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Respir Med ; 187: 106577, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416618


BACKGROUND: current data on the impact of acute illness severity on exercise capacity and ventilatory efficiency of COVID-19 survivors, evaluated at cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), are limited. METHODS: in this post-hoc analysis of our previous observational, prospective, cohort study on mechanisms of exercise intolerance in COVID-19 survivors, we aimed at evaluating the impact of acute COVID-19 severity on exercise capacity, pulmonary function testing (PFT) and chest computed tomography (CT) outcomes. RESULTS: we enrolled 75 patients (18 with mild-to-moderate disease, 18 with severe disease, and 39 with critical disease). Mean (standard deviation - SD) follow-up time was 97 (26) days. Groups showed a similar PFT and CT residual involvement, featuring a mildly reduced exercise capacity with comparable mean (SD) values of peak oxygen consumption as percentage of predicted (83 (17) vs 82 (16) vs 84 (15), p = 0.895) among groups, as well as the median (interquartile range - IQR) alveolar-arterial gradient for O2 in mmHg at exercise peak (20 (15-28) vs 27 (18-31) vs 26 (21-21), p = 0.154), which was in the limit of normal. In addition, these patients featured a preserved mean ventilatory efficiency evaluated through the slope of the relation between ventilation and carbon dioxide output during exercise (27.1 (2.6) vs 29.8 (3.9) vs 28.3 (2.6), p = 0.028), without a clinically relevant difference. CONCLUSIONS: Disease severity does not impact on exercise capacity in COVID-19 survivors at 3 months after discharge, including a ventilatory response still in the limit of normal.

COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/terapia , Estudos de Coortes , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 29(9): 1427-1433, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028990


OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue plays a role in the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT), a unique visceral fat, presents with a high degree of inflammation in severe COVID-19. Whether and how adipose tissue may respond to the COVID-19 therapies is unknown. METHODS: The difference in computed tomography-measured EAT and subcutaneous (SAT) attenuation, defined as mean attenuation expressed in Hounsfield units (HU), was retrospectively analyzed in 72 patients (mean [SD] age was 59.6 [12.4] years, 50 patients [69%] were men) at the hospital admission for COVID-19 and 99 days (interquartile range = 71-129) after discharge. RESULTS: At the admission, EAT-HU was significantly correlated with blood glucose levels, interleukin 6, troponin T levels, and waist circumference. EAT-HU decreased from -87.21 (16.18) to -100.0 (11) (p < 0.001), whereas SAT-HU did not change (-110.21 [12.1] to -111.11 [27.82]; p = 0.78) after therapy. Changes in EAT-HU (expressed as ∆) significantly correlated with dexamethasone therapy (r = -0.46, p = 0.006) and when dexamethasone was combined with tocilizumab (r = -0.24, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Dexamethasone therapy was associated with significant reduction of EAT inflammation in COVID-19 patients, whereas SAT showed no changes. Anti-inflammatory therapies targeting visceral fat may be helpful in COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Gordura Intra-Abdominal , Pericárdio , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pericárdio/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Retrospectivos
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808904


Discriminating between cardiac and pulmonary dyspnea is essential for patients' management. We investigated the feasibility and ability of forced oscillation techniques (FOT) in distinguishing between acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD), and acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in a clinical emergency setting. We enrolled 49 patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) for dyspnea and acute respiratory failure for AECOPD, or ADHF, and 11 healthy subjects. All patients were able to perform bedside FOT measurement. Patients with AECOPD showed a significantly higher inspiratory resistance at 5 Hz, Xrs5 (179% of predicted, interquartile range, IQR 94-224 vs. 100 IQR 67-149; p = 0.019), and a higher inspiratory reactance at 5 Hz (151%, IQR 74-231 vs. 57 IQR 49-99; p = 0.005) than patients with ADHF. Moreover, AECOPD showed higher heterogeneity of ventilation (respiratory system resistance difference at 5 and 19 Hz, Rrs5-19: 1.49 cmH2O/(L/s), IQR 1.03-2.16 vs. 0.44 IQR 0.22-0.76; p = 0.030), and a higher percentage of flow limited breaths compared to ADHF (10%, IQR 0-100 vs. 0 IQR 0-12; p = 0.030). FOT, which resulted in a suitable tool to be used in the ED setting, has the ability to identify distinct mechanical properties of the respiratory system in AECOPD and ADHF.

