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1.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34528125

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The addition of cisplatin or cetuximab to radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) has significantly improved the outcome. While the superiority of cisplatin over cetuximab in combination with radiotherapy has been shown in a definitive setting, we set out to compare postoperative chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin to radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab and radiotherapy alone within the Austrian head and neck cancer registry of the Working Group on Pharmaceutical Tumor Treatment (AGMT) study group. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the AGMT head and neck cancer registry, data of 557 patients with SCCHN from five Austrian cancer centers were prospectively collected between 2012 and 2017. Of these patients 120 received postoperative chemoradiotherapy with cisplatin, 26 patients received postoperative radioimmunotherapy with cetuximab and 56 patients were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy only. Patient characteristics, stage of disease, details on treatment as well as survival were analyzed by a chart-based review. RESULTS: In patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy the addition of cisplatin significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) compared to cetuximab (PFS 84.2 months vs. 17.0 months, p = 0.04, OS not reached vs. 46.0 months, p = 0.02) and PFS compared to radiotherapy alone (PFS 84.2 months vs. 28.5 months, p < 0.01). Patients treated with cetuximab were significantly older and had a worse performance score than patients receiving cisplatin or radiotherapy alone. CONCLUSION: This study confirmed the importance of multimodal treatment concepts in patients with locally advanced SCCHN. Postoperative cetuximab might be an option in patients not eligible for high-dose cisplatin but cisplatin should remain the standard of care.

2.
Lung Cancer ; 159: 84-95, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34315093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The tumor-microenvironment (TME) represents an attractive therapeutic target in NSCLC and plays an important role for efficacy of cancer therapeutics. We hypothesized that upregulation of collagen synthesis might be associated with adverse outcome in NSCLC. Literature evidence suggests that renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (RASi) decrease collagen deposition. Therefore, we aimed to explore the prognostic role of RASi intake and their influence on the TME in NSCLC. METHODS: Four publicly available datasets were used to evaluate the impact of key enzymes involved in collagen biosynthesis. To investigate the influence of RASi intake on the TME and prognosis we evaluated a cohort of metastatic NSCLC patients and performed histopathological characterization of the TME. A three-dimensional microtissue in vitro model was developed to define the impact of RASi on collagen synthesis. RESULTS: Expression of three genes of the collagen synthesis pathway, ALDH18A1, PLOD2 and P4HA1, was upregulated in NSCLC compared to normal lung tissue and linked to shortened overall survival in all investigated cohorts. Together, these genes formed a 'Collagen Signature' which represents an independent unfavourable prognostic factor in two NSCLC cohorts and was linked to alterations of the extracellular matrix deposition and cell cycle pathways. In the cohort of metastatic NSCLC, RASi intake was linked to improved overall response rate and survival. Exploratory in vitro experiments revealed that RASi led to a dose dependent reduction of collagen deposition and degradation of three-dimensional lung cancer cell spheroids. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that collagen synthesis is a key upregulated process in the NSCLC TME and its transcriptional readout, the three gene Collagen Signature is independently associated with poor outcome. Pharmacological targeting of this pathways e.g. by RASi bears potential of improving outcome in NSCLC.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina , Colágeno , Ácido Glutâmico , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Microambiente Tumoral
3.
N Engl J Med ; 385(5): 395-405, 2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320285

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer, the most effective duration for adjuvant therapy with an aromatase inhibitor remains unclear. METHODS: In this prospective, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer who had received 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy to receive the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole for an additional 2 years (2-year group, receiving a total of 7 years) or an additional 5 years (5-year group, receiving a total of 10 years). The primary end point was disease-free survival. The primary analysis included all the patients who were still participating in the trial and who had no recurrence 2 years after randomization (i.e., when treatment in the 2-year group had ended). Secondary end points were overall survival, contralateral breast cancer, second primary cancer, and clinical bone fracture. RESULTS: Among the 3484 women who were enrolled in the trial, 3208 remained in the trial without disease progression after the first 2 years of extended anastrozole treatment following randomization. Among these women, disease progression or death occurred in 335 women in each treatment group in the primary-analysis set at 8 years (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.15; P = 0.90). No between-group differences occurred in most secondary end points, and subgroup analyses did not indicate differences in any particular subgroup. The risk of clinical bone fracture was higher in the 5-year group than in the 2-year group (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.84). CONCLUSIONS: In postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer who had received 5 years of adjuvant endocrine therapy, extending hormone therapy by 5 years provided no benefit over a 2-year extension but was associated with a greater risk of bone fracture. (Funded by AstraZeneca and the Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group; ABCSG-16/SALSA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00295620.).


