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1.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294817

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: FTND (FagerstrÓ§m test for nicotine dependence) and TTFC (time to smoke first cigarette in the morning) are common measures of nicotine dependence (ND). However, genome-wide meta-analysis for these phenotypes has not been reported. METHODS: Genome-wide meta-analyses for FTND (N = 19,431) and TTFC (N = 18,567) phenotypes were conducted for adult smokers of European ancestry from 14 independent cohorts. RESULTS: We found that SORBS2 on 4q35 (p = 4.05 × 10-8), BG182718 on 11q22 (p = 1.02 × 10-8), and AA333164 on 14q21 (p = 4.11 × 10-9) were associated with TTFC phenotype. We attempted replication of leading candidates with independent samples (FTND, N = 7010 and TTFC, N = 10 061), however, due to limited power of the replication samples, the replication of these new loci did not reach significance. In gene-based analyses, COPB2 was found associated with FTND phenotype, and TFCP2L1, RELN, and INO80C were associated with TTFC phenotype. In pathway and network analyses, we found that the interconnected interactions among the endocytosis, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, axon guidance, MAPK signaling, and chemokine signaling pathways were involved in ND. CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses identified several promising candidates for both FTND and TTFC phenotypes, and further verification of these candidates was necessary. Candidates supported by both FTND and TTFC (CHRNA4, THSD7B, RBFOX1, and ZNF804A) were associated with addiction to alcohol, cocaine, and heroin, and were associated with autism and schizophrenia. We also identified novel pathways involved in cigarette smoking. The pathway interactions highlighted the importance of receptor recycling and internalization in ND. IMPLICATIONS: Understanding the genetic architecture of cigarette smoking and ND is critical to develop effective prevention and treatment. Our study identified novel candidates and biological pathways involved in FTND and TTFC phenotypes, and this will facilitate further investigation of these candidates and pathways.

2.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0202063, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31017905

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies on alcohol dependence, by themselves, have yet to account for the estimated heritability of the disorder and provide incomplete mechanistic understanding of this complex trait. Integrating brain ethanol-responsive gene expression networks from model organisms with human genetic data on alcohol dependence could aid in identifying dependence-associated genes and functional networks in which they are involved. This study used a modification of the Edge-Weighted Dense Module Searching for genome-wide association studies (EW-dmGWAS) approach to co-analyze whole-genome gene expression data from ethanol-exposed mouse brain tissue, human protein-protein interaction databases and alcohol dependence-related genome-wide association studies. Results revealed novel ethanol-responsive and alcohol dependence-associated gene networks in prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and ventral tegmental area. Three of these networks were overrepresented with genome-wide association signals from an independent dataset. These networks were significantly overrepresented for gene ontology categories involving several mechanisms, including actin filament-based activity, transcript regulation, Wnt and Syndecan-mediated signaling, and ubiquitination. Together, these studies provide novel insight for brain mechanisms contributing to alcohol dependence.

3.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 180(3): 223-231, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801977

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are highly effective at identifying common risk variants for schizophrenia. Rare risk variants are also important contributors to schizophrenia etiology but, with the exception of large copy number variants, are difficult to detect with GWAS. Exome and genome sequencing, which have accelerated the study of rare variants, are expensive so alternative methods are needed to aid detection of rare variants. Here we re-analyze an Irish schizophrenia GWAS dataset (n = 3,473) by performing identity-by-descent (IBD) mapping followed by exome sequencing of individuals identified as sharing risk haplotypes to search for rare risk variants in coding regions. We identified 45 rare haplotypes (>1 cM) that were significantly more common in cases than controls. By exome sequencing 105 haplotype carriers, we investigated these haplotypes for functional coding variants that could be tested for association in independent GWAS samples. We identified one rare missense variant in PCNT but did not find statistical support for an association with schizophrenia in a replication analysis. However, IBD mapping can prioritize both individual samples and genomic regions for follow-up analysis but genome rather than exome sequencing may be more effective at detecting risk variants on rare haplotypes.

