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2.
Environ Microbiol ; 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538387

RESUMO

Priming, an inducible stress defence strategy that prepares an organism for an impending stress event, is common in microbes and has been studied mostly in isolated organisms or populations. How the benefits of priming change in the microbial community context and, vice versa, whether priming influences competition between organisms, remain largely unknown. In this study, we grew different isolates of soil fungi that experienced heat stress in isolation and pairwise competition experiments and assessed colony extension rate as a measure of fitness under priming and non-priming conditions. Based on this data, we developed a cellular automaton model simulating the growth of the ascomycete Chaetomium angustispirale competing against other fungi and systematically varied fungal response traits to explain similarities and differences observed in the experimental data. We showed that competition changes the priming benefit compared with isolated growth and that it can even be reversed depending on the competitor's traits such as growth rate, primeability and stress susceptibility. With this study, we transfer insights on priming from studies in isolation to competition between species. This is an important step towards understanding the role of inducible defences in microbial community assembly and composition.

4.
Ecol Lett ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169908

RESUMO

Soil ecological stoichiometry provides powerful theories to integrate the complex interplay of element cycling and microbial communities into biogeochemical models. One essential assumption is that microbes maintain stable C:N:P (carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus) ratios independent of resource supply, although such homeostatic regulations have rarely been assessed in individual microorganisms. Here, we report an unexpected high flexibility in C:N and C:P values of saprobic fungi along nutrient supply gradients, overall ranging between 7-126 and 20-1488, respectively, questioning microbial homeostasis. Fungal N:P varied comparatively less due to simultaneous reductions in mycelial N and P contents. As a mechanism, internal recycling processes during mycelial growth and an overall reduced N and P uptake appear more relevant than element storage. The relationships among fungal stoichiometry and growth disappeared in more complex media. These findings affect our interpretation of stoichiometric imbalances among microbes and soils and are highly relevant for developing microbial soil organic carbon and nitrogen models.

5.
New Phytol ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152109

RESUMO

Global environmental change poses threats to plant and soil biodiversity. Yet, whether soil biodiversity loss can further influence plant community's response to global change is still poorly understood. We created a gradient of soil biodiversity using the dilution-to-extinction approach, and investigated the effects of soil biodiversity loss on plant communities during and following manipulations simulating global change disturbances in experimental grassland microcosms. Grass and herb biomass was decreased by drought and promoted by nitrogen deposition, and a fast recovery was observed following disturbances, independently of soil biodiversity loss. Warming promoted herb biomass during and following disturbance only when soil biodiversity was not reduced. However, legumes biomass was suppressed by these disturbances, and there were more detrimental effects with reduced soil biodiversity. Moreover, soil biodiversity loss suppressed the recovery of legumes following these disturbances. Similar patterns were found for the response of plant diversity. The changes in legumes might be partly attributed to the loss of mycorrhizal soil mutualists. Our study shows that soil biodiversity is crucial for legume persistence and plant diversity maintenance when faced with environmental change, highlighting the importance of soil biodiversity as a potential buffering mechanism for plant diversity and community composition in grasslands.

6.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 16(11): e1008313, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211687

RESUMO

When running a lab we do not think about calamities, since they are rare events for which we cannot plan while we are busy with the day-to-day management and intellectual challenges of a research lab. No lab team can be prepared for something like a pandemic such as COVID-19, which has led to shuttered labs around the globe. But many other types of crises can also arise that labs may have to weather during their lifetime. What can researchers do to make a lab more resilient in the face of such exterior forces? What systems or behaviors could we adjust in 'normal' times that promote lab success, and increase the chances that the lab will stay on its trajectory? We offer 10 rules, based on our current experiences as a lab group adapting to crisis.