Respir Med ; 168: 105993, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469709


Lymphangioleiomyiomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease affecting women in childbearing age. A sporadic form (S-LAM) affecting previously healthy women, and a form associated with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC-LAM) are described. Some data suggested that TSC-LAM could be a milder disease compared to S-LAM. To investigate whether the different disease behavior is real or due to overdiagnosis of screened TSC women, we compared the natural history of S-LAM and TSC-LAM in patients with incidental diagnosis. Clinical, and functional data from 52 patients (23 with S-LAM and 29 with TSC-LAM) were analysed. At diagnosis functional impairment was mild without differences between groups [FEV1 % pred was 97% (88-105) and 94% (82-106) in TSC-LAM and S-LAM, respectively, p = 0.125]. Patients with S-LAM had less renal angiomyolipoma, and lower VEGF-D serum levels than TSC-LAM. There was no difference in the baseline extent of pulmonary cysts on CT scan and no difference in yearly rate of functional decline between TSC-LAM, and S-LAM patients [e.g. yearly rate of decline of FEV1 % pred was -0.51 (-1.59-2.24) and -0.90 (-1.92--0.42) in TSC-LAM and S-LAM, respectively, p = 0.265]. In conclusion, the natural history of TSC-LAM and S-LAM, when a potential selection bias due to screening in the latter group is balanced, is similar. Our study suggests that the prevalence of S-LAM can be significantly underestimated due to a tendency to diagnosis more frequently patients with more severe impairment, without identifying several ones with asymptomatic disease.

Linfangioleiomiomatose/diagnóstico , Linfangioleiomiomatose/etiologia , Esclerose Tuberosa/diagnóstico , Esclerose Tuberosa/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Linfangioleiomiomatose/epidemiologia , Linfangioleiomiomatose/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Doenças Raras , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Esclerose Tuberosa/epidemiologia , Esclerose Tuberosa/fisiopatologia
Respir Med ; 127: 7-13, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28502420


BACKGROUND: The need for additional research on symptomatic smokers with normal spirometry has been recently emphasized. Albeit not meeting criteria for Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) diagnosis, symptomatic smokers may experience activity limitation, evidence of airway disease, and exacerbations. We, therefore, evaluated whether symptomatic smokers with borderline spirometry (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio between 5th to 20th percentile of predicted values) have pulmonary function abnormalities at rest and ventilatory constraints during exercise. METHODS: 48 subjects (aged 60 ± 8 years, mean ± SD, 73% males, 16 healthy, and 17 symptomatic smokers) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), body plethysmography, nitrogen single-breath washout test (N2SBW), lung diffusion for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and forced oscillation technique (FOT). RESULTS: Compared to healthy subjects, symptomatic smokers showed: 1) reduced breathing reserve (36 ± 17 vs. 49 ± 12%, P = 0.050); 2) exercise induced dynamic hyperinflation (-0.20 ± 0.17 vs. -0.03 ± 0.21 L, P = 0.043); 3) higher residual volume (158 ± 22 vs. 112 ± 22%, P < 0.001); 4) phase 3 slope at N2SBW (4.7 ± 2.1 vs. 1.4 ± 0.6%, P < 0.001); 5) no significant differences in DLCO and FOT results. CONCLUSIONS: In smokers with borderline spirometry, CPET and second-line pulmonary function tests may detect obstructive pattern. These subjects should be referred for second line testing, to obtain a diagnosis, or at least to clarify the mechanisms underlying symptoms. Whether the natural history of these patients is similar to COPD, and they deserve a similar therapeutic approach is worth investigating.

Teste de Esforço/métodos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Espirometria/métodos , Idoso , Monóxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Oscilação da Parede Torácica/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Pletismografia Total/métodos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Capacidade Vital/efeitos dos fármacos