accepted modality of treatment of patients with refractory heart failure. In the present study we evaluated our first one-year experiences with this method for bridging patients to cardiac transplantation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between April 2003 and May 2004, the Thoratec VAD (Thoratec, Pleasanton, CA, USA) was implanted in 6 patients ( males; age 28-61 years) as a bridge-to-transplant procedure after having received maximum inotropic support and who were at imminent risk of death. In all patients was performed VAD as biventricular device (BiVAD). During a week after placement was observed recovery of organs function in all patients. Five patients survived to heart transplantation. One patient died 21 days after BiVAD placement due to massive bleeding to the respiratory tract. In post-transplantation period 1 patient died second day from acute graft failure and other patient died 34 days after from intracranial bleeding. Three patients has been discharged from the hospital and they are surviving more than I year. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of our first experiences with the Thoratec BiVAD implantation as bridging to heart transplantation suggests that it is well suited method with respect to long- term prognosis of this group of patients.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar , Adulto , República Tcheca , Transplante de Coração , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
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