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1.
Handb Exp Pharmacol ; 268: 3-19, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424388

RESUMO

Allergy has shown a dramatic increase in prevalence in the last decades. However, allergic diseases are probably not new. Asthma and eczema have been described in ancient societies like Egypt, China and in the Greco-Roman culture. In the middle-ages descriptions of hay fever can be found in Persian-Arabian literature (called "rose fever"). Scientific allergology started in the nineteenth century with descriptions of hay fever and experimental studies showing pollen as elicitors. Milestones in the twentieth century comprise the description of anaphylaxis, the creation of the terms "allergy" and "atopy", the Prausnitz-Küstner test and finally the discovery of IgE and the development of the Radio-Allergo-Sorbent-Test (RAST) for routine detection of specific IgE antibodies. Progress in cellular immunology led to the description of T-cell subsets Th1 and Th2. Mast cell and basophil research progressed since the first description to histamine release studies. Leukotrienes were detected. Pharmacotherapy started in the early twentieth century with adrenaline (epinephrine) followed by antihistamines and cortisone. Allergen-specific immunotherapy was introduced. Epidemiologic studies pointed to a role of environmental pollutants as allergy enhancing factors and protective influences from farm environment. Through the progress in experimental allergology and immunology targeted therapeutics have been developed for various atopic conditions.


Assuntos
Asma , Hipersensibilidade , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal , Basófilos , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/terapia , Imunoglobulina E
4.
Allergo J Int ; : 1-9, 2021 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603938

RESUMO

Peanuts are Leguminosae, commonly known as the legume or pea family, and peanut allergy is among the most common food allergies and the most common cause of fatal food reactions and anaphylaxis. The prevalence of peanut allergy increased 3.5-fold over the past two decades reaching 1.4-2% in Europe and the United States. The reasons for this increase in prevalence are likely multifaceted. Sensitization via the skin appears to be associated with the development of peanut allergy and atopic eczema in infancy is associated with a high risk of developing peanut allergy. Until recently, the only possible management strategy for peanut allergy was strict allergen avoidance and emergency treatment including adrenaline auto-injector in cases of accidental exposure and reaction. This paper discusses the various factors that impact the risks of peanut allergy and the burden of self-management on peanut-allergic children and their caregivers.

5.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(10): 895-903, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34407533

RESUMO

The Collegium Internationale Allergologicum (CIA) was founded on 15 October 1954 in London by a group of 48 international allergists and immunologists from 18 countries of all continents, among them such distinguished scientists as Carl Prausnitz-Giles, Sir Henry Dale, Paul Kallos, and many others. Contrary to other international associations in the field, this Collegium limited the number of members in order to allow more intense and open discussions in "the humble spirit of scientific enquiry, friendly cooperation, good fellowship and professional relationships in the field of allergy" as stated in the statutes. It is not possible to apply for membership, and one has to be proposed by at least 2 CIA members and invited to present at least once at a symposium. Over the decades, a rhythm of biannual symposia developed, the 32nd held in Palma de Mallorca in October 2018. These symposia went around the world from London, Rome, Copenhagen, New Orleans, Puerto Vallarta, Nantucket, Hakone, Konstanz, Goeteborg, and Sorrento, just to name a few places. Preferably they were held on islands such as Capri, Corfu, Martinique, Curacao, Bornholm, Malta, and Ischia in order to make it more difficult for people to arrive late or leave early. It is expected that participants stay over the whole length of the 5-day symposium. On these symposia, it is good custom to also present unpublished data, so participants get the latest news. The most important developments in the field of Allergy and Clinical Immunology have been discussed at early stage and sometimes by speakers who later won the Nobel Prize. While all presentations are equal, be it oral communications or posters, there are 3 special lectures, namely the Carl Prausnitz lecture, the Paul Kallos lecture, and a "Relaxing from Immunology" lecture which can be devoted to any interesting topic not necessarily related to medicine or allergy. Since many years, the contents of the symposium are published in a proceedings volume, over a longtime printed within the "International Archives of Allergy and Immunology" which until now is the official journal of the Collegium. Participants agree that in the flood of more and more scientific congresses and larger events, the CIA Symposia are unique in their openness and friendly scientific interchange.


