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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(13): 14842-14858, 2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35319184

RESUMO

Liquid crystalline elastomers (LCEs) have emerged as an important class of functional materials that are suitable for a wide range of applications, such as sensors, actuators, and soft robotics. The unique properties of LCEs originate from the combination between liquid crystal and elastomeric network. The control of macroscopic liquid crystalline orientation and network structure is crucial to realizing the useful functionalities of LCEs. A variety of chemistries have been developed to fabricate LCEs, including hydrosilylation, free radical polymerization of acrylate, and polyaddition of epoxy and carboxylic acid. Over the past few years, the use of click chemistry has become a more robust and energy-efficient way to construct LCEs with desired structures. This article provides an overview of emerging LCEs based on click chemistries, including aza-Michael addition between amine and acrylate, radical-mediated thiol-ene and thiol-yne reactions, base-catalyzed thiol-acrylate and thiol-epoxy reactions, copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, and Diels-Alder cycloaddition. The similarities and differences of these reactions are discussed, with particular attention focused on the strengths and limitations of each reaction for the preparation of LCEs with controlled structures and orientations. The compatibility of these reactions with the traditional and emerging processing techniques, such as surface alignment and additive manufacturing, are surveyed. Finally, the challenges and opportunities of using click chemistry for the design of LCEs with advanced functionalities and applications are discussed.

2.
Polymers (Basel) ; 13(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203628

RESUMO

Polymer composites are being considered for numerous thermal applications because of their inherent benefits, such as light weight, corrosion resistance, and reduced cost. In this work, the microstructural, thermal, and mechanical properties of a 3D printed polymer composite with high thermal conductivity are examined using multiple characterization techniques. Infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction reveal that the composite contains a polyphenylene sulfide matrix with graphitic fillers, which is responsible for the high thermal conductivity. Furthermore, differential scanning calorimetry determines that the glass transition and melting point of the composite are 87.6 °C and 285.6 °C, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis reveals that the composite is thermally stable up to ~400 °C. Creep tests are performed at different isotherms to evaluate the long-term performance of the composite. The creep result indicates that the composite can maintain mechanical integrity when used below its glass transition temperature. Nanoindentation tests reveal that modulus and hardness of the composite is not significantly influenced by heating or creep conditions. These findings indicate that the composite is potentially suitable for heat exchanger applications.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(52): 33061-33071, 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33376215

RESUMO

Engineering neutron diffraction can nondestructively and noninvasively probe stress, strain, temperature, and phase evolutions deep within bulk materials. In this work, we demonstrate operando lattice strain measurement of internal combustion engine components by neutron diffraction. A modified commercial generator engine was mounted in the VULCAN diffractometer at the Spallation Neutron Source, and the lattice strains in both the cylinder block and head were measured under static nonfiring conditions as well as steady state and cyclic transient operation. The dynamic temporal response of the lattice strain change during transient operation was resolved in two locations by asynchronous stroboscopic neutron diffraction. We demonstrated that operando neutron measurements can allow for understanding of how materials behave throughout operational engineering devices. This study opens a pathway for the industrial and academic communities to better understand the complexities of material behavior during the operation of internal combustion engines and other real-scale devices and systems and to leverage techniques developed here for future investigations of numerous new platforms and alloys.

4.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20214, 2020 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214668

RESUMO

The development of multi-stimuli-responsive shape memory polymers has received increasing attention because of its scientific and technological significance. In this work, epoxy elastomers with reversible crosslinks are synthesized by polymerizing an anthracene-functionalized epoxy monomer, a diepoxy comonomer, and a dicarboxylic acid curing agent. The synthesized elastomers exhibit active responses to both light and heat enabled by the incorporated anthracene groups. When exposed to 365 nm UV light, additional crosslinking points are created by the photo-induced dimerization of pendant anthracene groups. The formation of the crosslinking points increases modulus and glass transition temperature of the elastomers, allowing for the fixation of a temporary shape at room temperature. The temporary shape remains stable until an external heat stimulus is applied to trigger the scission of the dimerized anthracene, which reduces the modulus and glass transition temperature and allows the elastomers to recover their original shapes. The effects of external stimuli on the thermal and dynamic mechanical properties of the elastomers are investigated experimentally and are correlated with molecular dynamics simulations that reveal the changes of structure and dynamics of the anthracene molecules and flexible chains.

