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1.
Oper Dent ; 44(1): E23-E31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30212272

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to assess practices related to diagnosis of dental caries among dentists (n=217) from Araraquara, São Paulo State, Brazil. Data on sociodemographic information and practitioner characteristics were collected using a pretested questionnaire, and data on practices related to caries diagnosis were gathered by using a translated and culturally adapted questionnaire from the US National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses were used for data analysis. Respondents reported using in most of their patients radiographs (Rx) to diagnose proximal caries (59%), explorer (Ex) for the diagnosis of occlusal caries (64%) and on the margins of existing restorations (79%), as well as air jet (AJ) with drying (92%). Magnification (M) (25%), fiber optic transillumination (FOTI; 14%), and laser fluorescence (LF) (3%) were used in the minority of patients. Regression analysis revealed that the following dentists' characteristics were significantly associated (p<0.05) with the use of diagnostic methods on a greater percentage of their patients: advanced degree (Rx, FOTI), higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (Rx, FOTI, M), more years since dental school graduation (Ex, M), and work in an exclusively private practice model (LF). In conclusion, most Brazilian dentists from Araraquara reported they most commonly use visual, tactile, and radiographic imaging for the diagnosis of dental caries. Some dentists' characteristics, such as time from dental school graduation and having a postgraduation course, were associated with the use of certain diagnostic methods.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Padrões de Prática Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
R Soc Open Sci ; 5(10): 180136, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473801

RESUMO

Invasive mammalian predators are linked to terrestrial vertebrate extinctions worldwide. Prey naïveté may explain the large impact invasive predators have on native prey; prey may fail to detect and react appropriately to the cues of novel predators, which results in high levels of depredation. In Australia, the feral cat (Felis catus) and the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are implicated in more than 30 animal extinctions and the naïveté of native prey is often used to explain this high extinction rate. Reptiles are one group of animals that are heavily preyed upon by F. catus and V. vulpes. However, very few studies have examined whether reptiles are naive to their cues. In this study, we examine the ability of two native reptile species (Morethia boulengeri and Christinus marmoratus) to detect and distinguish between the chemical cues of two invasive predators (V. vulpes and F. catus) and three native predators (spotted-tailed quoll, Dasyurus maculatus; dingo, Canis lupus dingo; eastern brown snake, Pseudonaja textilis), as well as two non-predator controls (eastern grey kangaroo, Macropus giganteus and water). We conducted experiments to quantify the effects of predator scents on lizard foraging (the amount of food eaten) during 1 h trials within Y-maze arenas. We found both study species reduced the amount they consumed when exposed to predator scents-both native and invasive-indicating that these species are not naive to invasive predators. An evolved generalized predator-recognition system, rapid evolution or learned behaviour could each explain the lack of naïveté in some native Australian reptiles towards invasive predators.

3.
Am J Transplant ; 17(12): 3098-3113, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28470889

RESUMO

Thymic regulatory T cells (tTregs) and induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) suppress murine acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Previously, we demonstrated that the plasmacytoid dendritic cell indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) fosters the in vitro development of human iTregs via tryptophan depletion and kynurenine (Kyn) metabolites. We now show that stimulation of naïve CD4+ T cells in low tryptophan (low Trp) plus Kyn supports human iTreg generation. In vitro, low Trp + Kyn iTregs and tTregs potently suppress T effector cell proliferation equivalently but are phenotypically distinct. Compared with tTregs or T effector cells, bioenergetics profiling reveals that low Trp + Kyn iTregs have increased basal glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation and use glutaminolysis as an energy source. Low Trp + Kyn iTreg viability was reliant on interleukin (IL)-2 in vitro. Although in vivo IL-2 administration increased low Trp + Kyn iTreg persistence on adoptive transfer into immunodeficient mice given peripheral blood mononuclear cells to induce GVHD, IL-2-supported iTregs did not improve recipient survival. We conclude that low Trp + Kyn create suppressive iTregs that have high metabolic needs that will need to be addressed before clinical translation.