Assuntos
Alergia e Imunologia/história , Sociedades Científicas/história , Congressos como Assunto/história , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI
9.
Cells ; 10(7)2021 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206914

RESUMO

Whilst the importance of keratinocytes as a first-line defense has been widely investigated, little is known about their interactions with non-resident immune cells. In this study, the impact of human keratinocytes on T cell effector functions was analyzed in an antigen-specific in vitro model of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) to nickel sulfate. Keratinocytes partially inhibited T cell proliferation and cytokine production. This effect was dependent on the keratinocyte/T cell ratio and was partially reversible by increasing the number of autologous dendritic cells. The inhibition of T cell proliferation by keratinocytes was independent of the T cell subtype and antigen presentation by different professional antigen-presenting cells. Autologous and heterologous keratinocytes showed comparable effects, while the fixation of keratinocytes with paraformaldehyde abrogated the immunosuppressive effect. The separation of keratinocytes and T cells by a transwell chamber, as well as a cell-free keratinocyte supernatant, inhibited T cell effector functions to the same amount as directly co-cultured keratinocytes, thus proving that soluble factor/s account for the observed suppressive effects. In conclusion, keratinocytes critically control the threshold of inflammatory processes in the skin by inhibiting T cell proliferation and cytokine production.


Assuntos
Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Queratinócitos/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Forma Celular , Microambiente Celular , Dermatite de Contato/imunologia , Dermatite de Contato/patologia , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/patologia , Queratinócitos/ultraestrutura , Modelos Biológicos , Pele/imunologia , Pele/patologia , Solubilidade , Linfócitos T/ultraestrutura
10.
Allergo J Int ; : 1-14, 2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178577

RESUMO

Background: The vaccines against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) approved in the European Union represent a decisive step in the fight against the pandemic. The application of these available vaccines to patients with pre-existing immunological conditions leads to a multitude of questions regarding efficacy, side effects and the necessary patient information. Results: This review article provides insight into mechanisms of action of the currently available severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines and summarises the current state of science as well as expert recommendations regarding tolerability of the vaccines. In addition, the potential to develop protective immune responses is determined. A special focus is given on patients under immunosuppression or in treatment with immunomodulatory drugs. Special groups of the population such as children, pregnant women and the elderly are also considered. Conclusion: Despite the need for a patient-specific risk-benefit assessment, the consensus among experts is that patients with immunological diseases in particular benefit from the induced immune protection after COVID-19 vaccination and do not have an increased risk of side effects.

13.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 19(7): 963-972, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046996

RESUMO

Figurate erythemas (FE) represent an etiopathophysiologically heterogeneous group of diseases defined by their characteristic annular erythematous skin lesions. Diagnosis is made primarily by clinical examination together with histological findings; often it is a diagnosis made by exclusion. While some authors discuss FE as clinical reaction pattern rather than distinct clinical entities, others identify four classic FE: erythema annulare centrifugum, erythema gyratum repens, erythema migrans and erythema marginatum. The differential diagnoses of FE are numerous and often challenging. We therefore present a potential diagnostic algorithm for FE that discriminates the differentials according to their temporal evolution and the clinical/histological phenotype of the various subtypes. Since some FE may present with an underlying malignancy, diligent clinicians are needed when dealing with those entities.