Assuntos
Anastrozol/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Aromatase/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anastrozol/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Aromatase/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pós-Menopausa , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores de Estrogênio , Receptores de Progesterona , Tamoxifeno/uso terapêutico
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067112

RESUMO

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous disease arising from the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. Despite multimodality treatments approximately half of all patients with locally advanced disease relapse and the prognosis of patients with recurrent or metastatic HNSCC is dismal. The introduction of checkpoint inhibitors improved the treatment options for these patients and pembrolizumab alone or in combination with a platinum and fluorouracil is now the standard of care for first-line therapy. However, approximately only one third of unselected patients respond to this combination and the response rate to checkpoint inhibitors alone is even lower. This shows that there is an urgent need to improve prognostication and prediction of treatment benefits in patients with HNSCC. In this review, we summarize the most relevant risk factors in the field and discuss their roles and limitations. The human papilloma virus (HPV) status for patients with oropharyngeal cancer and the combined positive score are the only biomarkers consistently used in clinical routine. Other factors, such as the tumor mutational burden and the immune microenvironment have been highly studied and are promising but need validation in prospective trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Tabaco
6.
Geroscience ; 43(4): 1877-1897, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837912

RESUMO

COVID-19-associated case fatality rates up to 48% were reported among nursing facility residents. During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, routine SARS-CoV-2 testing in long-term care facilities in the Province of Salzburg and centralized hospitalization in the COVID-19 unit of the Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg (Austria) irrespective of symptoms was implemented. Baseline characteristics and the course of COVID-19 disease were assessed among hospitalized long-term care facility residents within the COVID-19 Registry of the Austrian Group Medical Tumor Therapy (AGMT; NCT04351529). Between the 24th of March and the 20th of April 2020, 50 COVID-19-positive residents were hospitalized. The median age was 84.5 years (range: 79-88) and the median number of comorbidities and baseline medication classes was 6 (IQR: 4-7) and 5 (IQR: 3-6), respectively. At admission, 31 residents (62%) were symptomatic, nine residents (18%) pre-symptomatic whereas ten residents (20%) remained asymptomatic. The 30-day mortality rate from hospitalization was 32% and significantly higher in symptomatic residents at admission when compared to asymptomatic residents including pre-symptomatic residents (48% [95% CI: 27-63%] versus 5% [95% CI: 0-15%], p=0.006). The Early Warning Score (EWS) at admission was associated with 30-day mortality: high risk: 100%, intermediate risk: 50% (95% CI: 0-78%), and low risk: 21% (95% CI: 7-32%) (p<0.001). In light of comparably low mortality rates between asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic hospitalized COVID-19-positive residents, we suggest the supply of comparable intensity and quality of monitoring and care in long-term care facilities as an alternative to immediate hospitalization upon a positive COVID-19 test in asymptomatic residents.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Teste para COVID-19 , Hospitalização , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Pandemias , Políticas , Sistema de Registros , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(4)2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33561953

RESUMO

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) usually needs to be treated immediately after diagnosis from a single lymph node biopsy. However, several reports in other malignancies have shown substantial spatial heterogeneity within large tumours. Therefore, we collected multiple synchronous biopsies of twelve patients that had diagnostic or therapeutic resections of large lymphoma masses and performed next-generation sequencing of 213 genes known to be important for lymphoma biology. Due to the high tumour cell content in the biopsies, we were able to detect several mutations which were present with a stable allelic frequency across all the biopsies of each patient. However, ten out of twelve patients had spatially discordant mutations and similar results were found by the analysis of copy number variants. The median Jaccard similarity coefficient, a measure of the similarity of a sample set was 0.77 (range 0.47-1), and some of the involved genes such as CARD11, CD79B, TP53, and PTEN have a known prognostic or therapeutic relevance in DLBCL. This shows that single biopsies underestimate the complexity of the disease and might overlook possible mechanisms of resistance and therapeutic targets. In the future, the broader application of liquid biopsies will have to overcome these obstacles.