5.
ACS Comb Sci ; 22(5): 248-254, 2020 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207918

RESUMO

Additive manufacturing synthesis using laser engineered net shaping (LENS) is utilized to rapidly print libraries of mischmetal (MM = La, Ce, Nd, and Pr) containing R2TM14B alloys (R = MM + separated Nd and TM = Fe and Co) enabling robust evaluation of physical properties over a wide composition range. High-throughput characterization of the magnetic and thermal properties are used to identify compositions for potential high-temperature, high-performance permanent magnets with reduced critical rare-earth elements. Improved Curie temperature (Tc ∼ 450 °C) is obtained with substitution of Fe by Co in pseudoternary R2TM14B alloys. Furthermore, a 4-fold decrease in the Nd content can be achieved through substitution with less critical Ce- and La-rich MM, while retaining high Tc. Guided by the properties of the LENS printed samples, selected compositions with and without TiC additions are synthesized via melt-spinning techniques to produce nanostructured ribbons. The maximum room temperature coercivity (Hc) and energy product ((BH)max) without TiC are found to be 5.8 kOe, 8.5 MGOe, respectively, while TiC additions as a grain refiner gave Hc and (BH)max of 4.9 kOe, 9.8 MGOe, respectively. Structural characterization of the melt-spun ribbons shows homogeneous grain refinement with TiC additions, which leads to an increase in the energy product.


Assuntos
Ligas/química , Boro/química , Cobalto/química , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Ferro/química , Metais Terras Raras/química , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Tamanho da Partícula
6.
Soft Matter ; 16(7): 1760-1770, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859322

RESUMO

Photo-initiated thiol-ene click chemistry is used to develop shape memory liquid crystalline networks (LCNs). A biphenyl-based di-vinyl monomer is synthesized and cured with a di-thiol chain extender and a tetra-thiol crosslinker using UV light. The effects of photo-initiator concentration and UV light intensity on the curing behavior and liquid crystalline (LC) properties of the LCNs are investigated. The chemical composition is found to significantly influence the microstructure and the related thermomechanical properties of the LCNs. The structure-property relationship is further explored using molecular dynamics simulations, revealing that the introduction of the chain extender promotes the formation of an ordered smectic LC phase instead of agglomerated structures. The concentration of the chain extender affects the liquid crystallinity of the LCNs, resulting in distinct thermomechanical and shape memory properties. This class of LCNs exhibits fast curing rates, high conversion levels, and tailorable liquid crystallinity, making it a promising material system for advanced manufacturing, where complex and highly ordered structures can be produced with fast reaction kinetics and low energy consumption.

7.
J Anal Methods Chem ; 2019: 6164058, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944753

RESUMO

TOF-ND elastic scattering of thermal neutrons offers some important advantages over X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), and metallography for the study of archaeological and numismatic problems. Traditional analytical methods are usually destructive and often probe only the surface. Neutrons deeply penetrate samples, simultaneously giving nondestructive bulk information about the crystal structure, composition, and texture (alignment of crystallites) from which thermomechanical manufacturing processes (e.g., cast, struck, or rolled) may be inferred. An analysis of the metal composition and minting processes used for making ancient Judaean bronze and leaded bronze coins from first century BCE and CE is used as a case study. One of the first ND analyses of the temperature used for striking bronze coins is also presented.

8.
Soft Matter ; 13(29): 5021-5027, 2017 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28650493

RESUMO

A liquid crystalline epoxy network (LCEN) with exchangeable disulfide bonds is synthesized by polymerizing a biphenyl-based epoxy monomer with an aliphatic dicarboxylic acid curing agent containing a disulfide bond. The effect of disulfide bonds on curing behavior and liquid crystalline (LC) phase formation of the LCEN is investigated. The presence of the disulfide bonds results in an increase in the reaction rate, leading to a reduction in liquid crystallinity of the LCEN. In order to promote LC phase formation and stabilize the self-assembled LC domains, a similar aliphatic dicarboxylic acid without the disulfide bond is used as a co-curing agent to reduce the amount of exchangeable disulfide bonds in the system. After optimizing the molar ratio of the two curing agents, the resulting LCEN exhibits improved reprocessability and recyclability because of the disulfide exchange reactions, while preserving LC properties, such as the reversible LC phase transition and macroscopic LC orientation, for shape memory applications.