7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(21): 13868-13878, 2020 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052669

RESUMO

With increasing interest in the effects of microplastics on the soil environment, there is a need to thoroughly evaluate the potential adverse effects of these particles as a function of their characteristics (size, shape, and composition). In addition, extractable chemical additives from microplastics have been identified as an important toxicity pathway in the aquatic environment. However, currently, little is known about the effects of such additives on the soil environment. In this study on nematodes (Caenorhabditis elegans), we adopted an ecotoxicological approach to assess the potential effects of 13 different microplastics (0.001-1% of soil dry weight) with different characteristics and extractable additives. We found that poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fragments and polyacrylicnitrile (PAN) fibers show the highest toxicity, while high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polypropylene (PP), and polystyrene (PS) fragments induced relatively less adverse effects on nematodes. In addition, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) induced no toxicity within our test concentration range for the acute period. Acute toxicity was mainly attributed to the extractable additives: when the additives were extracted, the toxic effects of each microplastic disappeared in the acute soil toxicity test. The harmful effects of the LDPE films and PAN fibers increased when the microplastics were maintained in the soil for a long-term period with frequent wet-dry cycles. We here provide clear evidence that microplastic toxicity in the soil is highly related to extractable additives. Our results suggest that future experiments consider extractable additives as key explanatory variables.

8.
Nat Rev Earth Environ ; 1(10): 544-553, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33015639

RESUMO

Soil health is the continued capacity of soil to function as a vital living ecosystem that sustains plants, animals and humans, and connects agricultural and soil science to policy, stakeholder needs and sustainable supply chain management. Historically, soil assessments focused on crop production, but today soil health also includes the role of soil in water quality, climate change and human health. However, quantifying soil health is still dominated by chemical indicators, despite growing appreciation of the importance of soil biodiversity, due to limited functional knowledge and lack of effective methods. In this Perspective, the definition and history of soil health are described and compared to other soil concepts. We outline ecosystem services provided by soils, the indicators used to measure soil functionality, and their integration into informative soil health indices. Scientists should embrace soil health as an overarching principle that contributes to sustainability goals, rather than only a property to measure. TOC blurb: Soil health is essential to crop production, but is also key to many ecosystem services. In this Perspective, the definition, impact and quantification of soil health are examined, and the needs in soil health research are outlined.

9.
Sci Adv ; 6(27)2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937432

RESUMO

Plant economics run on carbon and nutrients instead of money. Leaf strategies aboveground span an economic spectrum from "live fast and die young" to "slow and steady," but the economy defined by root strategies belowground remains unclear. Here, we take a holistic view of the belowground economy and show that root-mycorrhizal collaboration can short circuit a one-dimensional economic spectrum, providing an entire space of economic possibilities. Root trait data from 1810 species across the globe confirm a classical fast-slow "conservation" gradient but show that most variation is explained by an orthogonal "collaboration" gradient, ranging from "do-it-yourself" resource uptake to "outsourcing" of resource uptake to mycorrhizal fungi. This broadened "root economics space" provides a solid foundation for predictive understanding of belowground responses to changing environmental conditions.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3870, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747621

RESUMO

Soils harbor a substantial fraction of the world's biodiversity, contributing to many crucial ecosystem functions. It is thus essential to identify general macroecological patterns related to the distribution and functioning of soil organisms to support their conservation and consideration by governance. These macroecological analyses need to represent the diversity of environmental conditions that can be found worldwide. Here we identify and characterize existing environmental gaps in soil taxa and ecosystem functioning data across soil macroecological studies and 17,186 sampling sites across the globe. These data gaps include important spatial, environmental, taxonomic, and functional gaps, and an almost complete absence of temporally explicit data. We also identify the limitations of soil macroecological studies to explore general patterns in soil biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships, with only 0.3% of all sampling sites having both information about biodiversity and function, although with different taxonomic groups and functions at each site. Based on this information, we provide clear priorities to support and expand soil macroecological research.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Clima , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Geografia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/classificação , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Solo/química , Temperatura
11.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 95(6): 1798-1811, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761787

RESUMO

The rate of change (RoC) of environmental drivers matters: biotic and abiotic components respond differently when faced with a fast or slow change in their environment. This phenomenon occurs across spatial scales and thus levels of ecological organization. We investigated the RoC of environmental drivers in the ecological literature and examined publication trends across ecological levels, including prevalent types of evidence and drivers. Research interest in environmental driver RoC has increased over time (particularly in the last decade), however, the amount of research and type of studies were not equally distributed across levels of organization and different subfields of ecology use temporal terminology (e.g. 'abrupt' and 'gradual') differently, making it difficult to compare studies. At the level of individual organisms, evidence indicates that responses and underlying mechanisms are different when environmental driver treatments are applied at different rates, thus we propose including a time dimension into reaction norms. There is much less experimental evidence at higher levels of ecological organization (i.e. population, community, ecosystem), although theoretical work at the population level indicates the importance of RoC for evolutionary responses. We identified very few studies at the community and ecosystem levels, although existing evidence indicates that driver RoC is important at these scales and potentially could be particularly important for some processes, such as community stability and cascade effects. We recommend shifting from a categorical (e.g. abrupt versus gradual) to a quantitative and continuous (e.g. °C/h) RoC framework and explicit reporting of RoC parameters, including magnitude, duration and start and end points to ease cross-scale synthesis and alleviate ambiguity. Understanding how driver RoC affects individuals, populations, communities and ecosystems, and furthermore how these effects can feed back between levels is critical to making improved predictions about ecological responses to global change drivers. The application of a unified quantitative RoC framework for ecological studies investigating environmental driver RoC will both allow cross-scale synthesis to be accomplished more easily and has the potential for the generation of novel hypotheses.

