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2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4679, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616000

RESUMO

Postsynaptic density (PSD) proteins have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Here, we present detailed clinical and genetic data for 20 patients with likely gene-disrupting mutations in TANC2-whose protein product interacts with multiple PSD proteins. Pediatric patients with disruptive mutations present with autism, intellectual disability, and delayed language and motor development. In addition to a variable degree of epilepsy and facial dysmorphism, we observe a pattern of more complex psychiatric dysfunction or behavioral problems in adult probands or carrier parents. Although this observation requires replication to establish statistical significance, it also suggests that mutations in this gene are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders consistent with its postsynaptic function. We find that TANC2 is expressed broadly in the human developing brain, especially in excitatory neurons and glial cells, but shows a more restricted pattern in Drosophila glial cells where its disruption affects behavioral outcomes.

3.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8239, 2019 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160609

RESUMO

Mutations in the RAS genes are identified in a variety of clinical settings, ranging from somatic mutations in oncology to germline mutations in developmental disorders, also known as 'RASopathies', and vascular malformations/overgrowth syndromes. Generally single amino acid substitutions are identified, that result in an increase of the GTP bound fraction of the RAS proteins causing constitutive signalling. Here, a series of 7 in-frame insertions and duplications in HRAS (n = 5) and KRAS (n = 2) is presented, resulting in the insertion of 7-10 amino acids residues in the switch II region. These variants were identified in routine diagnostic screening of 299 samples for somatic mutations in vascular malformations/overgrowth syndromes (n = 6) and in germline analyses for RASopathies (n = 1). Biophysical characterization shows the inability of Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors to induce GTP loading and reduced intrinsic and GAP-stimulated GTP hydrolysis. As a consequence of these opposing effects, increased RAS signalling is detected in a cellular model system. Therefore these in-frame insertions represent a new class of weakly activating clinically relevant RAS variants.

4.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(8): 3049-3067, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31042289

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) encompasses a spectrum of premature menopause, including both primary and secondary amenorrhea. For 75% to 90% of individuals with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism presenting as POI, the molecular etiology is unknown. Common etiologies include chromosomal abnormalities, environmental factors, and congenital disorders affecting ovarian development and function, as well as syndromic and nonsyndromic single gene disorders suggesting POI represents a complex trait. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the contribution of known disease genes to POI and identify molecular etiologies and biological underpinnings of POI. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We applied exome sequencing (ES) and family-based genomics to 42 affected female individuals from 36 unrelated Turkish families, including 31 with reported parental consanguinity. RESULTS: This analysis identified likely damaging, potentially contributing variants and molecular diagnoses in 16 families (44%), including 11 families with likely damaging variants in known genes and five families with predicted deleterious variants in disease genes (IGSF10, MND1, MRPS22, and SOHLH1) not previously associated with POI. Of the 16 families, 2 (13%) had evidence for potentially pathogenic variants at more than one locus. Absence of heterozygosity consistent with identity-by-descent mediated recessive disease burden contributes to molecular diagnosis in 15 of 16 (94%) families. GeneMatcher allowed identification of additional families from diverse genetic backgrounds. CONCLUSIONS: ES analysis of a POI cohort further characterized locus heterogeneity, reaffirmed the association of genes integral to meiotic recombination, demonstrated the likely contribution of genes involved in hypothalamic development, and documented multilocus pathogenic variation suggesting the potential for oligogenic inheritance contributing to the development of POI.

