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1.
Respir Med ; 165: 105919, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32174450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the risk of death following an asthma exacerbation are scarce. With this multinational cohort study, we assessed all-cause mortality rates, mortality rates following an exacerbation, and patient characteristics associated with all-cause mortality in asthma. METHODS: Asthma patients aged ≥18 years and with ≥1 year of follow-up were identified in 5 European electronic databases from the Netherlands, Italy, UK, Denmark and Spain during the study period January 1, 2008-December 31, 2013. Patients with asthma-COPD overlap were excluded. Severe asthma was defined as use of high dose ICS + use of a second controller. Severe asthma exacerbations were defined as emergency department visits, hospitalizations or systemic corticosteroid use, all for reason of asthma. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 586,436 asthma patients of which 42,611 patients (7.3%) had severe asthma. The age and sex standardized all-cause mortality rates ranged between databases from 5.2 to 9.5/1000 person-years (PY) in asthma, and between 11.3 and 14.8/1000 PY in severe asthma. The all-cause mortality rate in the first week following a severe asthma exacerbation ranged between 14.1 and 59.9/1000 PY. Mortality rates remained high in the first month following a severe asthma exacerbation and decreased thereafter. Higher age, male gender, comorbidity, smoking, and previous severe asthma exacerbations were associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: All-cause mortality following a severe exacerbation is high, especially in the first month following the event. Smoking cessation, comorbidity-management and asthma-treatment focusing on the prevention of exacerbations might reduce associated mortality.

2.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 555, 2020 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31953469

RESUMO

Globally, maternal birth season affects fertility later in life. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to comprehensively investigate the birth season and female fertility relationship. Using PubMed, we identified a set of 282 relevant fertility/birth season papers published between 1972 and 2018. We screened all 282 studies and removed 131 non-mammalian species studies on fertility and 122 studies that were on non-human mammals. Our meta-analysis focused on the remaining 29 human studies, including twelve human datasets from around the world (USA, Europe, Asia). The main outcome was change in female fertility as observed by maternal birth month and whether this change was correlated with either temperature or rainfall. We found that temperature was either strongly correlated or anti-correlated in studies, indicating that another factor closely tied to temperature may be the culprit exposure. We found that rainfall only increases fertility in higher altitude locations (New Zealand, Romania, and Northern Vietnam). This suggests the possibility of a combined or multi-factorial mechanism underlying the female fertility - birth season relationship. We discuss other environmental and sociological factors on the birth season - female fertility relationship. Future research should focus on the role of birth season and female fertility adjusting for additional factors that modulate female fertility as discussed in this comprehensive review.

3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0226718, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) after cerebral infarction is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon in the acute stage of ischemic stroke, and often results in a poor prognosis. Thus, identifying risk factors and making an early prediction of HT in acute cerebral infarction contributes not only to the selections of therapeutic regimen but also, more importantly, to the improvement of prognosis of acute cerebral infarction. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a model to predict a patient's risk of HT within 30 days of initial ischemic stroke. METHODS: We utilized a retrospective multicenter observational cohort study design to develop a Lasso Logistic Regression prediction model with a large, US Electronic Health Record dataset which structured to the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM). To examine clinical transportability, the model was externally validated across 10 additional real-world healthcare datasets include EHR records for patients from America, Europe and Asia. RESULTS: In the database the model was developed, the target population cohort contained 621,178 patients with ischemic stroke, of which 5,624 patients had HT within 30 days following initial ischemic stroke. 612 risk predictors, including the distance a patient travels in an ambulance to get to care for a HT, were identified. An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.75 was achieved in the internal validation of the risk model. External validation was performed across 10 databases totaling 5,515,508 patients with ischemic stroke, of which 86,401 patients had HT within 30 days following initial ischemic stroke. The mean external AUC was 0.71 and ranged between 0.60-0.78. CONCLUSIONS: A HT prognostic predict model was developed with Lasso Logistic Regression based on routinely collected EMR data. This model can identify patients who have a higher risk of HT than the population average with an AUC of 0.78. It shows the OMOP CDM is an appropriate data standard for EMR secondary use in clinical multicenter research for prognostic prediction model development and validation. In the future, combining this model with clinical information systems will assist clinicians to make the right therapy decision for patients with acute ischemic stroke.