12.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1195, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655517

RESUMO

The overwhelming majority of studies examining environmental change deliver treatments abruptly, although, in fact, many important changes are gradual. One example of a gradually increasing environmental stressor is heavy metal contamination. Essential heavy metals, such as copper, play an important role within cells of living organisms but are toxic at higher concentrations. In our study, we focus on the effects of copper pollution on filamentous soil fungi, key players in terrestrial ecosystem functioning. We hypothesize that fungi exposed to gradually increasing copper concentrations have higher chances for physiological acclimation and will maintain biomass production and accumulate less copper, compared to fungi abruptly exposed to the highest copper concentration. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an experiment with 17 fungal isolates exposed to gradual and abrupt copper addition. Contrary to our hypothesis, we find diverse idiosyncratic responses, such that for many fungi gradually increasing copper concentrations have more severe effects (stronger growth inhibition and higher copper accumulation) than an abrupt increase. While a number of environmental change studies have accumulated evidence based on the magnitude of changes, the results of our study imply that the rate of change can be an important factor to consider in future studies in ecology, environmental science, and environmental management.

13.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1326, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636822

RESUMO

As a consequence of ongoing climate change, the frequency of extreme heat events is expected to increase. Recurring heat pulses may disrupt functions supported by soil microorganisms, thus affecting the entire ecosystem. However, most perturbation experiments only test effects of single heat events, and therefore it remains largely unknown how soil microorganisms react to repeated pulse events. Here we present data from a lab experiment exposing 32 filamentous fungi, originally isolated from the same soil, to sequential heat perturbations. Soil saprobic fungi isolates were exposed to one or two heat pulses: mild (35°C/2 h), strong (45°C/1 h), or both in sequence (35°C/2 h+45°C/1 h), and we assessed growth rate. Out of the 32 isolates 13 isolates showed an antagonistic response, 3 isolates a synergistic response and 16 isolates responded in an additive manner. Thus the 32 filamentous fungal isolates used here showed the full range of possible responses to an identical heat perturbation sequence. This diversity of responses could have consequences for soil-borne ecosystem services, highlighting the potential importance of fungal biodiversity in maintaining such services, particularly in the context of climate change.

14.
Front Plant Sci ; 11: 760, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32636854

RESUMO

Plant performance is strongly dependent on nitrogen (N), and thus increasing N nutrition is of great relevance for the productivity of agroecosystems. The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant N acquisition are debated because contradictory results have been reported. Using 15N-labeled fertilizers as a tracer, we evaluated the effects of AM fungi on N uptake and recovery from mineral or organic sources in durum wheat. Under sufficient N availability, AM fungi had no effects on plant biomass but increased N concentrations in plant tissue, plant N uptake, and total N recovered from the fertilizer. In N-deficient soil, AM fungi led to decreased aboveground biomass, which suggests that plants and AM fungi may have competed for N. When the organic source had a low C:N ratio, AM fungi favored both plant N uptake and N recovery. In contrast, when the organic source had a high C:N ratio, a clear reduction in N recovery from the fertilizer was observed. Overall, the results indicate an active role of arbuscular mycorrhizae in favoring plant N-related traits when N is not a limiting factor and show that these fungi help in N recovery from the fertilizer. These results hold great potential for increasing the sustainability of durum wheat production.