4.
Alcohol ; 72: 19-31, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30213503

RESUMO

This review summarizes the proceedings of a symposium presented at the "Alcoholism and Stress: A Framework for Future Treatment Strategies" conference held in Volterra, Italy on May 9-12, 2017. Psychiatric diseases, including alcohol-use disorders (AUDs), are influenced through complex interactions of genes, neurobiological pathways, and environmental influences. A better understanding of the common neurobiological mechanisms underlying an AUD necessitates an integrative approach, involving a systematic assessment of diverse species and phenotype measures. As part of the World Congress on Stress and Alcoholism, this symposium provided a detailed account of current strategies to identify mechanisms underlying the development and progression of AUDs. Dr. Sean Farris discussed the integration and organization of transcriptome and postmortem human brain data to identify brain regional- and cell type-specific differences related to excessive alcohol consumption that are conserved across species. Dr. Brien Riley presented the results of a genome-wide association study of DSM-IV alcohol dependence; although replication of genetic associations with alcohol phenotypes in humans remains challenging, model organism studies show that COL6A3, KLF12, and RYR3 affect behavioral responses to ethanol, and provide substantial evidence for their role in human alcohol-related traits. Dr. Rob Williams expanded upon the systematic characterization of extensive genetic-genomic resources for quantifying and clarifying phenotypes across species that are relevant to precision medicine in human disease. The symposium concluded with Dr. Robert Hitzemann's description of transcriptome studies in a mouse model selectively bred for high alcohol ("binge-like") consumption and a non-human primate model of long-term alcohol consumption. Together, the different components of this session provided an overview of systems-based approaches that are pioneering the experimental prioritization and validation of novel genes and gene networks linked with a range of behavioral phenotypes associated with stress and AUDs.

5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(18): 3246-3256, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29905862

RESUMO

The transcription factor 4 (TCF4) locus is a robust association finding with schizophrenia (SCZ), but little is known about the genes regulated by the encoded transcription factor. Therefore, we conducted chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq) of TCF4 in neural-derived (SH-SY5Y) cells to identify genome-wide TCF4 binding sites, followed by data integration with SCZ association findings. We identified 11 322 TCF4 binding sites overlapping in two ChIP-seq experiments. These sites are significantly enriched for the TCF4 Ebox binding motif (>85% having ≥1 Ebox) and implicate a gene set enriched for genes downregulated in TCF4 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown experiments, indicating the validity of our findings. The TCF4 gene set was also enriched among (1) gene ontology categories such as axon/neuronal development, (2) genes preferentially expressed in brain, in particular pyramidal neurons of the somatosensory cortex and (3) genes downregulated in postmortem brain tissue from SCZ patients (odds ratio, OR = 2.8, permutation P < 4x10-5). Considering genomic alignments, TCF4 binding sites significantly overlapped those for neural DNA-binding proteins such as FOXP2 and the SCZ-associated EP300. TCF4 binding sites were modestly enriched among SCZ risk loci from the Psychiatric Genomic Consortium (OR = 1.56, P = 0.03). In total, 130 TCF4 binding sites occurred in 39 of the 108 regions published in 2014. Thirteen genes within the 108 loci had both a TCF4 binding site ±10kb and were differentially expressed in siRNA knockdown experiments of TCF4, suggesting direct TCF4 regulation. These findings confirm TCF4 as an important regulator of neural genes and point toward functional interactions with potential relevance for SCZ.

6.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 42(3): 520-530, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29405378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite consistent evidence of the heritability of alcohol use disorders (AUDs), few specific genes with an etiological role have been identified. It is likely that AUDs are highly polygenic; however, the etiological pathways and genetic variants involved may differ between populations. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether aggregate genetic risk for AUDs differed between clinically ascertained and population-based epidemiological samples. METHODS: Four independent samples were obtained: 2 from unselected birth cohorts (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children [ALSPAC], N = 4,304; FinnTwin12 [FT12], N = 1,135) and 2 from families densely affected with AUDs, identified from treatment-seeking patients (Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism, N = 2,097; Irish Affected Sib Pair Study of Alcohol Dependence, N = 706). AUD symptoms were assessed with clinical interviews, and participants of European ancestry were genotyped. Genomewide association was conducted separately in each sample, and the resulting association weights were used to create polygenic risk scores in each of the other samples (12 total discovery-validation pairs), and from meta-analyses within sample type. We then tested how well these aggregate genetic scores predicted AUD outcomes within and across sample types. RESULTS: Polygenic scores derived from 1 population-based sample (ALSPAC) significantly predicted AUD symptoms in another population-based sample (FT12), but not in either clinically ascertained sample. Trend-level associations (uncorrected p < 0.05) were found for polygenic score predictions within sample types but no or negative predictions across sample types. Polygenic scores accounted for 0 to 1% of the variance in AUD symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Though preliminary, these results provide suggestive evidence of differences in the genetic etiology of AUDs based on sample characteristics such as treatment-seeking status, which may index other important clinical or demographic factors that moderate genetic influences. Although the variance accounted for by genomewide polygenic scores remains low, future studies could improve gene identification efforts by amassing very large samples, or reducing genetic heterogeneity by informing analyses with other phenotypic information such as sample characteristics. Multiple complementary approaches may be needed to make progress in gene identification for this complex disorder.