9.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 9(8): 6988-7002, 2017 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28106979

RESUMO

In this work, we study the effect of carbon composite anode structure on the localization and energetics of Li-ions. A computational molecular dynamics study is combined with experimental results from neutron scattering experiments to understand the effect of composite density, crystallite size, volume fraction of crystalline carbon, and ion loading on the nature of ion storage in novel, lignin-derived composite materials. In a recent work, we demonstrated that these carbon composites display a fundamentally different mechanism for Li-ion storage than traditional graphitic anodes. The edges of the crystalline and amorphous fragments of aromatic carbon that exist in these composites are terminated by hydrogen atoms, which play a crucial role in adsorption. In this work, we demonstrate how differences in composite structure due to changes in the processing conditions alter the type and extent of the interface between the amorphous and crystalline domains, thus impacting the nature of Li-ion storage. The effects of structural properties are evaluated using a suite of pair distribution functions as well as an original technique to extract archetypal structures, in the form of three-dimensional atomic density distributions, from highly disordered systems. The energetics of Li-ion binding are understood by relating changes in the energy and charge distributions to changes in structural properties. The distribution of Li-ion energies reveals that some structures lead to greater chemisorption, while others have greater physisorption. Carbon composites with a high volume fraction of small crystallites demonstrate the highest ion storage capacity because of the high interfacial area between the crystalline and amorphous domains. At these interfaces, stable H atoms, terminating the graphitic crystallites, provide favorable sites for reversible Li adsorption.

10.
Sci Rep ; 6: 36212, 2016 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796339

RESUMO

Additive manufacturing allows for the production of complex parts with minimum material waste, offering an effective technique for fabricating permanent magnets which frequently involve critical rare earth elements. In this report, we demonstrate a novel method - Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) - to fabricate isotropic near-net-shape NdFeB bonded magnets with magnetic and mechanical properties comparable or better than those of traditional injection molded magnets. The starting polymer magnet composite pellets consist of 65 vol% isotropic NdFeB powder and 35 vol% polyamide (Nylon-12). The density of the final BAAM magnet product reached 4.8 g/cm3, and the room temperature magnetic properties are: intrinsic coercivity Hci = 688.4 kA/m, remanence Br = 0.51 T, and energy product (BH)max = 43.49 kJ/m3 (5.47 MGOe). In addition, tensile tests performed on four dog-bone shaped specimens yielded an average ultimate tensile strength of 6.60 MPa and an average failure strain of 4.18%. Scanning electron microscopy images of the fracture surfaces indicate that the failure is primarily related to the debonding of the magnetic particles from the polymer binder. The present method significantly simplifies manufacturing of near-net-shape bonded magnets, enables efficient use of rare earth elements thus contributing towards enriching the supply of critical materials.

11.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 8(24): 15750-7, 2016 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27245744

RESUMO

Functional polymers are intelligent materials that can respond to a variety of external stimuli. However, these materials have not yet found widespread real world applications because of the difficulties in fabrication and the limited number of functional building blocks that can be incorporated into a material. Here, we demonstrate a simple route to incorporate three functional building blocks (azobenzene chromophores, liquid crystals, and dynamic covalent bonds) into an epoxy-based liquid crystalline network (LCN), in which an azobenzene-based epoxy monomer is polymerized with an aliphatic dicarboxylic acid to create exchangeable ester bonds that can be thermally activated. All three functional building blocks exhibited good compatibility, and the resulting materials exhibits various photomechanical, shape memory, and self-healing properties because of the azobenzene molecules, liquid crystals, and dynamic ester bonds, respectively.

12.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 6(21): 19456-64, 2014 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25318760

RESUMO

A thermomagnetic processing method was used to produce a biphenyl-based liquid-crystalline epoxy resin (LCER) with oriented liquid-crystalline (LC) domains. The orientation of the LCER was confirmed and quantified using two-dimensional X-ray diffraction. The effect of molecular alignment on the mechanical and thermomechanical properties of the LCER was investigated using nanoindentation and thermomechanical analysis, respectively. The effect of the orientation on the fracture behavior was also examined. The results showed that macroscopic orientation of the LC domains was achieved, resulting in an epoxy network with an anisotropic modulus, hardness, creep behavior, and thermal expansion.