Assuntos
Transplante de Medula Óssea , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Cinurenina/metabolismo , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Triptofano/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/metabolismo , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos , Taxa de Sobrevida
4.
JDR Clin Trans Res ; 2(2): 151-157, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28529977

RESUMO

The primary aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a patient's subjective assessments of the dentist's technical competence, quality of care, and anticipated restoration longevity during a restorative visit are predictive of restoration outcome. This prospective cohort study involved 3,326 patients who received treatment for a defective restoration in a permanent tooth, participated in a baseline patient satisfaction survey, and returned for follow-up. Of the 4,400 restorations that were examined by 150 dentists, 266 (6%) received additional treatment after baseline. Reporting satisfaction with the technical skill of the dentist or quality of the dental work at baseline was not associated with retreatment after baseline. However, patients' views at baseline that the fee was reasonable (odds ratio [OR], 1.6) was associated with retreatment after baseline, whereas satisfaction at baseline with how long the filling would last (OR, 0.6) was associated with less retreatment. These findings suggest that retreatment occurs more often for patients who at baseline are satisfied with the cost or who at baseline have less confidence in the restoration. The authors found no associations between restoration retreatment and the patients' baseline evaluations of the technical skills of their dentists or perceptions of quality care. KNOWLEDGE TRANSFER STATEMENT: Dental patients' ratings of their dentist's skills were not related to a restoration needing retreatment. Patients focus on other aspects of the dental visit when making this judgment.

5.
Am J Transplant ; 13(11): 3010-20, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24102808

RESUMO

Regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy has the potential to induce transplantation tolerance so that immunosuppression and associated morbidity can be minimized. Alloantigen-reactive Tregs (arTregs) are more effective at preventing graft rejection than polyclonally expanded Tregs (PolyTregs) in murine models. We have developed a manufacturing process to expand human arTregs in short-term cultures using good manufacturing practice-compliant reagents. This process uses CD40L-activated allogeneic B cells to selectively expand arTregs followed by polyclonal restimulation to increase yield. Tregs expanded 100- to 1600-fold were highly alloantigen reactive and expressed the phenotype of stable Tregs. The alloantigen-expanded Tregs had a diverse TCR repertoire. They were more potent than PolyTregs in vitro and more effective at controlling allograft injuries in vivo in a humanized mouse model.


Assuntos
Terapia Baseada em Transplante de Células e Tecidos , Rejeição de Enxerto/prevenção & controle , Tolerância Imunológica/imunologia , Isoantígenos/imunologia , Transplante de Pele , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/transplante , Animais , Citometria de Fluxo , Rejeição de Enxerto/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/imunologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tolerância ao Transplante
6.
Osteoarthritis Cartilage ; 21(9): 1243-52, 2013 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23973137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Pain in knee osteoarthritis (OA) has historically been attributed to peripheral pathophysiology; however, the poor correspondence between objective measures of disease severity and clinical symptoms suggests that non-local factors, such as altered central processing of painful stimuli, also contribute to clinical pain in knee OA. Consistent with this notion, recent evidence demonstrates that patients with knee OA exhibit increased sensitivity to painful stimuli at body sites unaffected by clinical pain. DESIGN: In order to further investigate the contribution of altered pain processing to knee OA pain, the current study tested the hypothesis that symptomatic knee OA is associated with enhanced sensitivity to experimental pain stimuli at the knee and at remote body sites unaffected by clinical pain. We further anticipated that pain sensitivity would differ as a function of the OA symptom severity. Older adults with and without symptomatic knee OA completed a series of experimental pain assessments. A median split of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) was used to stratify participants into low vs high OA symptom severity. RESULTS: Compared to controls and the low symptom group, individuals in the high symptom group were more sensitive to suprathreshold heat stimuli, blunt pressure, punctuate mechanical, and cold stimuli. Individuals in the low symptomatic OA group subgroup exhibited experimental pain responses similar to the pain-free group on most measures. No group differences in endogenous pain inhibition emerged. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that altered central processing of pain is particularly characteristic of individuals with moderate to severe symptomatic knee OA.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/fisiopatologia , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Dor Aguda/psicologia , Artralgia/etiologia , Artralgia/psicologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Avaliação da Deficiência , Escolaridade , Feminino , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/complicações , Osteoartrite do Joelho/psicologia , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor/psicologia , Estimulação Física/efeitos adversos , Pressão/efeitos adversos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
7.
Arthritis Rheum ; 64(12): 3926-35, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23135697