7.
Psychol Med ; 48(11): 1814-1823, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29173193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying genetic relationships between complex traits in emerging adulthood can provide useful etiological insights into risk for psychopathology. College-age individuals are under-represented in genomic analyses thus far, and the majority of work has focused on the clinical disorder or cognitive abilities rather than normal-range behavioral outcomes. METHODS: This study examined a sample of emerging adults 18-22 years of age (N = 5947) to construct an atlas of polygenic risk for 33 traits predicting relevant phenotypic outcomes. Twenty-eight hypotheses were tested based on the previous literature on samples of European ancestry, and the availability of rich assessment data allowed for polygenic predictions across 55 psychological and medical phenotypes. RESULTS: Polygenic risk for schizophrenia (SZ) in emerging adults predicted anxiety, depression, nicotine use, trauma, and family history of psychological disorders. Polygenic risk for neuroticism predicted anxiety, depression, phobia, panic, neuroticism, and was correlated with polygenic risk for cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate the extensive impact of genetic risk for SZ, neuroticism, and major depression on a range of health outcomes in early adulthood. Minimal cross-ancestry replication of these phenomic patterns of polygenic influence underscores the need for more genome-wide association studies of non-European populations.

8.
Front Genet ; 8: 30, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28360924

RESUMO

Background: Genetic factors impact alcohol use behaviors and these factors may become increasingly evident during emerging adulthood. Examination of the effects of individual variants as well as aggregate genetic variation can clarify mechanisms underlying risk. Methods: We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in an ethnically diverse sample of college students for three quantitative outcomes including typical monthly alcohol consumption, alcohol problems, and maximum number of drinks in 24 h. Heritability based on common genetic variants (h2SNP) was assessed. We also evaluated whether risk variants in aggregate were associated with alcohol use outcomes in an independent sample of young adults. Results: Two genome-wide significant markers were observed: rs11201929 in GRID1 for maximum drinks in 24 h, with supportive evidence across all ancestry groups; and rs73317305 in SAMD12 (alcohol problems), tested only in the African ancestry group. The h2SNP estimate was 0.19 (SE = 0.11) for consumption, and was non-significant for other outcomes. Genome-wide polygenic scores were significantly associated with alcohol outcomes in an independent sample. Conclusions: These results robustly identify genetic risk for alcohol use outcomes at the variant level and in aggregate. We confirm prior evidence that genetic variation in GRID1 impacts alcohol use, and identify novel loci of interest for multiple alcohol outcomes in emerging adults. These findings indicate that genetic variation influencing normative and problematic alcohol use is, to some extent, convergent across ancestry groups. Studying college populations represents a promising avenue by which to obtain large, diverse samples for gene identification.

9.
Sci Data ; 4: 170011, 2017 02 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28195579

RESUMO

The China, Oxford and Virginia Commonwealth University Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology (CONVERGE) project on Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) sequenced 11,670 female Han Chinese at low-coverage (1.7X), providing the first large-scale whole genome sequencing resource representative of the largest ethnic group in the world. Samples are collected from 58 hospitals from 23 provinces around China. We are able to call 22 million high quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) from the nuclear genome, representing the largest SNP call set from an East Asian population to date. We use these variants for imputation of genotypes across all samples, and this has allowed us to perform a successful genome wide association study (GWAS) on MDD. The utility of these data can be extended to studies of genetic ancestry in the Han Chinese and evolutionary genetics when integrated with data from other populations. Molecular phenotypes, such as copy number variations and structural variations can be detected, quantified and analysed in similar ways.