5.
J Med Genet ; 56(10): 654-661, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040167

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluates 6 years of prenatal rasopathy testing in the Netherlands, updates on previous data and gives recommendations for prenatal rasopathy testing. METHODS: 424 fetal samples, sent in for prenatal rasopathy testing in 2011-2016, were collected. Cohort 1 included 231 samples that were sequenced for 1-5 rasopathy genes. Cohort 2 included 193 samples that were analysed with a 14-gene next generation sequencing (NGS) panel. For all mutation-positive samples in both cohorts, the referring physician provided detailed ultrasound findings and postnatal follow-up. For 168 mutation-negative samples in cohort 2, solely clinical information on the requisition form was collected. RESULTS: In total, 40 (likely) pathogenic variants were detected (9.4%). All fetuses showed a variable degree of involvement of prenatal findings: increased nuchal translucency (NT)/cystic hygroma, distended jugular lymph sacs (JLS), hydrops fetalis, polyhydramnios, pleural effusion, ascites, cardiac defects and renal anomalies. An increased NT was the most common finding. Eight fetuses showed solely an increased NT/cystic hygroma, which were all larger than 5.5 mm. Ascites and renal anomalies appeared to be poor predictors of pathogenic outcome. CONCLUSION: Fetuses with a rasopathy show in general multiple ultrasound findings. The larger the NT and the longer it persists, the more likely it is to find a pathogenic variant. Rasopathy testing is recommended when the fetus shows an isolated increased NT ≥5.0 mm or when NT of ≥3.5 mm and at least one of the following ultrasound anomalies is present: distended JLS, hydrops fetalis, polyhydramnios, pleural effusion, ascites, cardiac defects and renal anomalies.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(4): 701-708, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879638

RESUMO

Developmental delay and intellectual disability (DD and ID) are heterogeneous phenotypes that arise in many rare monogenic disorders. Because of this rarity, developing cohorts with enough individuals to robustly identify disease-associated genes is challenging. Social-media platforms that facilitate data sharing among sequencing labs can help to address this challenge. Through one such tool, GeneMatcher, we identified nine DD- and/or ID-affected probands with a rare, heterozygous variant in the gene encoding the serine/threonine-protein kinase BRSK2. All probands have a speech delay, and most present with intellectual disability, motor delay, behavioral issues, and autism. Six of the nine variants are predicted to result in loss of function, and computational modeling predicts that the remaining three missense variants are damaging to BRSK2 structure and function. All nine variants are absent from large variant databases, and BRSK2 is, in general, relatively intolerant to protein-altering variation among humans. In all six probands for whom parents were available, the mutations were found to have arisen de novo. Five of these de novo variants were from cohorts with at least 400 sequenced probands; collectively, the cohorts span 3,429 probands, and the observed rate of de novo variation in these cohorts is significantly higher than the estimated background-mutation rate (p = 2.46 × 10-6). We also find that exome sequencing provides lower coverage and appears less sensitive to rare variation in BRSK2 than does genome sequencing; this fact most likely reduces BRSK2's visibility in many clinical and research sequencing efforts. Altogether, our results implicate damaging variation in BRSK2 as a source of neurodevelopmental disease.

7.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 738-746, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679813

RESUMO

Determining pathogenicity of genomic variation identified by next-generation sequencing techniques can be supported by recurrent disruptive variants in the same gene in phenotypically similar individuals. However, interpretation of novel variants in a specific gene in individuals with mild-moderate intellectual disability (ID) without recognizable syndromic features can be challenging and reverse phenotyping is often required. We describe 24 individuals with a de novo disease-causing variant in, or partial deletion of, the F-box only protein 11 gene (FBXO11, also known as VIT1 and PRMT9). FBXO11 is part of the SCF (SKP1-cullin-F-box) complex, a multi-protein E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex catalyzing the ubiquitination of proteins destined for proteasomal degradation. Twenty-two variants were identified by next-generation sequencing, comprising 2 in-frame deletions, 11 missense variants, 1 canonical splice site variant, and 8 nonsense or frameshift variants leading to a truncated protein or degraded transcript. The remaining two variants were identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization and consisted of a partial deletion of FBXO11. All individuals had borderline to severe ID and behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, aggression) were observed in most of them. The most relevant common facial features included a thin upper lip and a broad prominent space between the paramedian peaks of the upper lip. Other features were hypotonia and hyperlaxity of the joints. We show that de novo variants in FBXO11 cause a syndromic form of ID. The current series show the power of reverse phenotyping in the interpretation of novel genetic variances in individuals who initially did not appear to have a clear recognizable phenotype.