13.
Rev Biol Trop ; 61(1): 363-76, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23894989

RESUMO

Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs. We also evaluated the effect of size of relocated individuals on their survival and development. The work was carried out in an experimental plot at 3 424m altitude in the sector "Lagunas de Siecha" of Chingaza National Park, Colombia. We relocated 200 plants that belonged to three different size classes: 5, 10 and 15cm of initial height. The following variables were registered: survival, plant height, number of living leaves and stem diameter of each individual. We also evaluated the differences between individuals in survival and development. In terms of survival the most efficient size classes corresponded to 15cm high; the survival was 85% after two years. The relative growth rates for height and stem diameter decreases with the increase in size, but the absolute increase in height did not show significant differences between the three sizes tested. Since the stem diameter was found the strongest survival predictor after two years of relocation activities, we suggest its use as a criterion for selection of relocation individuals. The relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora had a positive side effect, carrying other species that may contribute to the enrichment and restoration of degraded areas. Among these, we found species of the genus Hypericum, as well as Arcytophyllum nitidum and Calamagrostis effusa, which should be evaluated in terms of survival and development for the subsequent implementation of the relocation strategy. In this study we verified the successful relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora as a strategy for enrichment of paramos, and provided values of survival and growth, which should be useful for planning and predicting with greater certainty the success of restoration programs in the paramo.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Asteraceae/classificação , Colômbia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 61(1): 363-376, Mar. 2013. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-674088

RESUMO

Relocation of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) plants as a strategy for enrichment of disturbed paramo areas (PNN Chingaza, Colombia). Ecological restoration of the Andean paramos faces several ecological barriers mainly at the phase of dispersal and establishment of native species. With the aim to contribute to the enrichment of degraded areas, different strategies have to be developed to overcome those barriers. In this work we studied the response of individuals of Espeletia grandiflora (Asteraceae) to the relocation as a strategy for ecological restoration programs. We also evaluated the effect of size of relocated individuals on their survival and development. The work was carried out in an experimental plot at 3 424m altitude in the sector Lagunas de Siecha of Chingaza National Park, Colombia. We relocated 200 plants that belonged to three different size classes: 5, 10 and 15cm of initial height. The following variables were registered: survival, plant height, number of living leaves and stem diameter of each individual. We also evaluated the differences between individuals in survival and development. In terms of survival the most efficient size classes corresponded to 15cm high; the survival was 85% after two years. The relative growth rates for height and stem diameter decreases with the increase in size, but the absolute increase in height did not show significant differences between the three sizes tested. Since the stem diameter was found the strongest survival predictor after two years of relocation activities, we suggest its use as a criterion for selection of relocation individuals. The relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora had a positive side effect, carrying other species that may contribute to the enrichment and restoration of degraded areas. Among these, we found species of the genus Hypericum, as well as Arcytophyllum nitidum and Calamagrostis effusa, which should be evaluated in terms of survival and development for the subsequent implementation of the relocation strategy. In this study we verified the successful relocation of individuals of E. grandiflora as a strategy for enrichment of paramos, and provided values of survival and growth, which should be useful for planning and predicting with greater certainty the success of restoration programs in the paramo.


El trasplante o reubicación de individuos ha sido ampliamente usado para la adición de especies en procesos de restauración. En este trabajo se estudió la respuesta de individuos de Espeletia grandiflora a la reubicación como estrategia de restauración ecológica; así mismo, se evaluó el efecto del tamaño de los individuos reubicados sobre la supervivencia y desarrollo. Se reubicaron individuos de tres diferentes tamaños, 5, 10 y 15cm de altura. Se registraron las variables supervivencia, altura de la planta, número de hojas vivas y diámetro del tallo de cada uno de los individuos, se evaluaron las posibles diferencias en cuanto a supervivencia y desarrollo. La categoría de tamaño más eficaz corresponde a la de 15cm de altura, que presentó una supervivencia del 85% luego de dos años. Se sugiere el uso del diámetro del tallo como criterio de selección de los individuos a reubicar, ya que es la variable que mejor predice la supervivencia dos años luego de la reubicación. Las tasas de crecimiento relativo en altura y diámetro del tallo disminuyen conforme aumenta el tamaño de los individuos; sin embargo, el incremento absoluto en altura no presenta diferencias entre los tres tamaños evaluados. A partir de los resultados se verifica el éxito de la reubicación de plantas de E. grandiflora como estrategia de enriquecimiento en pastizales de páramos alterados.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Caules de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Asteraceae/classificação , Colômbia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos
15.
Rev Biol Trop ; 60(1): 35-64, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22458208