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Low circulating serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (referred to hereafter as vitamin D) have been correlated with many health conditions, including chronic pain. Recent clinical practice guidelines define vitamin D levels <20 ng/ml as deficient and levels of 21-29 ng/ml as insufficient. Vitamin D insufficiency, including the most severe levels of deficiency, is more prevalent in black Americans. Ethnic and race group differences have been reported in both clinical and experimental pain, with black Americans reporting increased pain. The purpose of this study was to examine whether variations in vitamin D levels contribute to race differences in knee osteoarthritis pain. METHODS: The sample consisted of 94 participants (74% women), including 45 blacks and 49 whites with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Their average age was 55.8 years (range 45-71 years). Participants completed a questionnaire on knee osteoarthritis symptoms and underwent quantitative sensory testing, including measures of sensitivity to heat-induced and mechanically induced pain. RESULTS: Blacks had significantly lower levels of vitamin D compared to whites, demonstrated greater clinical pain, and showed greater sensitivity to heat-induced and mechanically induced pain. Low levels of vitamin D predicted increased experimental pain sensitivity, but did not predict self-reported clinical pain. Group differences in vitamin D levels significantly predicted group differences in heat pain and pressure pain thresholds at the index knee and ipsilateral forearm. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that race differences in experimental pain are mediated by differences in the vitamin D level. Vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for increased knee osteoarthritis pain in black Americans.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Osteoartrite do Joelho/etnologia , Limiar da Dor/etnologia , Deficiência de Vitamina D/etnologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artralgia/etnologia , Artralgia/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/etnologia , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Articulação do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoartrite do Joelho/sangue , Osteoartrite do Joelho/fisiopatologia , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações
8.
Am J Transplant ; 11(6): 1148-57, 2011 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21564534

RESUMO

Adoptive transfer of thymus-derived natural regulatory T cells (nTregs) effectively suppresses disease in murine models of autoimmunity and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). TGFß induces Foxp3 expression and suppressive function in stimulated murine CD4+25- T cells, and these induced Treg (iTregs), like nTreg, suppress auto- and allo-reactivity in vivo. However, while TGFß induces Foxp3 expression in stimulated human T cells, the expanded cells lack suppressor cell function. Here we show that Rapamycin (Rapa) enhances TGFß-dependent Foxp3 expression and induces a potent suppressor function in naive (CD4+ 25-45RA+) T cells. Rapa/TGFß iTregs are anergic, express CD25 at levels higher than expanded nTregs and few cells secrete IL-2, IFNγ or IL-17 even after PMA and Ionomycin stimulation in vitro. Unlike other published methods of inducing Treg function, Rapa/TGFß induces suppressive function even in the presence of memory CD4+ T cells. A single apheresis unit of blood yields an average ~240 × 109 (range ~ 70-560 × 109) iTregs from CD4+25- T cells in ≤ 2 weeks of culture. Most importantly, Rapa/TGFß iTregs suppress disease in a xenogeneic model of GVHD. This study opens the door for iTreg cellular therapy for human diseases.


Assuntos
Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/fisiologia , Animais , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Sirolimo/farmacologia
9.
Oper Dent ; 36(1): 2-11, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21488724

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. METHODS: A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included the use of dental radiographs, the dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying and fiber-optic devices and magnification as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. RESULTS: Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries and caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75%­100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p=.040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p=.001). CONCLUSION: The use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods..