8.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 86, 2018 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: ATP8A2 mutations have recently been described in several patients with severe, early-onset hypotonia and cognitive impairment. The aim of our study was to characterize the clinical phenotype of patients with ATP8A2 mutations. METHODS: An observational study was conducted at multiple diagnostic centres. Clinical data is presented from 9 unreported and 2 previously reported patients with ATP8A2 mutations. We compare their features with 3 additional patients that have been previously reported in the medical literature. RESULTS: Eleven patients with biallelic ATP8A2 mutations were identified, with a mean age of 9.4 years (range 2.5-28 years). All patients with ATP8A2 mutations (100%) demonstrated developmental delay, severe hypotonia and movement disorders, specifically chorea or choreoathetosis (100%), dystonia (27%) and facial dyskinesia (18%). Optic atrophy was observed in 78% of patients for whom funduscopic examination was performed. Symptom onset in all (100%) was noted before 6 months of age, with 70% having symptoms noted at birth. Feeding difficulties were common (91%) although most patients were able to tolerate pureed or thickened feeds, and 3 patients required gastrostomy tube insertion. MRI of the brain was normal in 50% of the patients. A smaller proportion was noted to have mild cortical atrophy (30%), delayed myelination (20%) and/or hypoplastic optic nerves (20%). Functional studies were performed on differentiated induced pluripotent cells from one child, which confirmed a decrease in ATP8A2 expression compared to control cells. CONCLUSIONS: ATP8A2 gene mutations have emerged as the cause of a novel neurological phenotype characterized by global developmental delays, severe hypotonia and hyperkinetic movement disorders, the latter being an important distinguishing feature. Optic atrophy is common and may only become apparent in the first few years of life, necessitating repeat ophthalmologic evaluation in older children. Early recognition of the cardinal features of this condition will facilitate diagnosis of this complex neurologic disorder.

9.
Hum Mutat ; 39(7): 1014-1023, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29688601

RESUMO

The role of disturbed chromatin remodeling in the pathogenesis of intellectual disability (ID) is well established and illustrated by de novo mutations found in a plethora of genes encoding for proteins of the epigenetic regulatory machinery. We describe mutations in the "SET nuclear proto-oncogene" (SET), encoding a component of the "inhibitor of histone acetyltransferases" (INHAT) complex, involved in transcriptional silencing. Using whole exome sequencing, four patients were identified with de novo mutations in the SET gene. Additionally, an affected mother and child were detected who carried a frameshift variant in SET. Four patients were found in literature. The de novo mutations in patients affected all four known SET mRNA transcripts. LoF mutations in SET are exceedingly rare in the normal population and, if present, affect only one transcript. The pivotal role of SET in neurogenesis is evident from in vitro and animal models. SET interacts with numerous proteins involved in histone modification, including proteins encoded by known autosomal dominant ID genes, that is, EP300, CREBBP, SETBP1, KMT2A, RAC1, and CTCF. Our study identifies SET as a new component of epigenetic regulatory modules underlying human cognitive disorders, and as a first member of the Nucleosome Assembly Protein (NAP) family implicated in ID.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 862-876, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29460469

RESUMO

In 2016, we described that missense variants in parts of exons 30 and 31 of CREBBP can cause a phenotype that differs from Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS). Here we report on another 11 patients with variants in this region of CREBBP (between bp 5,128 and 5,614) and two with variants in the homologous region of EP300. None of the patients show characteristics typical for RSTS. The variants were detected by exome sequencing using a panel for intellectual disability in all but one individual, in whom Sanger sequencing was performed upon clinical recognition of the entity. The main characteristics of the patients are developmental delay (90%), autistic behavior (65%), short stature (42%), and microcephaly (43%). Medical problems include feeding problems (75%), vision (50%), and hearing (54%) impairments, recurrent upper airway infections (42%), and epilepsy (21%). Major malformations are less common except for cryptorchidism (46% of males), and cerebral anomalies (70%). Individuals with variants between bp 5,595 and 5,614 of CREBBP show a specific phenotype (ptosis, telecanthi, short and upslanted palpebral fissures, depressed nasal ridge, short nose, anteverted nares, short columella, and long philtrum). 3D face shape demonstrated resemblance to individuals with a duplication of 16p13.3 (the region that includes CREBBP), possibly indicating a gain of function. The other affected individuals show a less specific phenotype. We conclude that there is now more firm evidence that variants in these specific regions of CREBBP and EP300 result in a phenotype that differs from RSTS, and that this phenotype may be heterogeneous.