5.
Front Physiol ; 10: 1272, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636572

RESUMO

Aims: QT variability is a promising electrocardiographic marker. It has been studied as a screening tool for coronary artery disease and left ventricular hypertrophy, and increased QT variability is a known risk factor for sudden cardiac death. Considering that comprehensive normal values for QT variability were lacking, we set out to establish these in standard 10-s electrocardiograms (ECGs) covering both sexes and all ages. Methods: Ten-second, 12-lead ECGs were provided by five Dutch population studies (Pediatric Normal ECG Study, Leiden University Einthoven Science Project, Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease Study, Utrecht Health Project, Rotterdam Study). ECGs were recorded digitally and processed by well-validated analysis software. We selected cardiologically healthy participants, 46% being women. Ages ranged from 11 days to 91 years. After quality control, 13,828 ECGs were available. We assessed three markers: standard deviation of QT intervals (SDqt), short-term QT variability (STVqt), and QT variability index (QTVI). Results: For SDqt and STVqt, the median and the lower limit of normal remained stable with age. The upper limit of normal declined until around age 45, and increased strongly in the elderly, notably so in women. This implies that a subset of the population, small enough not to have appreciable effect on the median, shows a high degree of QT variability with a possible risk of arrhythmias or worse, especially in women. Otherwise, sex differences were negligible in all three measurements. For QTVI, median, and normal limits decreased until age 20, and steadily went up afterwards except for the lower limit of normal, which flattens off after age 65. Conclusion: We report the first set of normal values for QT variability based on 10-s ECGs, for all ages and both sexes.

6.
J Biomed Inform ; 97: 103264, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Smoking status is poorly record in US claims data. IBM MarketScan Commercial is a claims database that can be linked to an additional health risk assessment with self-reported smoking status for a subset of 1,966,174 patients. We investigate whether this subset could be used to learn a smoking status phenotype model generalizable to all US claims data that calculates the probability of being a current smoker. METHODS: 251,643 (12.8%) had self-reported their smoking status as 'current smoker'. A regularized logistic regression model, the Current Risk of Smoking Status (CROSS), was trained using the subset of patients with self-reported smoking status. CROSS considered 53,027 candidate covariates including demographics and conditions/drugs/measurements/procedures/observations recorded in the prior 365 days, The CROSS phenotype model was validated across multiple other claims data. RESULTS: The internal validation showed the CROSS model achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.76 and the calibration plots indicated it was well calibrated. The external validation across three US claims databases obtained AUCs ranging between 0.82 and 0.87 showing the model appears to be transportable across Claims data. CONCLUSION: CROSS predicts current smoking status based on the claims records in the prior year. CROSS can be readily implemented to any US insurance claims mapped to the OMOP common data model and will be a useful way to impute smoking status when conducting epidemiology studies where smoking is a known confounder but smoking status is not recorded. CROSS is available from https://github.com/OHDSI/StudyProtocolSandbox/tree/master/SmokingModel.

7.
Drug Saf ; 42(11): 1377-1386, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054141

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: US claims data contain medical data on large heterogeneous populations and are excellent sources for medical research. Some claims data do not contain complete death records, limiting their use for mortality or mortality-related studies. A model to predict whether a patient died at the end of the follow-up time (referred to as the end of observation) is needed to enable mortality-related studies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a patient-level model to predict whether the end of observation was due to death in US claims data. METHODS: We used a claims dataset with full death records, Optum© De-Identified Clinformatics® Data-Mart-Database-Date of Death mapped to the Observational Medical Outcome Partnership common data model, to develop a model that classifies the end of observations into death or non-death. A regularized logistic regression was trained using 88,514 predictors (recorded within the prior 365 or 30 days) and externally validated by applying the model to three US claims datasets. RESULTS: Approximately 25 in 1000 end of observations in Optum are due to death. The Discriminating End of observation into Alive and Dead (DEAD) model obtained an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.986. When defining death as a predicted risk of > 0.5, only 2% of the end of observations were predicted to be due to death and the model obtained a sensitivity of 62% and a positive predictive value of 74.8%. The external validation showed the model was transportable, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curves ranging between 0.951 and 0.995 across the US claims databases. CONCLUSIONS: US claims data often lack complete death records. The DEAD model can be used to impute death at various sensitivity, specificity, or positive predictive values depending on the use of the model. The DEAD model can be readily applied to any observational healthcare database mapped to the Observational Medical Outcome Partnership common data model and is available from https://github.com/OHDSI/StudyProtocolSandbox/tree/master/DeadModel .