Assuntos
Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Pesquisa em Odontologia/organização & administração , Padrões de Prática Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Testes de Atividade de Cárie Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Instrumentos Odontológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fluorescência , Humanos , Lasers , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Análise Multivariada , Radiografia Dentária/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Transiluminação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
10.
Pain ; 152(3): 614-622, 2011 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21239109

RESUMO

Studies have demonstrated menstrual cycle influences on basal pain perception, but direct evidence of menstrual cycle influences on analgesic responses has not been reported in humans. Our aim was to determine whether the magnitude of morphine and pentazocine analgesia varied across the menstrual cycle. Sixty-five healthy women, 35 taking oral contraceptives (OC) and 30 normally cycling (NOC), underwent experimental pain assessment both before and after intravenous administration morphine (0.08mg/kg) or pentazocine (0.5mg/kg) compared to saline placebo. Both active drug and placebo were administered once during the follicular phase and once during the luteal phase. Measures of heat, ischemic, and pressure pain sensitivity were obtained before and after drug administration. Change scores in pain responses were computed to determine morphine and pentazocine analgesic responses, and medication side effects were recorded. The data were analyzed using mixed-model analyses of variance. NOC women showed slightly greater heat pain sensitivity in the follicular vs luteal phase, while the reverse pattern emerged for OC women (P=0.046). Also, OC women showed lower pressure pain thresholds compared to NOC women (P<0.05). Regarding analgesic responses, NOC women showed greater morphine analgesia for ischemic pain during the follicular vs the luteal phase (P=0.004). Likewise, side effects for morphine were significantly higher in NOC women in the follicular phase than in the luteal phase (P=0.02). These findings suggest that sex hormones may influence opioid responses; however, the effects vary across medications and pain modalities and are likely to be modest in magnitude. Limited menstrual cycle effects on baseline pain responses were observed; however, morphine analgesia and side effects were greater during the follicular phase.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Ciclo Menstrual/efeitos dos fármacos , Morfina/uso terapêutico , Limiar da Dor/efeitos dos fármacos , Pentazocina/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Humanos , Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia , Medição da Dor/métodos , Estatística como Assunto , Adulto Jovem
11.
Oral Health Prev Dent ; 8(4): 351-9, 2010.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21180672

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Scientific evidence supports the application of caries-preventive agents in children and adolescents, and this knowledge must be applied to the practice of dentistry. There are few multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographical regions. The objective of the present study was to characterise the use of specific caries-preventive agents for paediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of practising clinicians. METHODS: The present study surveyed clinicians from the Dental Practice-based Research Network who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey consisted of a questionnaire that presented a range of questions about caries risk assessment and the use of preventive techniques in children aged 6 to 18 years. RESULTS: Dental sealants (69%) or in-office fluoride (82%) were the most commonly used caries-preventive agents of the caries preventive regimens. The recommendation of at-home caries-preventive agents ranged from 36% to 7%,with the most commonly used agent being non-prescription fluoride rinse. Clinicians who practised in a large group practice model and clinicians who come from the Scandinavian region use caries risk assessment more frequently compared to clinicians who come from regions that had, predominantly, clinicians in private practice. Whether or not clinicians used caries risk assessment with their paediatric patients was poorly correlated with the likelihood of actually using caries-preventive treatments on patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although clinicians reported the use of some form of in-office caries-preventive agent, there was considerable variability across practices. These differences could represent a lack of consensus across practising clinicians about the benefits of caries-preventive agents, or a function of differing financial incentives, or patient pools with differing levels of overall caries risk.


Assuntos
Cariostáticos/uso terapêutico , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Cárie Dentária/prevenção & controle , Padrões de Prática Odontológica , Adolescente , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/uso terapêutico , Goma de Mascar , Criança , Clorexidina/uso terapêutico , Suscetibilidade à Cárie Dentária , Feminino , Fluoretos/uso terapêutico , Fluoretos Tópicos/uso terapêutico , Prática Odontológica de Grupo , Humanos , Masculino , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Selantes de Fossas e Fissuras/uso terapêutico , Prática Privada , Prática Profissional , Odontologia em Saúde Pública , Medição de Risco , Países Escandinavos e Nórdicos , Estados Unidos
12.
Clin Immunol ; 115(1): 26-32, 2005 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15870017