8.
Cancer Manag Res ; 12: 10615-10629, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33149670

RESUMO

The prognosis of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) has radically changed in recent years and continues to improve due to the broad application of effective therapies like monoclonal antibodies and small molecules targeting HER2. Persistent dependency of tumor cells on the oncogene HER2, on one hand, as well as low expression levels in healthy tissue, on the other hand, make this protein an ideal target for anti-cancer therapy. New HER2 targeting strategies including targeted delivery of cytotoxic drugs via HER2 receptor have been developed. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved three new drugs for the treatment of HER2-positive MBC: the antibody-drug conjugate trastuzumab deruxtecan and the two tyrosine kinase inhibitors neratinib and tucatinib. Here, we summarize recent publications and developments of novel anti-HER2 therapies like monoclonal antibodies with improved properties compared to trastuzumab and bispecific antibodies, which bind two different HER-epitopes or bring T cells closer to tumor cells. Furthermore, novel antibody-drug conjugates and small molecules against HER2 are discussed. These developments coupled with new combination strategies (eg, with CDK4/6 inhibitors or immunotherapy) will change the treatment landscape for patients with HER2-positive MBC very soon and will hopefully further improve clinical outcomes.

9.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007814

RESUMO

Current National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) and European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) guidelines recommend regorafenib or trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) for the third-line therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). In this analysis, we evaluated hospitalizations during regorafenib or TAS-102 treatment and the impact of hospitalizations on overall survival (OS). This retrospective analysis was based on unselected, consecutive mCRC patients treated with regorafenib and/or TAS-102 at the tertiary cancer centers in Salzburg and Wels-Grieskirchen, Austria. Between January 2013 and May 2019, 93 patients started third- or fourth-line therapy with regorafenib or TAS-102. Tumor therapy (regorafenib versus TAS-102, HR: 1.95 [95% CI: 1.07-3.54], p = 0.03) and the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (2-3 versus 0-1, HR: 4.04 [95% CI: 2.11-7.71], p < 0.001) showed a statistically significant association with hospitalization risk in multivariate analysis. The corresponding hospitalization probability from initiation of third- or fourth-line was 30% with regorafenib versus 18% with TAS-102 at five weeks and 41% versus 28% at ten weeks, respectively. Hospitalizations irrespective of cause during regorafenib or TAS-102 therapy did neither impact median survival in patients undergoing only third-line therapy (never-hospitalized: 5.7 months [95% CI: 3.9-10.5] versus hospitalized: 5.4 months [95% CI: 2.8-9.6], p = 0.45), nor in patients receiving third- and fourth-line therapy (12.2 months [95% CI: 10.6-28.8] versus 18.6 months [95% CI: 6.3-not reached], p = 0.90). In conclusion, apart from poor ECOG performance status, regorafenib therapy was associated with an increased hospitalization probability during palliative systemic third- and fourth-line therapy in mCRC. However, hospitalizations during regorafenib or TAS-102 therapy did not impact OS beyond second-line therapy.