RESUMO

Plant communities in the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone in the paramo of Chingaza, Colombia. High Andean paramo ecosystems are an important water resource for many towns, and major cities in this region. The aquatic and wetland vegetation of different paramo lakes, pond, swamps and bogs was studied according to the classical phytosociological approach, which is based on homogenous stands, but excludes any border phenomena or transitional zone. The present research aimed at determining the aquatic and wetland vegetation along different moisture gradients. A total of 89 species in 30 transects were reported, of which Crassula venezuelensis, Carex honplandii, Callitriche nubigena, Eleocharis macrostachya, Ranunculus flagelliformis, R. nubigenus, Eleocharis stenocarpa, Galium ascendens y Alopecurus aequalis were present in more than one third of the transects. Numerical classification and indicator species analysis resulted in the definition of the next 18 communities: 1) Calamagrostis effusa, 2) Sphagnum cuspidatum, 3) Cyperus rufus, 4) Eleocharis stenocarpa, 5) Carex acutata, 6) Poa annua,7) Valeriana sp., 8) Ranunculus flagelliformis, 9) Carex bonplandii, 10) Festuca andicola. 11) Muhlenbergia fustigiata, 12) Elatine paramoana, 13) Isoëtes palmeri, 14) Crassula venezuelensis, 15) Lilaeopsis macloviana, 16) Callitriche nubigena, 17) Potamogeton paramoanus and 18) Potamogeton illinoensis. The ordination of communities reveals the presence of three different aquatic-terrestrial gradients which are related to the life form structure of species that characterized the various communities. We concluded that patchiness and heterogeneity of the vegetation is mainly the result of alterations caused by human activities (burning, cattle raise and material extraction for road and dam construction).


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Plantas/classificação , Áreas Alagadas , Animais , Bovinos , Colômbia , Humanos
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(1): 35-64, Mar. 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-657762

RESUMO

Plant communities in the terrestrial-aquatic transition zone in the paramo of Chingaza, Colombia. High Andean paramo ecosystems are an important water resource for many towns, and major cities in this region. The aquatic and wetland vegetation of different paramo lakes, pond, swamps and bogs was studied according to the classical phytosociological approach, which is based on homogenous stands, but excludes any border phenomena or transitional zone. The present research aimed at determining the aquatic and wetland vegetation along different moisture gradients. A total of 89 species in 30 transects were reported, of which Crassula venezuelensis, Carex bonplandii, Callitriche nubigena, Eleocharis macrostachya, Ranunculus flagelliformis, R. nubigenus, Eleocharis stenocarpa, Galium ascendens y Alopecurus aequalis were present in more than one third of the transects. Numerical classification and indicator species analysis resulted in the definition of the next 18 communities: 1) Calamagrostis effusa, 2) Sphagnum cuspidatum, 3) Cyperus rufus, 4) Eleocharis stenocarpa, 5) Carex acutata, 6) Poa annua, 7) Valeriana sp., 8) Ranunculus flagelliformis, 9) Carex bonplandii, 10) Festuca andicola, 11) Muhlenbergia fastigiata, 12) Elatine paramoana, 13) Isoëtes palmeri, 14) Crassula venezuelensis, 15) Lilaeopsis macloviana, 16) Callitriche nubigena, 17) Potamogeton paramoanus and 18) Potamogeton illinoensis. The ordination of communities reveals the presence of three different aquatic-terrestrial gradients which are related to the life form structure of species that characterized the various communities. We concluded that patchiness and heterogeneity of the vegetation is mainly the result of alterations caused by human activities (burning, cattle raise and material extraction for road and dam construction).