RESUMO

Peptidomimetics of HIV-1 gp41 sequences required for membrane fusion are potent inhibitors of HIV-1 entry. We hypothesize that expression of a membrane-bound gp41-derived fusion inhibitor will confer HIV-1 resistance to primary CD4 T cells. Efficient gene delivery and stable expression of a membrane-bound gp41-derived fusion inhibitor to primary CD4 T cells was accomplished using a self-inactivating lentiviral vector. A potent antiviral effect was observed when transduced CD4 T cells were challenged with a highly virulent CXCR4-tropic strain of HIV-1. Production of soluble p24 in the supernatant was inhibited 100-fold, and cytopathic effects were evident early in non-transduced cells and absent in transduced cells. Expression of the gp41 sequences was not detrimental to CD4 cells as transduced CD4 T cells exhibited a population doubling time that was equivalent to T cells transduced with a control vector. Results from this study support the rationale to use this lentiviral vector targeted at HIV entry as a potential gene therapy for HIV infection.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Terapia Genética/métodos , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/terapia , HIV-1/imunologia , Lentivirus/genética , Fármacos Anti-HIV/administração & dosagem , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/virologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Vetores Genéticos/genética , Vetores Genéticos/imunologia , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/imunologia , Proteína gp41 do Envelope de HIV/imunologia , Inibidores da Fusão de HIV/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/imunologia , Humanos , Cinética , Lentivirus/imunologia , Receptores CXCR4/imunologia , Transdução Genética
13.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 43(1): 78-84, 2003 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12629467

RESUMO

AIM: There is agreement that females report greater pain in response to typical experimental pain stimuli than males. However, investigations of sex differences in the sensation of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) have equivocal RESULTS: The objective of this investigation was to examine sex differences in the pain from DOMS with an adequate sample size, quantification of stimulus intensity, and 2 measures of pain. METHODS: Sixty-seven participants (52% females) completed a 2-session protocol. DOMS was induced using eccentric resistance exercises in the elbow flexors of the non-dominant arm. The intensity of the eccentric contractions was based upon concentric strength. Pain response was measured 48 hrs later. The dependent variables were pressure threshold, which was assessed using a dolorimeter, and pain intensity when the arm was moved through full active range of motion, which was assessed with a visual analog scale. RESULTS: The occurrence of DOMS was confirmed by a decrease in pressure threshold after the eccentric contractions and higher pain intensity in the arm that performed the eccentric contractions than the arm that did not. Females reported lower pain intensities (M=3.41, SD=2.13) compared to males (M=5.12, SD=2.05), but no significant sex difference was found in pressure threshold. CONCLUSION: In this investigation, females reported lower muscle pain intensity than males, but showed no sex difference in pressure threshold. These and previous findings suggest that the detection of a sex difference in muscle pain depends upon the methodology of inducing DOMS and measuring sensation.


Assuntos
Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Braço/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Fatores Sexuais , Tempo , Levantamento de Peso/lesões
14.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 42(4): 458-65, 2002 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12391441

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite several review articles supporting the existence of exercise induced analgesia, it is unclear whether exercise reduces delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of an acute bout of endurance exercise on delayed onset muscle pain. METHODS: DOMS was induced in the elbow flexors of the non-dominant arm using eccentric isotonic exercise with the intensity of the eccentric contractions based upon concentric strength. Forty-eight hours after the eccentric contractions participants were randomly assigned to a group that completed 20 min of endurance exercise at 80% of estimated maximum cardiorespiratory endurance (n=23) or a group that watched a 20 min emotionally neutral video (n=27). The dependent variables were pressure pain threshold, pain intensity during arm movement through active range of motion, a standardized pain rating that was determined from a magnitude matching procedure, and state anxiety. RESULTS: A significant decrease in pressure pain threshold and an increase in the standardized pain ratings after the DOMS procedure (p<0.05) indicated that muscle pain was successfully induced. These changes were components of significant quadratic trends for pressure threshold (p<0.05) and the standardized pain ratings (p<0.01). During the 2nd session a decrease in pain intensity approached significance (p=0.05) regardless of group assignment. However, no significant group by time interactions were detected for any of the pain measures or state anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Cycle ergometer exercise was not found to alter delayed onset muscle pain.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Dor/fisiopatologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Adulto , Ergometria , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo
15.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 17(6): 583-93, 2002 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14591857