8.
Front Physiol ; 9: 424, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29755366

RESUMO

Purpose: Heart-rate variability (HRV) measured on standard 10-s electrocardiograms (ECGs) has been associated with increased risk of cardiac and all-cause mortality, but age- and sex-dependent normal values have not been established. Since heart rate strongly affects HRV, its effect should be taken into account. We determined a comprehensive set of normal values of heart-rate corrected HRV derived from 10-s ECGs for both children and adults, covering both sexes. Methods: Five population studies in the Netherlands (Pediatric Normal ECG Study, Leiden University Einthoven Science Project, Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease Study, Utrecht Health Project, Rotterdam Study) provided 10-s, 12-lead ECGs. ECGs were stored digitally and analyzed by well-validated analysis software. We included cardiologically healthy participants, 42% being men. Their ages ranged from 11 days to 91 years. After quality control, 13,943 ECGs were available. Heart-rate correction formulas were derived using an exponential model. Two time-domain HRV markers were analyzed: the corrected standard deviation of the normal-to-normal RR intervals (SDNNc) and corrected root mean square of successive RR-interval differences (RMSSDc). Results: There was a considerable age effect. For both SDNNc and RMSSDc, the median and the lower limit of normal decreased steadily from birth until old age. The upper limit of normal decreased until the age of 60, but increased markedly after that age. Differences of the median were minimal between men and women. Conclusion: We report the first comprehensive set of normal values for heart-rate corrected 10-s HRV, which can be of value in clinical practice and in further research.

9.
J Am Med Inform Assoc ; 25(8): 969-975, 2018 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29718407

RESUMO

Objective: To develop a conceptual prediction model framework containing standardized steps and describe the corresponding open-source software developed to consistently implement the framework across computational environments and observational healthcare databases to enable model sharing and reproducibility. Methods: Based on existing best practices we propose a 5 step standardized framework for: (1) transparently defining the problem; (2) selecting suitable datasets; (3) constructing variables from the observational data; (4) learning the predictive model; and (5) validating the model performance. We implemented this framework as open-source software utilizing the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model to enable convenient sharing of models and reproduction of model evaluation across multiple observational datasets. The software implementation contains default covariates and classifiers but the framework enables customization and extension. Results: As a proof-of-concept, demonstrating the transparency and ease of model dissemination using the software, we developed prediction models for 21 different outcomes within a target population of people suffering from depression across 4 observational databases. All 84 models are available in an accessible online repository to be implemented by anyone with access to an observational database in the Common Data Model format. Conclusions: The proof-of-concept study illustrates the framework's ability to develop reproducible models that can be readily shared and offers the potential to perform extensive external validation of models, and improve their likelihood of clinical uptake. In future work the framework will be applied to perform an "all-by-all" prediction analysis to assess the observational data prediction domain across numerous target populations, outcomes and time, and risk settings.