11.
Nat Genet ; 50(2): 175-179, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311637

RESUMO

Study of monogenic forms of obesity has demonstrated the pivotal role of the central leptin-melanocortin pathway in controlling energy balance, appetite and body weight 1 . The majority of loss-of-function mutations (mostly recessive or co-dominant) have been identified in genes that are directly involved in leptin-melanocortin signaling. These genes, however, only explain obesity in <5% of cases, predominantly from outbred populations 2 . We previously showed that, in a consanguineous population in Pakistan, recessive mutations in known obesity-related genes explain ~30% of cases with severe obesity3-5. These data suggested that new monogenic forms of obesity could also be identified in this population. Here we identify and functionally characterize homozygous mutations in the ADCY3 gene encoding adenylate cyclase 3 in children with severe obesity from consanguineous Pakistani families, as well as compound heterozygous mutations in a severely obese child of European-American descent. These findings highlight ADCY3 as an important mediator of energy homeostasis and an attractive pharmacological target in the treatment of obesity.

12.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(11): 2968-2972, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28884940

RESUMO

Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant multisystem condition with a variable phenotype. The most characteristic features are short stature, congenital heart defects, and recognizable facial features. Mutations in SOS1 are found in 10-20% of patients with NS. Different genotype-phenotype studies mention correlations between SOS1 mutations and some features, such as ectodermal abnormalities and specific facial features. We present a large NS family with a novel pathogenic mutation; SOS1 c.3134C>G, p.Pro1045Arg. Ten family members with NS are included with genetically confirmed mutation and clinical evaluation. The phenotype shows a broad spectrum from only few suggestive features for NS in the older generation to typical features in the youngest generation. We report on a novel pathogenic mutation in the SOS1 gene and a large clinical spectrum in a NS family with ten genetically confirmed affected individuals.


Assuntos
Cardiopatias Congênitas/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Proteína SOS1/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Cardiopatias Congênitas/complicações , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Síndrome de Noonan/complicações , Síndrome de Noonan/fisiopatologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
13.
Genet Med ; 19(6): 667-675, 2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28574513

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Copy-number variation is a common source of genomic variation and an important genetic cause of disease. Microarray-based analysis of copy-number variants (CNVs) has become a first-tier diagnostic test for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders, with a diagnostic yield of 10-20%. However, for most other genetic disorders, the role of CNVs is less clear and most diagnostic genetic studies are generally limited to the study of single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and other small variants. With the introduction of exome and genome sequencing, it is now possible to detect both SNVs and CNVs using an exome- or genome-wide approach with a single test. METHODS: We performed exome-based read-depth CNV screening on data from 2,603 patients affected by a range of genetic disorders for which exome sequencing was performed in a diagnostic setting. RESULTS: In total, 123 clinically relevant CNVs ranging in size from 727 bp to 15.3 Mb were detected, which resulted in 51 conclusive diagnoses and an overall increase in diagnostic yield of ~2% (ranging from 0 to -5.8% per disorder). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that CNVs play an important role in a broad range of genetic disorders and that detection via exome-based CNV profiling results in an increase in the diagnostic yield without additional testing, bringing us closer to single-test genomics.Genet Med advance online publication 27 October 2016.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Exoma , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Estudos de Coortes , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Padrões de Herança , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2017 May 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28513979

RESUMO

The cardinal features of Ectrodactyly, Ectodermal dysplasia, Cleft lip/palate (EEC), and Ankyloblepharon-Ectodermal defects-Cleft lip/palate (AEC) syndromes are ectodermal dysplasia (ED), orofacial clefting, and limb anomalies. EEC and AEC are caused by heterozygous mutations in the transcription factor p63 encoded by TP63. Here, we report a patient with an EEC/AEC syndrome-like phenotype, including ankyloblepharon, ED, cleft palate, ectrodactyly, syndactyly, additional hypogammaglobulinemia, and growth delay. Neither pathogenic mutations in TP63 nor CNVs at the TP63 locus were identified. Exome sequencing revealed de novo heterozygous variants in CHUK (conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase), PTGER4, and IFIT2. While the variant in PTGER4 might contribute to the immunodeficiency and growth delay, the variant in CHUK appeared to be most relevant for the EEC/AEC-like phenotype. CHUK is a direct target gene of p63 and encodes a component of the IKK complex that plays a key role in NF-κB pathway activation. The identified CHUK variant (g.101980394T>C; c.425A>G; p.His142Arg) is located in the kinase domain which is responsible for the phosphorylation activity of the protein. The variant may affect CHUK function and thus contribute to the disease phenotype in three ways: (1) the variant exhibits a dominant negative effect and results in an inactive IKK complex that affects the canonical NF-κB pathway; (2) it affects the feedback loop of the canonical and non-canonical NF-κB pathways that are CHUK kinase activity-dependent; and (3) it disrupts NF-κB independent epidermal development that is often p63-dependent. Therefore, we propose that the heterozygous CHUK variant is highly likely to be causative to the EEC/AEC-like and additional hypogammaglobulinemia phenotypes in the patient presented here.