RESUMO

MMPI-2 profiles of 93 presurgical intractable epilepsy patients were examined using Ward's method of cluster analysis. Three clusters were identified. The means of each cluster suggest that 45% of the sample had minimal psychological complaints, 30% presented with generalized clinical elevations, and 25% of the patients had profiles of intermediate elevations with a tendency to emphasize somatic complaints and/or depression. Gender, age of seizure onset, and seizure laterality were not found to be uniquely associated with the cluster profiles. Further examination of correlates of group membership is warranted to provide information for treatment planning.

16.
Psychosom Med ; 63(4): 545-50, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11485107

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The current study investigated whether the relationship between sex and experimental pain report was explained by systolic blood pressure (SBP) at rest or during pain task, by gender-role socialization as assessed by the Bem Sex Role Inventory, or both. The influence of gender-role socialization on pain report is often inferred but rarely studied. METHODS: Fifty female and 54 male healthy, young adults completed the Bem Sex Role Inventory and then underwent a cold pressor task. Blood pressure was assessed before and during pain testing. RESULTS: Univariate analyses indicated significant sex-related differences in pain threshold and pain tolerance. Baseline SBP was positively related to pain tolerance but did not explain sex differences, in accord with previous research. The Bem Sex Role Inventory demonstrated a relationship with pain, but did not explain sex differences. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that context-specific measures of gender are needed to assess gender-related pain behaviors in specific situations. Results from the current study support our contention that gender is part of sex as commonly measured. Also, blood pressure does not appear to fully account for sex-related differences in pain.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Identidade de Gênero , Medição da Dor , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Inventário de Personalidade , Psicofisiologia
17.
Mol Biol Evol ; 18(7): 1372-7, 2001 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11420375

RESUMO

Ciliates are a diverse group of eukaryotes characterized by their division of nuclear function into a "germ line" micronucleus and a "somatic" macronucleus. After conjugation, chromosomes in the transcriptionally active macronucleus develop by fragmentation, elimination, and amplification of germ line chromosomes. Extensive chromosomal processing that generates a macronucleus with gene-sized fragments has thus far been well documented in members of only one class of ciliates, the Spirotrichea. Here we establish the broad distribution of extensive fragmentation among members of the class Phyllopharyngea and the genera Metopus (order Armophorida) and Nyctotherus (order Clevelandellida). Moreover, analyses of small-subunit rDNA genealogies indicate that gene-sized chromosomes occur in members of the three separate clades: (1) the class Spirotrichea, (2) the class Phyllopharyngea, and (3) the two orders Clevelandellida and Armophorida. Together, these data indicate that the generation of gene-sized chromosomes is widespread and demonstrate multiple origins of extensive fragmentation within ciliates.


Assuntos
Cilióforos/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Cromossomos/genética , Fragmentação do DNA , Primers do DNA/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Evolução Molecular , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia
18.
J Immunol ; 166(8): 4943-8, 2001 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11290772