Assuntos
Aprendizado de Máquina , Observação , Prognóstico , Software , Adulto , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0175087, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28403196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased variability of beat-to-beat QT-interval durations on the electrocardiogram (ECG) has been associated with increased risk for fatal and non-fatal cardiac events. However, techniques for the measurement of QT variability (QTV) have not been validated since a gold standard is not available. In this study, we propose a validation method and illustrate its use for the validation of two automatic QTV measurement techniques. METHODS: Our method generates artificial standard 12-lead ECGs based on the averaged P-QRS-T complexes from a variety of existing ECG signals, with simulated intrinsic (QT interval) and extrinsic (noise, baseline wander, signal length) variations. We quantified QTV by a commonly used measure, short-term QT variability (STV). Using 28,800 simulated ECGs, we assessed the performance of a conventional QTV measurement algorithm, resembling a manual QTV measurement approach, and a more advanced algorithm based on fiducial segment averaging (FSA). RESULTS: The results for the conventional algorithm show considerable median absolute differences between the simulated and estimated STV. For the highest noise level, median differences were 4-6 ms in the absence of QTV. Increasing signal length generally yields more accurate STV estimates, but the difference in performance between 30 or 60 beats is small. The FSA algorithm proved to be very accurate, with most median absolute differences less than 0.5 ms, even for the highest levels of disturbance. CONCLUSIONS: Artificially constructed ECGs with a variety of disturbances allow validation of QTV measurement procedures. The FSA algorithm provides highly accurate STV estimates under varying signal conditions, and performs much better than traditional beat-by-beat analysis. The fully automatic operation of the FSA algorithm enables STV measurement in large sets of ECGs.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias/diagnóstico , Algoritmos , Eletrocardiografia , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Contração Miocárdica , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
11.
Circulation ; 134(10): 713-22, 2016 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27601558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between thyroid function and cardiovascular disease is well established, but no study to date has assessed whether it is a risk factor for sudden cardiac death (SCD). Therefore, we studied the association of thyroid function with SCD in a prospective population-based cohort. METHODS: Participants from the Rotterdam Study ≥45 years with thyroid-stimulating hormone or free thyroxine (FT4) measurements and clinical follow-up were eligible. We assessed the association of thyroid-stimulating hormone and FT4 with the risk of SCD by using an age- and sex-adjusted Cox proportional-hazards model, in all participants and also after restricting the analysis to euthyroid participants (defined by thyroid-stimulating hormone 0.4-4.0 mIU/L). Additional adjustment included cardiovascular risk factors, notably hypertension, serum cholesterol, and smoking. We stratified by age and sex and performed sensitivity analyses by excluding participants with abnormal FT4 values (reference range of 0.85-1.95 ng/dL) and including only witnessed SCDs as outcome. Absolute risks were calculated in a competing risk model by taking death by other causes into account. RESULTS: We included 10 318 participants with 261 incident SCDs (median follow-up, 9.1 years). Higher levels of FT4 were associated with an increased SCD risk, even in the normal range of thyroid function (hazard ratio, 2.28 per 1 ng/dL FT4; 95% confidence interval, 1.31-3.97). Stratification by age or sex and sensitivity analyses did not change the risk estimates substantially. The absolute 10-year risk of SCD increased in euthyroid participants from 1% to 4% with increasing FT4 levels. CONCLUSIONS: Higher FT4 levels are associated with an increased risk of SCD, even in euthyroid participants.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Glândula Tireoide/fisiologia , Tireotropina/sangue , Tiroxina/sangue , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Testes de Função Tireóidea/métodos
12.
J Card Fail ; 22(1): 17-23, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26093333

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Subclinical cardiac dysfunction has been associated with increased mortality, and heart failure increases the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Less well known is whether subclinical cardiac dysfunction is also a risk factor for SCD. Our objective was to assess the association between echocardiographic parameters and SCD in a community-dwelling population free of heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: We computed hazard ratios (HRs) for left atrium diameter, left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic dimension, LV end-systolic dimension, LV mass, qualitative LV systolic function, LV fractional shortening, and diastolic function. During a median follow-up of 6.3 years in 4,686 participants, 68 participants died because of SCD. Significant associations with SCD were observed for qualitative LV systolic function and LV fractional shortening. For moderate/poor qualitative LV systolic function, the HR for SCD was 2.54 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-5.87). Each standard deviation decrease in LV fractional shortening was associated with an HR of 1.36 (95% CI 1.09-1.70). CONCLUSIONS: Subclinical abnormalities in LV systolic function were associated with SCD risk in this general population. Although prediction of SCD remains difficult and traditional cardiovascular risk factors are of greatest importance, this knowledge might guide future directions to prevent SCD in persons with subclinical cardiac dysfunction.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/epidemiologia , Idoso , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Diástole , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Volume Sistólico , Sístole
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26492444