10.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32867256

RESUMO

Reports on the prognostic role of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in rectal cancer are controversial. We investigated expression patterns and changes of PD-L1 in rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Seventy-two patients diagnosed with rectal cancer and/or treated with fluorouracil-based neoadjuvant CRT at the Department of Internal Medicine III of the Paracelsus Medical University Salzburg (Austria) between January 2003 and October 2012 were included. PD-L1 scoring was performed according to the tumor proportion score (TPS), combined positive score (CPS), and immune cell score (IC). PD-L1 TPS prior to neoadjuvant CRT had a statistically significant impact on survival (median: ≤1%: 95.4 months (95% CI: 51.8-not reached) vs. >1%: not reached, p = 0.03, log-rank). Patients with a PD-L1 TPS ≤1% prior to and after CRT showed an inferior survival compared to all other patients (median: 56.7 months (95% CI: 51.4-not reached) vs. not reached, p = 0.005, log-rank). In multivariate analysis, PD-L1 TPS prior to neoadjuvant CRT (>1% vs. ≤1%, hazard ratio: 0.29 (95% CI: 0.11-0.76), p = 0.01) remained independently associated with survival. In conclusion, low PD-L1 TPS was associated with inferior survival in rectal cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant CRT. A prospective validation of the prognostic value of PD-L1 expression in rectal cancer patients within a clinical trial is necessitated.

11.
J Clin Med ; 9(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients, no biomarker predicting benefit to a bevacizumab-containing therapy has been established yet. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in angiogenesis and treatment resistance and therefore could be of predictive value. METHODS: Profiling of 754 miRNAs was performed in tumor samples of 58 MBC patients treated with a bevacizumab-containing first-line regimen (learning set). Based on progression-free survival (PFS), patients were divided into responders (R) and non-responders (NR). Differentially expressed miRNAs between R and NR were analyzed in a cohort of 57 patients treated with first-line chemotherapy without bevacizumab (control set), to exclude miRNAs providing prognostic information. MiRNA candidates significantly associated with PFS in multivariate analysis were further validated in tumor samples of 203 patients treated within the phase III trial TANIA randomizing between chemotherapy either alone or with bevacizumab after progression on first-line bevacizumab. RESULTS: Low expression of miR-20a-5p (multivariate p = 0.035) and miR-21-5p (multivariate p = 0.004) were significantly associated with longer PFS in the learning set, but not in the control set. In samples from the TANIA trial, low expression of miR-20a-5p was also significantly associated with longer PFS (hazard ration (HR) 0.60; 95%-CI 0.37-0.89; p = 0.012) and longer overall survival (OS; HR 0.54; 95%-CI 0.32-0.83; p = 0.007) in the bevacizumab arm but not in the chemotherapy-only arm (PFS: HR 0.73, p = 0.119; OS: HR 1.01; p = 0.964). For miR-21-5p no significant association with PFS or OS in both treatment arms was observed. CONCLUSION: MiR-20a-5p expression in breast cancer tissue was predictive for a greater benefit from bevacizumab-containing therapy in two independent cohorts.

12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e20149, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384502

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a worldwide concern in patients receiving neurotoxic agents for cancer therapy. High tone external muscle stimulation is a promising therapeutic approach to alleviate symptoms of CIPN. METHODS: This pilot study aims to investigate whether the application of home-based high-tone external muscle stimulation therapy (HTEMS) improves symptoms of CIPN. The trial is planned as a therapist- and assessor-blinded, 1:1 randomized controlled study. A total of 50 patients with chemotherapy-induced peripheral polyneuropathy will be included. All patients will perform therapy at home. Study participants will be allocated randomly to the HTEMS therapy (intervention group) or to the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, control group), respectively, following a standardized therapy schedule. Compliance of participants can be verified by reading out the tool box. Outcomes will be evaluated at baseline and after 8 weeks of home-based therapy. The primary outcome includes improvement of CIPN according to the patient-reported EORTC QLQ-CIPN 20 questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are the patient-reported change in health-related quality of life and clinician-reported changes of vibration sensibility, tendon reflexes, temperature sensibility, perception of touch, and strength of the lower leg muscles. Further a safety- and process evaluation will be performed. DISCUSSION: This pilot RCT aims to evaluate the impact of home-based HTEMS as compared to TENS in CIPN. There is a need for an effective treatment for CIPN and the results of this study are expected to possibly identify a novel and effective treatment strategy in the future.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Polineuropatias/induzido quimicamente , Polineuropatias/terapia , Autocuidado/métodos , Estimulação Elétrica Nervosa Transcutânea/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Força Muscular , Cooperação do Paciente , Projetos Piloto , Qualidade de Vida , Reflexo de Estiramento , Projetos de Pesquisa , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Sensação Térmica , Tato , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(8)2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32325898