Assuntos
Genoma Humano , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , China , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
10.
J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol ; 46(6): 824-839, 2017 Nov-Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26514393

RESUMO

Researchers have long observed that problem behaviors tend to cluster together, particularly among adolescents. Epidemiological studies have suggested that this covariation is due, in part, to common genetic influences, and a number of plausible candidates have emerged as targets for investigation. To date, however, genetic association studies of these behaviors have focused mostly on unidimensional models of individual phenotypes within European American samples. Herein, we compared a series of confirmatory factor models to best characterize the structure of problem behavior (alcohol and marijuana use, sexual behavior, and disruptive behavior) within a representative community-based sample of 592 low-income African American adolescents (50.3% female), ages 13 to 18. We further explored the extent to which 3 genes previously implicated for their role in similar behavioral dimensions (CHRM2, GABRA2, and OPRM1) independently accounted for variance within factors specified in the best-fitting model. Supplementary analyses were conducted to derive comparative estimates for the predictive utility of these genes in more traditional unidimensional models. Findings provide initial evidence for a bifactor structure of problem behavior among African American adolescents and highlight novel genetic correlates of specific behavioral dimensions otherwise undetected in an orthogonal syndromal factor. Implications of this approach include increased precision in the assessment of problem behavior, with corresponding increases in the reliability and validity of identified genetic associations. As a corollary, the comparison of primary and supplementary association analyses illustrates the potential for overlooking and/or overinterpreting meaningful genetic effects when failing to adequately account for phenotypic complexity.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/genética , Comportamento Problema/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pobreza , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estados Unidos
11.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 74(2): 162-168, 2017 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28002544

RESUMO

Importance: Despite the moderate, well-demonstrated heritability of major depressive disorder (MDD), there has been limited success in identifying replicable genetic risk loci, suggesting a complex genetic architecture. Research is needed to quantify the relative contribution of classes of genetic variation across the genome to inform future genetic studies of MDD. Objectives: To apply aggregate genetic risk methods to clarify the genetic architecture of MDD by estimating and partitioning heritability by chromosome, minor allele frequency, and functional annotations and to test for enrichment of rare deleterious variants. Design, Setting, and Participants: The CONVERGE (China, Oxford, and Virginia Commonwealth University Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology) study collected data on 5278 patients with recurrent MDD from 58 provincial mental health centers and psychiatric departments of general medical hospitals in 45 cities and 23 provinces of China. Screened controls (n = 5196) were recruited from a range of locations, including general hospitals and local community centers. Data were collected from August 1, 2008, to October 31, 2012. Main Outcomes and Measures: Genetic risk for liability to recurrent MDD was partitioned using sparse whole-genome sequencing. Results: In aggregate, common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) explained between 20% and 29% of the variance in MDD risk, and the heritability in MDD explained by each chromosome was proportional to its length (r = 0.680; P = .0003), supporting a common polygenic etiology. Partitioning heritability by minor allele frequency indicated that the variance explained was distributed across the allelic frequency spectrum, although relatively common SNPs accounted for a disproportionate fraction of risk. Partitioning by genic annotation indicated a greater contribution of SNPs in protein-coding regions and within 3'-UTR regions of genes. Enrichment of SNPs associated with DNase I-hypersensitive sites was also found in many tissue types, including brain tissue. Examining burden scores from singleton exonic SNPs predicted to be deleterious indicated that cases had significantly more mutations than controls (odds ratio, 1.009; 95% CI, 1.003-1.014; P = .003), including those occurring in genes expressed in the brain (odds ratio, 1.011; 95% CI, 1.003-1.018; P = .004) and within nuclear-encoded genes with mitochondrial gene products (odds ratio, 1.075; 95% CI, 1.018-1.135; P = .009). Conclusions and Relevance: Results support a complex etiology for MDD and highlight the value of analyzing components of heritability to clarify genetic architecture.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/etnologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Genética Populacional , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Desoxirribonuclease I/genética , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Risco , Adulto Jovem
12.
Bioinformatics ; 32(17): 2598-603, 2016 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27187203