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of oral contraceptive (OC) use, user characteristics and prescribing patterns by accessing health care databases of three European countries. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed from 2009 to 2010 in three general practice (GP) databases from the Netherlands, UK and Italy and in one database of linked pharmacy and hospitalisation data in the Netherlands. The presence of selected chronic conditions and diagnoses of diseases associated with OC use were assessed, as were switches, discontinuations and types of OC used during the study period. RESULTS: Among 2.16 million women aged 15 to 49 years, 16.0% were using an OC on 1 January 2010. The prevalence ranged from 19.7% in a Dutch database to 2.6% in the Italian database. During 2009 and 2010, mainly second-generation progestogens were prescribed in the Netherlands (79.4% and 78.3% of users), both second- (57.9%) and third-generation progestogens (43.6%) were prescribed in the UK, and mainly third-generation progestogens in Italy (61.8%). Most switches were to third- or fourth-generation pills. The prevalence of chronic diseases tended to be higher among OC users, and the proportions of women with a history of disease associated with OC use tended to be lower than among non-users. CONCLUSIONS: Second-generation OCs were most frequently prescribed in the Netherlands. In the UK, and even more so in Italy, many women used third- or fourth-generation OCs. Preparation switches were mainly to third- or fourth-generation OCs. Among OC users, a somewhat higher prevalence of chronic diseases was observed; however, information bias cannot be ruled out.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/administração & dosagem , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Vigilância da População , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anticoncepcionais Orais/administração & dosagem , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Saúde da Mulher/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Heart ; 101(24): 1973-9, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26531821

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The ATP-binding cassette B1 (ABCB1) gene encodes P-glycoprotein, a transport protein, which plays an important role in the bioavailability of digoxin. We aimed to investigate the interaction between variants within the ABCB1 gene and digoxin on the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). METHODS: Within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based cohort study in persons 45 years of age and older, we used Cox regression to analyse the association between three polymorphisms that have been associated with digoxin bioavailability, extracted from 1000-Genomes imputed ABCB1 genotypes and the risk of SCD, stratified by digoxin use. RESULTS: In a total study population of 10,932 persons, 419 SCDs occurred during a median follow-up of 9.8 years. In non-users of digoxin, the risk of SCD was not different across genotypes. In digoxin users, homozygous T allele carriers of C1236T (HR 1.90; 95% CI 1.09 to 3.30; allele frequency 0.43), G2677T (HR 1.89; 95% CI 1.10 to 3.24; allele frequency 0.44) and C3435T (HR 1.72; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.87; allele frequency 0.53) had a significantly increased risk of SCD in a recessive model. Interaction between the ABCB1 polymorphisms and digoxin use was significant for C1236T and G2677T in the age-adjusted and sex-adjusted model. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we showed that in digoxin users variant alleles at each of the three loci in the ABCB1 gene were associated with an increased risk of SCD compared with digoxin users with none or one T allele. If replicated, the findings imply that the ABCB1 genotype modifies the risk of cardiac digoxin toxicity.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/efeitos adversos , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Digoxina/efeitos adversos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Subfamília B de Transportador de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Idoso , Antiarrítmicos/sangue , Antiarrítmicos/farmacocinética , Disponibilidade Biológica , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Digoxina/sangue , Digoxina/farmacocinética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Haplótipos , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Fenótipo , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 216: 574-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26262116

RESUMO

The vision of creating accessible, reliable clinical evidence by accessing the clincial experience of hundreds of millions of patients across the globe is a reality. Observational Health Data Sciences and Informatics (OHDSI) has built on learnings from the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership to turn methods research and insights into a suite of applications and exploration tools that move the field closer to the ultimate goal of generating evidence about all aspects of healthcare to serve the needs of patients, clinicians and all other decision-makers around the world.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde/organização & administração , Informática Médica/organização & administração , Modelos Organizacionais , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Internacionalidade
16.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 24(10): 1036-41, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26248883