Assuntos
Eritema Migrans Crônico , Dermatopatias Genéticas , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eritema/diagnóstico , Humanos , Exame Físico , Dermatopatias Genéticas/diagnóstico
14.
Allergo J Int ; : 1-17, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33898162

RESUMO

Background: For the preventive treatment of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) an unprecedented global research effort studied the safety and efficacy of new vaccine platforms that have not been previously used in humans. Less than one year after the discovery of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral sequence, these vaccines were approved for use in the European Union (EU) as well as in numerous other countries and mass vaccination efforts began. The so far in the EU approved mRNA vaccines BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 are based on similar lipid-based nanoparticle carrier technologies; however, the lipid components differ. Severe allergic reactions and anaphylaxis after COVID-19 vaccination are very rare adverse events but have drawn attention due to potentially lethal outcomes and have triggered a high degree of uncertainty. Methods: Current knowledge on anaphylactic reactions to vaccines and specifically the new mRNA COVID-19 vaccines was compiled using a literature search in Medline, PubMed, as well as the national and international study and guideline registries, the Cochrane Library, and the Internet, with special reference to official websites of the World Health Organization (WHO), US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Robert Koch Institute (RKI), and Paul Ehrlich Institute (PEI). Results: Based on the international literature and previous experience, recommendations for prophylaxis, diagnosis and therapy of these allergic reactions are given by a panel of experts. Conclusion: Allergy testing is not necessary for the vast majority of allergic patients prior to COVID-19 vaccination with currently licensed vaccines. In case of allergic/anaphylactic reactions after vaccination, allergy workup is recommended, as it is for a small potential risk population prior to the first vaccination. Evaluation and approval of diagnostic tests should be done for this purpose.

15.
J Autoimmun ; 120: 102634, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33892348

RESUMO

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an itchy, non-contagious relapsing and chronic inflammatory skin disease that usually develops in early childhood. This pathology is associated with food allergy, allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and anaphylaxis which may persist in adulthood. The underlying mechanisms of AD (endotypes) are just beginning to be discovered and show a complex interaction of various pathways including skin barrier function and immune deviation. Immune reactions to self-proteins (autoantigens) of the skin have been identified in patients with inflammatory skin diseases, such as chronic spontaneous urticaria, connective tissue disease, pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid. IgE antibodies and T cells directed against epitopes of the skin were observed in adult patients with severe and chronic AD as well. This was associated with disease severity and suggests a progression from allergic inflammation to severe autoimmune processes against the skin. IgE-mediated autoimmunity and self-reactive T cells might accelerate the ongoing skin inflammation or might contribute to the relapsing course of the disease. However, to date, the exact mechanisms of IgE-mediated autoimmunity and self-reactive T cells in the pathophysiology of AD are still unclear. The aim of this review is to evaluate the development of (autoreactive) T cells and their response to (auto)antigens, as well as the role of the peripheral tolerance in autoimmunity in the pathophysiology of AD, including the unmet needs and gaps.

16.
Allergo J Int ; 30(2): 51-55, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643776

RESUMO

Two employees of the National Health Service (NHS) in England developed severe allergic reactions following administration of BNT162b2 vaccine against COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). The British SmPC for the BNT162b2 vaccine already includes reference to a contraindication for use in individuals who have had an allergic reaction to the vaccine or any of its components. As a precautionary measure, the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) has issued interim guidance to the NHS not to vaccinate in principle in "patients with severe allergies". Allergic reactions to vaccines are very rare, but vaccine components are known to cause allergic reactions. BNT162b2 is a vaccine based on an mRNA embedded in lipid nanoparticles and blended with other substances to enable its transport into the cells. In the pivotal phase III clinical trial, the BNT162b2 vaccine was generally well tolerated, but this large clinical trial, used to support vaccine approval by the MHRA and US Food and Drug Administration, excluded individuals with a "history of a severe adverse reaction related to the vaccine and/or a severe allergic reaction (e.g., anaphylaxis) to a component of the study medication". Vaccines are recognized as one of the most effective public health interventions. This repeated administration of a foreign protein (antigen) necessitates a careful allergological history before each application and diagnostic clarification and a risk-benefit assessment before each injection. Severe allergic reactions to vaccines are rare but can be life-threatening, and it is prudent to raise awareness of this hazard among vaccination teams and to take adequate precautions while more experience is gained with this new vaccine.

17.
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges ; 19(3): 501-502, 2021 03.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33709588
20.
Allergo J ; 30(1): 3, 2021.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612980
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