15.
Nat Neurosci ; 19(9): 1194-6, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27479843

RESUMO

To identify candidate genes for intellectual disability, we performed a meta-analysis on 2,637 de novo mutations, identified from the exomes of 2,104 patient-parent trios. Statistical analyses identified 10 new candidate ID genes: DLG4, PPM1D, RAC1, SMAD6, SON, SOX5, SYNCRIP, TCF20, TLK2 and TRIP12. In addition, we show that these genes are intolerant to nonsynonymous variation and that mutations in these genes are associated with specific clinical ID phenotypes.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteína 4 Homóloga a Disks-Large , Exoma/genética , Ribonucleoproteínas Nucleares Heterogêneas/genética , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/genética , Fenótipo , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOXD/genética , Proteína Smad6/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/genética
16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 170(7): 1874-80, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27109146

RESUMO

Mutations in RIT1, involved in the RAS-MAPK pathway, have recently been identified as a cause for Noonan syndrome. We present two patients with Noonan syndrome caused by a RIT1 mutation with novel phenotypic manifestations, severe bilateral lower limb lymphedema starting during puberty, and fetal hydrops resulting in intrauterine fetal death, respectively. Including our patients, a total of 52 patients have been reported with Noonan syndrome caused by a RIT1 mutation. Our report contributes to the delineation of the phenotype associated with RIT1 mutations and underlines that lymphatic involvement is part of this spectrum. In addition, we provide an overview of the currently described Noonan syndrome patients with RIT1 mutations in literature. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Hidropisia Fetal/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Proteínas ras/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Hidropisia Fetal/fisiopatologia , Extremidade Inferior/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Síndrome de Noonan/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 4(1): 96-103.e2, 2016 Jan-Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26563674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recurrent sinopulmonary infections are common in children with CHARGE (Coloboma, Heart disease, choanal Atresia, growth/mental Retardation, Genitourinary malformations, Ear abnormalities) syndrome, but no prospective studies on immune function have been conducted. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine and compare the immune phenotype of patients with CHARGE syndrome to those with 22q11.2 deletion and healthy controls. METHODS: A total of 21 patients attended a multidisciplinary CHARGE clinic. All patients had CHD7 mutational analysis performed. Patients with CHARGE syndrome had lymphocyte subsets, immunoglobulins (IgG, A, M), functional protein, and polysaccharide vaccine responses measured at initial evaluation. A total of 55 healthy controls were prospectively recruited, whereas 40 patients with 22q11.2 deletion were retrospectively identified through medical records. A separate analysis compared serial lymphocyte counts and ionized calcium levels between patients with CHARGE syndrome and those with 22q11.2 deletion in the first 72 months of life. RESULTS: Despite recurrent childhood ear and chest infections, only 2 children with CHARGE syndrome had an identifiable immune defect (reduced serum IgA). In contrast, T-cell lymphopenia, low immunoglobulin levels, and specific antibody deficiency were noted in patients with 22q11.2 deletion. A greater proportion of patients with 22q11.2 deletion had persistent lymphopenia (57% vs 30%) and hypocalcemia (60% vs 37.5%) compared with patients with CHARGE syndrome in the first 72 months of life. CONCLUSIONS: Although phenotypic overlap exists between CHARGE and 22q11.2 deletion syndromes, no significant immune defects were detected in this cohort of patients with CHARGE syndrome at the time of testing. Lymphopenia and hypocalcemia occur in both conditions early in life, but is more pronounced in patients with 22q11.2 deletion.