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: For genetic studies, statistically significant variants explain far less trait variance than 'sub-threshold' association signals. To dimension follow-up studies, researchers need to accurately estimate 'true' effect sizes at each SNP, e.g. the true mean of odds ratios (ORs)/regression coefficients (RRs) or Z-score noncentralities. Naïve estimates of effect sizes incur winner's curse biases, which are reduced only by laborious winner's curse adjustments (WCAs). Given that Z-scores estimates can be theoretically translated on other scales, we propose a simple method to compute WCA for Z-scores, i.e. their true means/noncentralities. RESULTS: WCA of Z-scores shrinks these towards zero while, on P-value scale, multiple testing adjustment (MTA) shrinks P-values toward one, which corresponds to the zero Z-score value. Thus, WCA on Z-scores scale is a proxy for MTA on P-value scale. Therefore, to estimate Z-score noncentralities for all SNPs in genome scans, we propose F: DR I: nverse Q: uantile T: ransformation (FIQT). It (i) performs the simpler MTA of P-values using FDR and (ii) obtains noncentralities by back-transforming MTA P-values on Z-score scale. When compared to competitors, realistic simulations suggest that FIQT is more (i) accurate and (ii) computationally efficient by orders of magnitude. Practical application of FIQT to Psychiatric Genetic Consortium schizophrenia cohort predicts a non-trivial fraction of sub-threshold signals which become significant in much larger supersamples. CONCLUSIONS: FIQT is a simple, yet accurate, WCA method for Z-scores (and ORs/RRs, via simple transformations). AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: A 10 lines R function implementation is available at https://github.com/bacanusa/FIQT CONTACT: sabacanu@vcu.edu SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Viés , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Humanos , Fenótipo
13.
Schizophr Bull ; 42(2): 279-87, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26316594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that genetic factors may influence both schizophrenia (Scz) and its clinical presentation. In recent years, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have demonstrated considerable success in identifying risk loci. Detection of "modifier loci" has the potential to further elucidate underlying disease processes. METHODS: We performed GWAS of empirically derived positive and negative symptom scales in Irish cases from multiply affected pedigrees and a larger, independent case-control sample, subsequently combining these into a large Irish meta-analysis. In addition to single-SNP associations, we considered gene-based and pathway analyses to better capture convergent genetic effects, and to facilitate biological interpretation of these findings. Replication and testing of aggregate genetic effects was conducted using an independent European-American sample. RESULTS: Though no single marker met the genome-wide significance threshold, genes and ontologies/pathways were significantly associated with negative and positive symptoms; notably, NKAIN2 and NRG1, respectively. We observed limited overlap in ontologies/pathways associated with different symptom profiles, with immune-related categories over-represented for negative symptoms, and addiction-related categories for positive symptoms. Replication analyses suggested that genes associated with clinical presentation are generalizable to non-Irish samples. CONCLUSIONS: These findings strongly support the hypothesis that modifier loci contribute to the etiology of distinct Scz symptom profiles. The finding that previously implicated "risk loci" actually influence particular symptom dimensions has the potential to better delineate the roles of these genes in Scz etiology. Furthermore, the over-representation of distinct gene ontologies/pathways across symptom profiles suggests that the clinical heterogeneity of Scz is due in part to complex and diverse genetic factors.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia/genética , Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia , Humanos
14.
Bioinformatics ; 32(2): 295-7, 2016 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26428293

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: To increase detection power, gene level analysis methods are used to aggregate weak signals. To greatly increase computational efficiency, most methods use as input summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Subsequently, gene statistics are constructed using linkage disequilibrium (LD) patterns from a relevant reference panel. However, all methods, including our own Joint Effect on Phenotype of eQTL/functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a Gene (JEPEG), assume homogeneous panels, e.g. European. However, this renders these tools unsuitable for the analysis of large cosmopolitan cohorts. RESULTS: We propose a JEPEG extension, JEPEGMIX, which similar to one of our software tools, Direct Imputation of summary STatistics of unmeasured SNPs from MIXed ethnicity cohorts, is capable of estimating accurate LD patterns for cosmopolitan cohorts. JEPEGMIX uses this accurate LD estimates to (i) impute the summary statistics at unmeasured functional variants and (ii) test for the joint effect of all measured and imputed functional variants which are associated with a gene. We illustrate the performance of our tool by analyzing the GWAS meta-analysis summary statistics from the multi-ethnic Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Schizophrenia stage 2 cohort. This practical application supports the immune system being one of the main drivers of the process leading to schizophrenia. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: Software, annotation database and examples are available at http://dleelab.github.io/jepegmix/. CONTACT: donghyung.lee@vcuhealth.org SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary material is available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Grupos Étnicos/genética , Testes Genéticos , Genética Populacional , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Software , Estudos de Coortes , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Fenótipo
15.
PLoS One ; 10(9): e0137671, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26381263