La vegetación acuática y semiacuática de los páramos andinos ha sido estudiada generalmente bajo un enfoque fitosociológico tradicional, el cual se basa en muestreos de áreas homogéneas y excluye los fenómenos de borde o transicionales. En el presente estudio se analizó la vegetación acuática y semiacuática del Parque Nacional Natural Chingaza a lo largo de diferentes gradientes hídricos. Asimismo se registran un total de 89 especies en 30 transectos; mediante clasificación numérica y el análisis de especies indicadoras se caracterizan las siguientes 18 comunidades: 1) Calamagrostis effusa, 2) Sphagnum cuspidatum, 3) Cyperus rufus, 4) Eleocharis stenocarpa, 5) Carex acutata, 6) Poa annua, 7) Valeriana sp., 8) Ranunculus flagelliformis, 9) Carex bonplandii, 10) Festuca andicola, 11) Muhlenbergia fastigiata, 12) Elatine paramoana, 13) Isoëtes palmeri, 14) Crassula venezuelensis, 15) Lilaeopsis macloviana, 16) Callitriche nubigena, 17) Potamogeton paramoanus y 18) Potamogeton illinoensis. La ordenación de las comunidades indica la presencia de tres gradientes terrestre-acuáticos diferentes, los cuales se relacionan con las formas de vida de las especies que caracterizan las comunidades. Además se considera que gran parte de la heterogeneidad presentada por la vegetación es el resultado de las alteraciones ambientales generadas por diversas actividades humanas (quemas, ganadería, extracción de material para la construcción de carreteras y la represa).


Assuntos
Animais , Bovinos , Humanos , Biodiversidade , Biomassa , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Plantas/classificação , Áreas Alagadas , Colômbia
17.
Acta biol. colomb ; 16(2): 221-246, ago. 2011. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-635080

RESUMO

En este ensayo se compilan los principales conceptos y métodos aplicados en el desarrollo de proyectos de restauración ecológica, haciendo énfasis en la relación entre conservación, biodiversidad y restauración. El trabajo se inicia con las definiciones más comunes y de fácil comprensión y continúa con la explicación de los pasos principales a tener en cuenta en el desarrollo de proyectos de restauración ecológica. Los pasos que se presentan son los más comunes en casi todos los procesos de restauración, pero su aplicación total depende del estado de degradación del ecosistema que se va a restaurar.


In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

18.
Rev Biol Trop ; 56(3): 1543-56, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19419063

RESUMO

The growth of a forest patch through colonization of the adjacent matrix is mostly determined by the particular characteristics of the edge zone. Knowing how these characteristics are related to a specific edge type and how they influence the regeneration process, is important for High Andean forest edges restoration. This study aimed to characterize three types of High Andean forest edge in Cogua Forest Reserve (Colombia): 1) edge of Chusquea scandens, 2) "paramizado", and 3) old edge, characterized for being in a later successional state. Two forest patches were chosen for each edge type and 13 criteria were analyzed; these were of topographic order, micro-environmental order, vegetation structure and species composition. In each patch the vegetation was evaluated by means of two 60 m transects perpendicular to the edge and along the matrix-edge-interior of the forest gradient. All woody plant species were identified and counted to determine their abundance. Environmental variables (air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and light radiation) were measured in one of the transects. Three of the 13 criteria were of little importance in shaping the type of edge habitat (slope, patch shape and area). The others were closely related with the micro-environmental conditions and in turn with the vegetation structure and composition; this relationship confers particular characteristics to each edge type. The microclimate and floristic edge limits coincided; edges extend between 10 and 20 m into the forest depending on the edge type. The paramizado edge has the smallest environmental self-regulation capacity and is more exposed to fluctuations of the studied variables, because of its greatest exposition to the wind action and loss of the tallest trees (between 10 and 15 m) which regulate the understorey microclimate. This low environmental buffer capacity prevents the establishing of mature forest species (for example, Schefflera sp. and Oreopanax bogotensis) although they are found in other areas within the same patch. All these results show that the paramizado edge needs the most intervention for its restoration. The Chusquea scandens edge forest is the most sheltered since this species acts as a protecting shield. However it still needs to be controlled to allow the adjacent matrix colonization by the forest species and natural regeneration, as it does in the old edge type forest, which moreover has an intermediate self-regulating capacity relative to the other two. The vegetation composition reveals that most of the edge species can also grow inside, beyond the forest edge.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Árvores/fisiologia , Colômbia , Árvores/classificação
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