RESUMO

We investigated the relationship between ICOS, CD28, CTLA-4, and IL-2 to gain a better understanding of this family of costimulatory receptors in the immune response. Using magnetic beads coated with anti-CD3 and varying amounts of anti-ICOS and anti-CTLA-4 Abs, we show that CTLA-4 ligation blocks ICOS costimulation. In addition to inhibiting cellular proliferation, CTLA-4 engagement prevented ICOS-costimulated T cells from producing IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13. Both an indirect and direct mechanism of CTLA-4's actions were examined. First, CTLA-4 engagement on resting cells was found to indirectly block ICOS costimulation by interferring with the signals needed to induce ICOS cell surface expression. Second, on preactivated cells that had high levels of ICOS expression, CTLA-4 ligation blocked the ICOS-mediated induction of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13, suggesting an interference with downstream signaling pathways. The addition of IL-2 not only overcame both mechanisms, but also greatly augmented the level of cellular activation suggesting synergy between ICOS and IL-2 signaling. This cooperation between ICOS and IL-2 signaling was explored further by showing that the minimum level of IL-2 produced by ICOS costimulation was required for T cell proliferation. Finally, exogenous IL-2 was required for sustained growth of ICOS-costimulated T cells. These results indicate that stringent control of ICOS costimulation is maintained initially by CTLA-4 engagement and later by a requirement for exogenous IL-2.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/fisiologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação/metabolismo , Imunoconjugados , Imunossupressores/imunologia , Imunossupressores/metabolismo , Interleucina-2/fisiologia , Abatacepte , Antígenos CD , Antígenos de Diferenciação/farmacologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/biossíntese , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Antígenos CD28/fisiologia , Antígeno CTLA-4 , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Divisão Celular/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Citocinas/biossíntese , Relação Dose-Resposta Imunológica , Regulação para Baixo/imunologia , Humanos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Proteína Coestimuladora de Linfócitos T Induzíveis , Interleucina-2/biossíntese , Interleucina-2/farmacologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/citologia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Células Th2/imunologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
19.
J Pain ; 2(5): 251-7, 2001 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14622803

RESUMO

Empirical research supports the existence of sex differences in pain; yet these differences are poorly understood. Although biological mechanisms have been posited to explain variability, results of pain modeling manipulations suggest social learning may be a stronger influence on pain response. In this report we use the term sex to refer to the biological category of male or female. We use the term gender to refer to the socially acquired aspects of being male or female sometimes referred to as femininity and masculinity. This study investigated a new measure, the Gender Role Expectations of Pain questionnaire (GREP), which was designed to measure sex-related stereotypic attributions of pain sensitivity, endurance, and willingness to report pain. Subjects were 156 male and 235 female undergraduates at a southeastern university. Psychometric investigation of the questionnaire revealed a 5-factor solution that closely mirrored the theoretical construction of the items. Test-retest reliability was also shown for individual items on a separate sample of 28 subjects. Results supported hypotheses about gender role: both men and women rated men as less willing to report pain than women (F(1,389) = 336, P <.001); both men and women rated women more sensitive (F(1,389) = 9.5, P <.05) and less enduring of pain (F(1,389) = 65.7, P <.001) than men; and men rated their own endurance as higher than the typical man (F(1,389) = 65.7, P <.001). Sex accounted for 46% of the variance in willingness to report pain. Results suggest that the GREP distinguished between the socially learned reactions to pain for men and women. It is recommended that the influence of gender-related expectations for pain be assessed in all studies investigating human sex differences in pain.

20.
J Pain ; 2(5): 262-9, 2001 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14622805

RESUMO

The spouse plays a fundamental role in day-to-day functioning and long-term well-being of the patient with chronic pain. Although spouses may respond differently to pain demonstrations, no study has examined patterns of perceived spouse responsiveness to chronic pain behavior. Yet perceived patterns of response to chronic pain may explain variability in pain behavior in the literature because studied samples may be drawn from any one subgroup. The purposes of this study were to run an exploratory cluster analysis to identify naturally occurring spouse response subgroups by using section 2 of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory and to examine pain-relevant variables between subgroups. It was hypothesized that subgroups would be identified and that they would differ on pain-relevant variables. Participants were 774 married pain patients from 2 University of Florida-affiliated pain clinics, 69% of whom experienced chronic low back pain. A hierarchical cluster analysis identified 3 subgroups that were labeled positively attentive, negatively attentive, and inattentive. A discriminant analysis yielded 2 significant discriminant functions that correctly classified 71.1% of subgroup membership. The support variable best differentiated between the positively and negatively attentive subgroups, whereas interference best distinguished between the negatively attentive and inattentive subgroups. Results suggest the profiles have conceptual and clinical validity, with the negatively and positively attentive subgroups exhibiting the poorest adjustment to pain. A controlled study is needed to determine the direction of causality.

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