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is known to lead to gene expression changes in the brain. After performing weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA) on genome-wide mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression in Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) of subjects with alcohol dependence (AD; N = 18) and of matched controls (N = 18), six mRNA and three miRNA modules significantly correlated with AD were identified (Bonferoni-adj. p≤ 0.05). Cell-type-specific transcriptome analyses revealed two of the mRNA modules to be enriched for neuronal specific marker genes and downregulated in AD, whereas the remaining four mRNA modules were enriched for astrocyte and microglial specific marker genes and upregulated in AD. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that neuronal specific modules were enriched for genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction and MAPK signaling. Glial-specific modules were predominantly enriched for genes involved in processes related to immune functions, i.e. cytokine signaling (all adj. p≤ 0.05). In mRNA and miRNA modules, 461 and 25 candidate hub genes were identified, respectively. In contrast to the expected biological functions of miRNAs, correlation analyses between mRNA and miRNA hub genes revealed a higher number of positive than negative correlations (χ2 test p≤ 0.0001). Integration of hub gene expression with genome-wide genotypic data resulted in 591 mRNA cis-eQTLs and 62 miRNA cis-eQTLs. mRNA cis-eQTLs were significantly enriched for AD diagnosis and AD symptom counts (adj. p = 0.014 and p = 0.024, respectively) in AD GWAS signals in a large, independent genetic sample from the Collaborative Study on Genetics of Alcohol (COGA). In conclusion, our study identified putative gene network hubs coordinating mRNA and miRNA co-expression changes in the NAc of AD subjects, and our genetic (cis-eQTL) analysis provides novel insights into the etiological mechanisms of AD.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , MicroRNAs/genética , Núcleo Accumbens/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Alcoolismo/metabolismo , Astrócitos/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neurônios/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima
16.
J Policy Anal Manage ; 34(3): 497-518, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26106668

RESUMO

Early interventions are a preferred method for addressing behavioral problems in high-risk children, but often have only modest effects. Identifying sources of variation in intervention effects can suggest means to improve efficiency. One potential source of such variation is the genome. We conducted a genetic analysis of the Fast Track randomized control trial, a 10-year-long intervention to prevent high-risk kindergarteners from developing adult externalizing problems including substance abuse and antisocial behavior. We tested whether variants of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1 were associated with differences in response to the Fast Track intervention. We found that in European-American children, a variant of NR3C1 identified by the single-nucleotide polymorphism rs10482672 was associated with increased risk for externalizing psychopathology in control group children and decreased risk for externalizing psychopathology in intervention group children. Variation in NR3C1 measured in this study was not associated with differential intervention response in African-American children. We discuss implications for efforts to prevent externalizing problems in high-risk children and for public policy in the genomic era.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Intervenção Médica Precoce/métodos , Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Controle Interno-Externo , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/genética , Adulto , Transtorno da Personalidade Antissocial/genética , Criança , Transtornos do Comportamento Infantil/psicologia , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Psicopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética
17.
Bioinformatics ; 31(19): 3099-104, 2015 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26059716

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: To increase the signal resolution for large-scale meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies, genotypes at unmeasured single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are commonly imputed using large multi-ethnic reference panels. However, the ever increasing size and ethnic diversity of both reference panels and cohorts makes genotype imputation computationally challenging for moderately sized computer clusters. Moreover, genotype imputation requires subject-level genetic data, which unlike summary statistics provided by virtually all studies, is not publicly available. While there are much less demanding methods which avoid the genotype imputation step by directly imputing SNP statistics, e.g. Directly Imputing summary STatistics (DIST) proposed by our group, their implicit assumptions make them applicable only to ethnically homogeneous cohorts. RESULTS: To decrease computational and access requirements for the analysis of cosmopolitan cohorts, we propose DISTMIX, which extends DIST capabilities to the analysis of mixed ethnicity cohorts. The method uses a relevant reference panel to directly impute unmeasured SNP statistics based only on statistics at measured SNPs and estimated/user-specified ethnic proportions. Simulations show that the proposed method adequately controls the Type I error rates. The 1000 Genomes panel imputation of summary statistics from the ethnically diverse Psychiatric Genetic Consortium Schizophrenia Phase 2 suggests that, when compared to genotype imputation methods, DISTMIX offers comparable imputation accuracy for only a fraction of computational resources. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: DISTMIX software, its reference population data, and usage examples are publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/distmix. CONTACT: dlee4@vcu.edu SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary Data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Software , Estatística como Assunto , Estudos de Coortes , Simulação por Computador , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos
18.
Schizophr Res ; 164(1-3): 181-6, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25778617