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prolonged ventricular repolarization (measured as heart-rate corrected QT (QTc) prolongation or JT-interval prolongation) is a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and can be drug-induced. Drugs can be classified as having known or possible QTc-prolonging properties. Regulatory agencies recommend avoiding concomitant use of multiple QTc-prolonging drugs, but evidence is lacking to what degree ventricular repolarization is influenced by concomitant use of these drugs. METHODS: Within a population-based cohort of persons aged 45 years and older, with up to five electrocardiograms recorded per participant between 1991 and 2010, we used generalised estimating equations to study the association between concomitant use of multiple QTc-prolonging drugs and repolarization duration. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 13 009 participants with 26 908 electrocardiograms. With the addition of a second or third QTc-prolonging drug there was no substantial increase in QTc and JT interval and no increased risk of a prolonged QTc interval, compared to use of one QTc-prolonging drug. There was a large difference between the effect of one known or one possible QTc-prolonging drugs on QTc interval: 15 ms for known, and 3 ms for possible QTc-prolonging drugs. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the added prolongation in users of two or three QTc-prolonging drugs on QTc was small. There was a large difference in QTc prolongation between known and possible QTc-prolonging drugs. Further research in larger or high-risk populations is needed to establish whether it is safe to use multiple QTc-prolonging drugs concomitantly to prevent that the current advice might unnecessarily withhold beneficial drugs from patients.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Ventrículos do Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome do QT Longo/epidemiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/etiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do QT Longo/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Farmacoepidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos
17.
Heart Rhythm ; 12(10): 2078-85, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26165945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A prolonged heart rate-corrected QT (QTc) interval is a well-known risk indicator for sudden cardiac death (SCD) and a contraindication for drugs with potentially arrhythmogenic adverse effects. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to study the consistency of QTc interval prolongation and whether a consistent QTc interval prolongation correlates differently with SCD than does an inconsistently prolonged QTc interval. METHODS: We used a population-based cohort study of persons 55 years and older. We excluded participants using QTc-prolonging drugs or with bundle branch block. The QT interval was corrected for heart rate using Bazett and Fridericia formulas. Using a Cox regression model, we assessed the association between QTc interval prolongation consistency and the occurrence of SCD. RESULTS: A total of 3484 participants had electrocardiograms (ECGs) recorded on 2 consecutive visits. In 96%-98% of participants with a normal QTc interval on the first ECG, the QTc interval remained normal, but only in 27%-35% of those with a prolonged QTc interval, the QTc interval was prolonged on the second ECG after a median of 1.8 years. A consistently prolonged QTc interval was associated with an increased risk of SCD as compared with a consistently normal QTc interval (Bazett: hazard ratio 2.23; 95% confidence interval 1.17-4.24, Fridericia: hazard ratio 6.67; 95% confidence interval 2.96-15.06). A prolonged QTc interval preceded or followed by a normal QTc interval was not significantly associated with an increased risk of SCD. CONCLUSION: Persons with an inconsistently prolonged QTc interval did not have a higher risk of SCD than those with a consistently normal QTc interval. Persons with a consistently prolonged QTc interval did have a higher risk of SCD. Our results suggest that repeated measurements of the QTc interval could enhance risk stratification.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Eletrocardiografia , Síndrome do QT Longo/fisiopatologia , Vigilância da População/métodos , Idoso , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/complicações , Síndrome do QT Longo/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Drug Saf ; 38(10): 855-67, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26108299