15.
Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc ; 95(4): 1073-1096, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627362

RESUMO

Organismal movement is ubiquitous and facilitates important ecological mechanisms that drive community and metacommunity composition and hence biodiversity. In most existing ecological theories and models in biodiversity research, movement is represented simplistically, ignoring the behavioural basis of movement and consequently the variation in behaviour at species and individual levels. However, as human endeavours modify climate and land use, the behavioural processes of organisms in response to these changes, including movement, become critical to understanding the resulting biodiversity loss. Here, we draw together research from different subdisciplines in ecology to understand the impact of individual-level movement processes on community-level patterns in species composition and coexistence. We join the movement ecology framework with the key concepts from metacommunity theory, community assembly and modern coexistence theory using the idea of micro-macro links, where various aspects of emergent movement behaviour scale up to local and regional patterns in species mobility and mobile-link-generated patterns in abiotic and biotic environmental conditions. These in turn influence both individual movement and, at ecological timescales, mechanisms such as dispersal limitation, environmental filtering, and niche partitioning. We conclude by highlighting challenges to and promising future avenues for data generation, data analysis and complementary modelling approaches and provide a brief outlook on how a new behaviour-based view on movement becomes important in understanding the responses of communities under ongoing environmental change.

16.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 11013, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620925

RESUMO

Saprobic soil fungi drive many important ecosystem processes, including decomposition, and many of their effects are related to growth rate and enzymatic ability. In mycology, there has long been the implicit assumption of a trade-off between growth and enzymatic investment, which we test here using a set of filamentous fungi from the same soil. For these fungi we measured growth rate (as colony radial extension) and enzymatic repertoire (activities of four enzymes: laccase, cellobiohydrolase, leucine aminopeptidase and acid phosphatase), and explored the interaction between the traits based on phylogenetically corrected methods. Our results support the existence of a trade-off, however only for the enzymes presumably representing a larger metabolic cost (laccase and cellobiohydrolase). Our study offers new insights into potential functional complementarity within the soil fungal community in ecosystem processes, and experimentally supports an enzymatic investment/growth rate trade-off underpinning phenomena including substrate succession.

18.
Environ Microbiol ; 22(8): 3548-3560, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32558213

RESUMO

The dependency of microbial activity on nutrient availability in soil is only partly understood, but highly relevant for nutrient cycling dynamics. In order to achieve more insight on microbial adaptations to nutrient limiting conditions, precise physiological knowledge is needed. Therefore, we developed an experimental system assessing traits of 16 saprobic fungal isolates in nitrogen (N) limited conditions. We tested the hypotheses that (1) fungal traits are negatively affected by N deficiency to a similar extent and (2) fungal isolates respond in a phylogenetically conserved fashion. Indeed, mycelial density, spore production and fungal activity (respiration and enzymatic activity) responded similarly to limiting conditions by an overall linear decrease. By contrast, mycelial extension and hyphal elongation peaked at lowest N supply (C:N 200), causing maximal biomass production at intermediate N contents. Optimal N supply rates differed among isolates, but only the extent of growth reduction was phylogenetically conserved. In conclusion, growth responses appeared as a switch from explorative growth in low nutrient conditions to exploitative growth in nutrient-rich patches, as also supported by responses to phosphorus and carbon limitations. This detailed trait-based pattern will not only improve fungal growth models, but also may facilitate interpretations of microbial responses observed in field studies.

20.
New Phytol ; 227(5): 1505-1518, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32368801

RESUMO

Anthropogenic atmospheric deposition can increase nutrient supply in the most remote ecosystems, potentially affecting soil biodiversity. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) communities rapidly respond to simulated soil eutrophication in tropical forests. Yet the limited spatio-temporal extent of such manipulations, together with the often unrealistically high fertilization rates employed, impedes generalization of such responses. We sequenced mixed root AMF communities within a seven year-long fully factorial nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) addition experiment, replicated at three tropical montane forests in southern Ecuador with differing environmental characteristics. We hypothesized: strong shifts in community composition and species richness after long-term fertilization, site- and clade-specific responses to N vs P additions depending on local soil fertility and clade life history traits respectively. Fertilization consistently shifted AMF community composition across sites, but only reduced richness of Glomeraceae. Compositional changes were mainly driven by increases in P supply while richness reductions were observed only after combined N and P additions. We conclude that moderate increases of N and P exert a mild but consistent effect on tropical AMF communities. To predict the consequences of these shifts, current results need to be supplemented with experiments that characterize local species-specific AMF functionality.

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