RESUMO

The therapeutic concept of unleashing a pre-existing immune response against the tumor by the application of immune-checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) has resulted in long-term survival in advanced cancer patient subgroups. However, the majority of patients do not benefit from single-agent ICI and therefore new combination strategies are eagerly necessitated. In addition to conventional chemotherapy, kinase inhibitors as well as tumor-specific vaccinations are extensively investigated in combination with ICI to augment therapy responses. An unprecedented clinical outcome with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-)T cell therapy has led to the approval for relapsed/refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma and B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia whereas response rates in solid tumors are unsatisfactory. Immune-checkpoints negatively impact CAR-T cell therapy in hematologic and solid malignancies and as a consequence provide a therapeutic target to overcome resistance. Established biomarkers such as programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and tumor mutational burden (TMB) help to select patients who will benefit most from ICI, however, biomarker negativity does not exclude responses. Investigating alterations in the antigen presenting pathway as well as radiomics have the potential to determine tumor immunogenicity and response to ICI. Within this review we summarize the literature about specific combination partners for ICI and the applicability of artificial intelligence to predict ICI therapy responses.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Inteligência Artificial , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/farmacologia , Animais , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Vacinas Anticâncer/efeitos adversos , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Terapia Combinada , Humanos , Inibidores de Checkpoint Imunológico/uso terapêutico , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/terapia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Future Sci OA ; 7(2): FSO644, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33437513

RESUMO

FOLFIRINOX is superior to gemcitabine in patients with pancreatic cancer, but this regimen is associated with toxicity and biomarkers for response are warranted. MicroRNAs can mediate drug resistance and could provide predictive information. Altered expressions of several microRNAs including miR-21-5p, miR-10b-5p and miR-34a-5p have been previously linked to a worse response to gemcitabine. We investigated the influence of expression levels in tumor tissue of those three microRNAs on outcome to FOLFIRINOX. Twenty-nine patients with sufficient formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue were identified. There was no significant association between high and low expression groups for these three microRNA. We conclude that polychemotherapy combination can overcome intrinsic negative prognostic factors.

15.
Target Oncol ; 14(6): 707-717, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence on PD-1/PD-L1-directed immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is mainly based on clinical trials in first- or second-line settings. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate response and prognostic factors with special regard to third- or later-line therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed all patients who had received ICI monotherapy with nivolumab, pembrolizumab, or atezolizumab for advanced NSCLC. Computed tomography evaluations were analyzed using response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (RECIST, version 1.1). Kaplan-Meier analyses were conducted to calculate progression-free (PFS) and overall (OS) survival; the impact of influencing variables was evaluated using uni- and multivariate Cox-regression analyses. RESULTS: Among 153 patients (59% men, mean age 66 years), median PFS was 4 months [mo; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 3-5], OS was 13 mo (10-17), and objective response rate (ORR) was 22%. Therapy line ≥ 3 was associated with significantly inferior PFS (p = 0.003) and OS (p = 0.001). In first-line therapy PFS, OS, and ORR were 7 mo (3-11), 17 mo [9-not evaluable (n.e.)], and 36%; in second-line 4 mo (3-7), 18 mo (13-n.e.) and 19%, and in ≥ third-line 2 mo (1-3), 9 mo (4-12), and 13%. PFS was significantly influenced by PD-L1 expression in first-line therapy (p = 0.006). In ≥ third-line patients, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status significantly affected PFS and OS (both p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Third- or later-line single-agent anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy is less efficacious as compared to first- and second-line treatment. In that setting, ECOG performance status predominates known predictors like PD-L1 expression or presence of an alteration in EGFR or ALK.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/antagonistas & inibidores , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/imunologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nivolumabe/uso terapêutico , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Intervalo Livre de Progressão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Clin Med ; 8(7)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295966