RESUMO

A prolonged QT interval is an important risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. QT prolongation can be caused by drugs. There are multiple risk factors for drug-induced QT prolongation, including genetic variation. QT prolongation is one of the most common reasons for withdrawal of drugs from the market, despite the fact that these drugs may be beneficial for certain patients and not harmful in every patient. Identifying genetic variants associated with drug-induced QT prolongation might add to tailored pharmacotherapy and prevent beneficial drugs from being withdrawn unnecessarily. In this review, our objective was to provide an overview of the genetic background of drug-induced QT prolongation, distinguishing pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic pathways. Pharmacokinetic-mediated genetic susceptibility is mainly characterized by variation in genes encoding drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzymes or drug transporters. For instance, the P-glycoprotein drug transporter plays a role in the pharmacokinetic susceptibility of drug-induced QT prolongation. The pharmacodynamic component of genetic susceptibility is mainly characterized by genes known to be associated with QT interval duration in the general population and genes in which the causal mutations of congenital long QT syndromes are located. Ethnicity influences susceptibility to drug-induced QT interval prolongation, with Caucasians being more sensitive than other ethnicities. Research on the association between pharmacogenetic interactions and clinical endpoints such as sudden cardiac death is still limited. Future studies in this area could enable us to determine the risk of arrhythmias more adequately in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/genética , Síndrome do QT Longo/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome do QT Longo/genética , Animais , Síndrome de Brugada/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome de Brugada/genética , Doença do Sistema de Condução Cardíaco , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Farmacogenética/métodos
19.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 35(3): 260-5, 2015 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25856783

RESUMO

A prolonged heart rate corrected QT interval (QTc) increases the risk of sudden cardiac death. Some methods of heart rate correction (notably Bazett) overestimate QTc in people with high heart rates. Studies suggest that tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) can prolong the QTc and increase heart rate. Therefore, we aimed to study whether TCA-induced QTc prolongation is a false-positive observation due to overestimation at high heart rates. For this, we included 12,734 participants from the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study, with a total of 27,068 electrocardiograms (ECGs), of which, 331 during TCA use. Associations between use of TCAs, QTc, and heart rate were studied with linear repeated measurement analyses. QT was corrected for heart rate according to Bazett (QTcBazett), Fridericia (QTcFridericia), or a correction based on regression coefficients obtained from the Rotterdam Study data (QTcStatistical). On ECGs recorded during TCA use, QTcBazett was 6.5 milliseconds (95% confidence interval, 4.0-9.0) longer, and heart rate was 5.8 beats per minute (95% confidence interval, 4.7-6.9) faster than during nonuse. QTcFridericia and QTcStatistical were not statistically significantly longer during TCA use than during nonuse. Furthermore, QTcBazett was similar for ECGs recorded during TCA use and nonuse after statistical adjustment for heart rate. According to our results, TCA use does not seem to be associated with QTc prolongation. Therefore, the current advice of regulatory authorities to restrict the use of these drugs and to do regular checkups of the QTc may need to be revised. Other formulas, like Fridericia's, might be preferred.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos Tricíclicos/efeitos adversos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/induzido quimicamente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Modelos Cardiovasculares
20.
Eur Heart J ; 36(27): 1754-61, 2015 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25920404

RESUMO

AIMS: Both sudden cardiac death (SCD) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common conditions in the elderly. Previous studies have identified an association between COPD and cardiovascular disease, and with SCD in specific patient groups. Our aim was to investigate whether there is an association between COPD and SCD in the general population. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Rotterdam study is a population-based cohort study among 14 926 subjects aged 45 years and older with up to 24 years of follow-up. Analyses were performed with a (time dependent) Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for age, sex, and smoking. Of the 13 471 persons included in the analysis; 1615 had a diagnosis of COPD and there were 551 cases of SCD. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was associated with an increased risk of SCD (age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratio, HR, 1.34, 95% CI 1.06-1.70). The risk particularly increased in the period 2000 days (5.48 years) after the diagnosis of COPD (age- and sex-adjusted HR 2.12, 95% CI 1.60-2.82) and increased further to a more than three-fold higher risk in COPD subjects with frequent exacerbations during this period (age- and sex-adjusted HR 3.58, 95% CI 2.35-5.44). Analyses restricted to persons without prevalent myocardial infarction or heart failure yielded similar results. CONCLUSION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is associated with an increased risk for SCD. The risk especially increases in persons with frequent exacerbations 5 years after the diagnosis of COPD. This risk indicator could provide new directions for better-targeted actions to prevent SCD.


Assuntos
Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
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