RESUMO

Empirically derived phenotypic measurements have the potential to enhance gene-finding efforts in schizophrenia. Previous research based on factor analyses of symptoms has typically included schizoaffective cases. Deriving factor loadings from analysis of only narrowly defined schizophrenia cases could yield more sensitive factor scores for gene pathway and gene ontology analyses. Using an Irish family sample, this study 1) factor analyzed clinician-rated Operational Criteria Checklist items in cases with schizophrenia only, 2) scored the full sample based on these factor loadings, and 3) implemented genome-wide association, gene-based, and gene-pathway analysis of these SCZ-based symptom factors (final N=507). Three factors emerged from the analysis of the schizophrenia cases: a manic, a depressive, and a positive symptom factor. In gene-based analyses of these factors, multiple genes had q<0.01. Of particular interest are findings for PTPRG and WBP1L, both of which were previously implicated by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium study of SCZ; results from this study suggest that variants in these genes might also act as modifiers of SCZ symptoms. Gene pathway analyses of the first factor indicated over-representation of glutamatergic transmission, GABA-A receptor, and cyclic GMP pathways. Results suggest that these pathways may have differential influence on affective symptom presentation in schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/etiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/complicações , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/diagnóstico
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 112(10): 3032-7, 2015 Mar 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25713357

RESUMO

Alcohol abuse is a widespread and serious problem. Understanding the factors that influence the likelihood of abuse is important for the development of effective therapies. There are both genetic and environmental influences on the development of abuse, but it has been difficult to identify specific liability factors, in part because of both the complex genetic architecture of liability and the influences of environmental stimuli on the expression of that genetic liability. Epigenetic modification of gene expression can underlie both genetic and environmentally sensitive variation in expression, and epigenetic regulation has been implicated in the progression to addiction. Here, we identify a role for the switching defective/sucrose nonfermenting (SWI/SNF) chromatin-remodeling complex in regulating the behavioral response to alcohol in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that SWI/SNF components are required in adults for the normal behavioral response to ethanol and that different SWI/SNF complexes regulate different aspects of the acute response to ethanol. We showed that the SWI/SNF subunits SWSN-9 and SWSN-7 are required in neurons and muscle for the development of acute functional tolerance to ethanol. Examination of the members of the SWI/SNF complex for association with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence in a human population identified allelic variation in a member of the SWI/SNF complex, suggesting that variation in the regulation of SWI/SNF targets may influence the propensity to develop abuse disorders. Together, these data strongly implicate the chromatin remodeling associated with SWI/SNF complex members in the behavioral responses to alcohol across phyla.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/fisiopatologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/fisiologia , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Alcoolismo/diagnóstico , Animais , Proteínas Cromossômicas não Histona/genética , Etanol/toxicidade , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Interferência de RNA , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
20.
Bioinformatics ; 31(8): 1176-82, 2015 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25505091

RESUMO

MOTIVATION: Gene expression is influenced by variants commonly known as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). On the basis of this fact, researchers proposed to use eQTL/functional information univariately for prioritizing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) signals from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, most genes are influenced by multiple eQTLs which, thus, jointly affect any downstream phenotype. Therefore, when compared with the univariate prioritization approach, a joint modeling of eQTL action on phenotypes has the potential to substantially increase signal detection power. Nonetheless, a joint eQTL analysis is impeded by (i) not measuring all eQTLs in a gene and/or (ii) lack of access to individual genotypes. RESULTS: We propose joint effect on phenotype of eQTL/functional SNPs associated with a gene (JEPEG), a novel software tool which uses only GWAS summary statistics to (i) impute the summary statistics at unmeasured eQTLs and (ii) test for the joint effect of all measured and imputed eQTLs in a gene. We illustrate the behavior/performance of the developed tool by analysing the GWAS meta-analysis summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Stage 1 and the Genetic Consortium for Anorexia Nervosa. CONCLUSIONS: Applied analyses results suggest that JEPEG complements commonly used univariate GWAS tools by: (i) increasing signal detection power via uncovering (a) novel genes or (b) known associated genes in smaller cohorts and (ii) assisting in fine-mapping of challenging regions, e.g. major histocompatibility complex for schizophrenia. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: JEPEG, its associated database of eQTL SNPs and usage examples are publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/jepeg/. CONTACT: dlee4@vcu.edu SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Biomarcadores/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Software , Estudos de Coortes , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Fenótipo
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