RESUMO

Immune-checkpoint blockade in front-line or second-line treatment improves survival in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) when compared with chemotherapy alone. However, easily applicable predictive parameters are necessary to guide immune-checkpoint inhibition in clinical practice. In this retrospective bi-centric analysis, we investigated the impact of baseline patient and tumor characteristics on clinical outcome in aNSCLC patients treated with programmed cell death protein 1(PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibitors. Between May 2015 and January 2018, 142 unselected consecutive NSCLC patients received PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors during the course of disease. In multivariate analysis, we identified the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status (ECOG > 1 versus ECOG ≤ 1, HR: 3.23, 95%CI: 1.58-6.60, P = 0.001), baseline absolute lymphocyte count (ALC; high: >0.93 × 109/L versus low: ≤ 0.93 × 109/L, HR: 0.38, 95%CI: 0.23-0.62, P < 0.001), prior or concomitant anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) targeting therapy (yes versus no, HR: 2.18, 95%CI: 1.15-4.14, P = 0.017) and TNM stage (IV versus III, HR: 4.18, 95%CI: 1.01-17.36, P = 0.049) as the most relevant parameters for survival. Neither antibiotic exposure (antibiotic-positive versus antibiotic-negative, HR: 0.90, 95%CI: 0.56-1.45, P = 0.675), nor PD-L1 expression on tumor cells (≥1% versus <1%, HR: 0.68, 95%CI: 0.41-1.13, P = 0.140) was associated with survival. Baseline ECOG performance status and ALC were associated with survival in aNSCLC patients treated with PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors and assessment of these parameters could be suitable in clinical practice.

17.
Clin Colorectal Cancer ; 18(2): 159-166.e3, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060856

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current guidelines of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network and the European Society of Medical Oncology recommend regorafenib or trifluridine/tipiracil (TAS-102) for third-line therapy of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We evaluated the impact of regorafenib and TAS-102 treatment on skeletal muscle dynamics and sarcopenia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective analysis was based on unselected, consecutive mCRC patients treated with regorafenib and/or TAS-102 during third or later line of therapy at our tertiary-care cancer center in Salzburg, Austria. The skeletal muscle index (SMI, cm2/m2) and sarcopenia were evaluated from cross-sectional computed tomographic images at the level of the third lumbar vertebra. RESULTS: Between January 2013 and April 2018, a total of 45 patients had received regorafenib and/or TAS-102. At initial mCRC diagnosis and at initiation of third-line therapy, 24% and 54% of patients presented with sarcopenia. A statistically significant skeletal muscle loss was observed during regorafenib treatment (median SMI change: -2.75 cm2/m2 [-6.3%]; P < .0001), which was not the case during TAS-102 therapy (-1.5 cm2/m2 [-3.5%]; P = .575). Furthermore, subclassification of patients into 3 groups-normal muscle mass, stable sarcopenia, and new-onset sarcopenia-at initiation of third-line therapy permitted discrimination of overall survival, with 1-year overall survival rates of 61%, 29%, and 16%, respectively (P = .04). CONCLUSION: The frequency of sarcopenia increases during the course of mCRC and negatively affects survival. In contrast to TAS-102, regorafenib is associated with increased skeletal muscle loss during mCRC treatment and should therefore be used with caution in mCRC patients with preexisting sarcopenia or a history of recent weight loss.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos de Fenilureia/efeitos adversos , Piridinas/efeitos adversos , Pirrolidinas/efeitos adversos , Terapia de Salvação/efeitos adversos , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Trifluridina/efeitos adversos , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Áustria , Neoplasias Colorretais/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Músculo Esquelético/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Pirrolidinas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia de Salvação/métodos , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/etiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida , Timina , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Trifluridina/administração & dosagem , Uracila/administração & dosagem , Uracila/efeitos adversos
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(5)2019 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30841523