Assuntos
Síndrome CHARGE/diagnóstico , DNA Helicases/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Síndrome de DiGeorge/diagnóstico , Linfócitos/imunologia , Síndrome CHARGE/imunologia , Cálcio/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Síndrome de DiGeorge/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
18.
Hum Mutat ; 34(12): 1721-6, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24123792

RESUMO

The advent of massive parallel sequencing is rapidly changing the strategies employed for the genetic diagnosis and research of rare diseases that involve a large number of genes. So far it is not clear whether these approaches perform significantly better than conventional single gene testing as requested by clinicians. The current yield of this traditional diagnostic approach depends on a complex of factors that include gene-specific phenotype traits, and the relative frequency of the involvement of specific genes. To gauge the impact of the paradigm shift that is occurring in molecular diagnostics, we assessed traditional Sanger-based sequencing (in 2011) and exome sequencing followed by targeted bioinformatics analysis (in 2012) for five different conditions that are highly heterogeneous, and for which our center provides molecular diagnosis. We find that exome sequencing has a much higher diagnostic yield than Sanger sequencing for deafness, blindness, mitochondrial disease, and movement disorders. For microsatellite-stable colorectal cancer, this was low under both strategies. Even if all genes that could have been ordered by physicians had been tested, the larger number of genes captured by the exome would still have led to a clearly superior diagnostic yield at a fraction of the cost.


Assuntos
Exoma , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Aconselhamento Genético , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/normas , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 110(6): 2157-62, 2013 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23355676

RESUMO

p53 and p63 share extensive sequence and structure homology. p53 is frequently mutated in cancer, whereas mutations in p63 cause developmental disorders manifested in ectodermal dysplasia, limb defects, and orofacial clefting. We have established primary adult skin keratinocytes from ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia, and cleft lip/palate (EEC) syndrome patients with p63 mutations as an in vitro human model to study the disease mechanism in the skin of EEC patients. We show that these patient keratinocytes cultured either in submerged 2D cultures or in 3D skin equivalents have impaired epidermal differentiation and stratification. Treatment of these patient keratinocytes with the mutant p53-targeting compound APR-246/PRIMA-1(MET) (p53 reactivation and induction of massive apoptosis) that has been successfully tested in a phase I/II clinical trial in cancer patients partially but consistently rescued morphological features and gene expression during epidermal stratification in both 2D and 3D models. This rescue coincides with restoration of p63 target-gene expression. Our data show that EEC patient keratinocytes with p63 mutations can be used for characterization of the abnormal molecular circuitry in patient skin and may open possibilities for the design of novel pharmacological treatment strategies for patients with mutant p63-associated developmental abnormalities.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/tratamento farmacológico , Fenda Labial/patologia , Fissura Palatina/tratamento farmacológico , Fissura Palatina/patologia , Displasia Ectodérmica/tratamento farmacológico , Displasia Ectodérmica/patologia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/patologia , Mutação , Quinuclidinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Fenda Labial/genética , Fenda Labial/metabolismo , Fissura Palatina/genética , Fissura Palatina/metabolismo , Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Displasia Ectodérmica/metabolismo , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/metabolismo , Epiderme/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Proteínas Mutantes/química , Proteínas Mutantes/genética , Proteínas Mutantes/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/química , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/química , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
20.
PLoS Genet ; 6(8): e1001065, 2010 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20808887

RESUMO

Heterozygous mutations in p63 are associated with split hand/foot malformations (SHFM), orofacial clefting, and ectodermal abnormalities. Elucidation of the p63 gene network that includes target genes and regulatory elements may reveal new genes for other malformation disorders. We performed genome-wide DNA-binding profiling by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) in primary human keratinocytes, and identified potential target genes and regulatory elements controlled by p63. We show that p63 binds to an enhancer element in the SHFM1 locus on chromosome 7q and that this element controls expression of DLX6 and possibly DLX5, both of which are important for limb development. A unique micro-deletion including this enhancer element, but not the DLX5/DLX6 genes, was identified in a patient with SHFM. Our study strongly indicates disruption of a non-coding cis-regulatory element located more than 250 kb from the DLX5/DLX6 genes as a novel disease mechanism in SHFM1. These data provide a proof-of-concept that the catalogue of p63 binding sites identified in this study may be of relevance to the studies of SHFM and other congenital malformations that resemble the p63-associated phenotypes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação , Células Cultivadas , Pré-Escolar , Imunoprecipitação da Cromatina , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Deformidades Congênitas dos Membros/metabolismo , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra
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