RESUMO

Since the discovery of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) as an oncogenic driver in a subset of breast cancers and the development of HER2 directed therapies, the prognosis of HER2 amplified breast cancers has improved meaningfully. Next to monoclonal anti-HER2 antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, the antibody-drug conjugate T-DM1 is a pillar of targeted treatment of advanced HER2-positive breast cancers. Currently, several HER2 directed antibody-drug conjugates are under clinical investigation for HER2 amplified but also HER2 expressing but not amplified breast tumors. In this article, we review the current preclinical and clinical evidence of the investigational drugs A166, ALT-P7, ARX788, DHES0815A, DS-8201a, RC48, SYD985, MEDI4276 and XMT-1522.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Maitansina/análogos & derivados , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Trastuzumab/uso terapêutico , Ado-Trastuzumab Emtansina , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Feminino , Humanos , Maitansina/uso terapêutico
19.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 20, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30709367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-coding RNAs and especially microRNAs have been discovered to act as master regulators of cancer initiation and progression. The aim of our study was to discover and characterize the function of yet functionally uncharacterized microRNAs in human breast carcinogenesis. METHODS: In an unbiased approach, we utilized an established model system for breast cancer (BC) stem cell formation ("mammosphere assay") to identify whole miRNome alterations in breast carcinogenesis. Clinical samples of BC patients were used to evaluate the human relevance of the newly identified miRNA candidates. One promising candidate, miR-1287-5p, was further explored on its impact on several hallmarks of cancer. The molecular mode of action was characterized by whole transcriptome analysis, in silico prediction tools, miRNA-interaction assays, pheno-copy assays, and drug sensitivity assays. RESULTS: Among several other microRNAs, miR-1287-5p was significantly downregulated in mammospheres and human BC tissue compared to normal breast tissue (p < 0.0001). Low expression levels were significantly associated with poor prognosis in BC patients. MiR-1287-5p significantly decreased cellular growth, cells in S phase of cell cycle, anchorage-independent growth, and tumor formation in vivo. In addition, we identified PIK3CB as a direct molecular interactor of miR-1287-5p and a novel prognostic factor in BC. Finally, PI3Kinase pathway chemical inhibitors combined with miR-1287-5p mimic increased the pharmacological growth inhibitory potential in triple negative BC cells. CONCLUSION: Our data identified for the first time the involvement of miR-1287-5p in human BC and suggest a potential for therapeutic interventions in difficult to treat triple negative BC.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Animais , Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Classe I de Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
20.
Breast Cancer Res ; 21(1): 19, 2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30704493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with early breast cancer (EBC) achieving pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) have a favorable prognosis. Breast surgery might be avoided in patients in whom the presence of residual tumor can be ruled out with high confidence. Here, we investigated the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) in predicting pCR and long-term outcome after NACT. METHODS: Patients with EBC, including patients with locally advanced disease, who had undergone CE-MRI after NACT, were retrospectively analyzed (n = 246). Three radiologists, blinded to clinicopathologic data, reevaluated all MRI scans regarding to the absence (radiologic complete remission; rCR) or presence (no-rCR) of residual contrast enhancement. Clinical and pathologic responses were compared categorically using Cohen's kappa statistic. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Overall rCR and pCR (no invasive tumor in the breast and axilla (ypT0/is N0)) rates were 45% (111/246) and 29% (71/246), respectively. Only 48% (53/111; 95% CI 38-57%) of rCR corresponded to a pCR (= positive predictive value - PPV). Conversely, in 87% (117/135; 95% CI 79-92%) of patients, residual tumor observed on MRI was pathologically confirmed (= negative predictive value - NPV). Sensitivity to detect a pCR was 75% (53/71; 95% CI 63-84%), while specificity to detect residual tumor and accuracy were 67% (117/175; 95% CI 59-74%) and 69% (170/246; 95% CI 63-75%), respectively. The PPV was significantly lower in hormone-receptor (HR)-positive compared to HR-negative tumors (17/52 = 33% vs. 36/59 = 61%; P = 0.004). The concordance between rCR and pCR was low (Cohen's kappa - 0.1), however in multivariate analysis both assessments were significantly associated with RFS (rCR P = 0.037; pCR P = 0.033) and OS (rCR P = 0.033; pCR P = 0.043). CONCLUSION: Preoperative CE-MRI did not accurately predict pCR after NACT for EBC, especially not in HR-positive tumors. However, rCR was strongly associated with favorable RFS and OS.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Mama/cirurgia , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Mastectomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Neoadjuvante/métodos , Neoplasia Residual , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Período Pré-Operatório , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
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