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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1044, 2020 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098966

RESUMO

The inclusion of familial myeloid malignancies as a separate disease entity in the revised WHO classification has renewed efforts to improve the recognition and management of this group of at risk individuals. Here we report a cohort of 86 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) families with 49 harboring germline variants in 16 previously defined loci (57%). Whole exome sequencing in a further 37 uncharacterized families (43%) allowed us to rationalize 65 new candidate loci, including genes mutated in rare hematological syndromes (ADA, GP6, IL17RA, PRF1 and SEC23B), reported in prior MDS/AML or inherited bone marrow failure series (DNAH9, NAPRT1 and SH2B3) or variants at novel loci (DHX34) that appear specific to inherited forms of myeloid malignancies. Altogether, our series of MDS/AML families offer novel insights into the etiology of myeloid malignancies and provide a framework to prioritize variants for inclusion into routine diagnostics and patient management.

2.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494577

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome (LS) and constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) are hereditary cancer syndromes associated with mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. Tumours show microsatellite instability (MSI), also reported at low levels in non-neoplastic tissues. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of high-sensitivity MSI (hs-MSI) assessment for the identification of LS and CMMRD in non-neoplastic tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood DNA samples from 131 individuals were grouped into three cohorts: baseline (22 controls), training (11 CMMRD, 48 LS and 15 controls) and validation (18 CMMRD and 18 controls). Custom next generation sequencing panel and bioinformatics pipeline were used to detect insertions and deletions in microsatellite markers. An hs-MSI score was calculated representing the percentage of unstable markers. RESULTS: The hs-MSI score was significantly higher in CMMRD blood samples when compared with controls in the training cohort (p<0.001). This finding was confirmed in the validation set, reaching 100% specificity and sensitivity. Higher hs-MSI scores were detected in biallelic MSH2 carriers (n=5) compared with MSH6 carriers (n=15). The hs-MSI analysis did not detect a difference between LS and control blood samples (p=0.564). CONCLUSIONS: The hs-MSI approach is a valuable tool for CMMRD diagnosis, especially in suspected patients harbouring MMR variants of unknown significance or non-detected biallelic germline mutations.

3.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2706-2712, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause a recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome known as constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD). Family members with a heterozygous MMR variant have Lynch syndrome. We aimed at estimating cancer risk in these heterozygous carriers as a novel approach to avoid complicated statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. METHODS: Cumulative colorectal cancer incidence was estimated in a cohort of PMS2- and MSH6-associated families, ascertained by the CMMRD phenotype of the index, by using mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients as analytical weights in a proportional hazard regression on the cause-specific hazards. Confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained by bootstrapping at the family level. RESULTS: The estimated cumulative colorectal cancer risk at age 70 years for heterozygous PMS2 variant carriers was 8.7% (95% CI 4.3-12.7%) for both sexes combined, and 9.9% (95% CI 4.9-15.3%) for men and 5.9% (95% CI 1.6-11.1%) for women separately. For heterozygous MSH6 variant carriers these estimates are 11.8% (95% CI 4.5-22.7%) for both sexes combined, 10.0% (95% CI 1.83-24.5%) for men and 11.7% (95% CI 2.10-26.5%) for women. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with previous reports that used more complex statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. These results underline the need for MMR gene-specific surveillance protocols for Lynch syndrome.

4.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 116(14): 251, 2019 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092313
5.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1383-1389, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062505

RESUMO

The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) is caused by heterozygous germline variants in PTEN. Here, we report two unrelated patients with juvenile polyposis, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, and hyperpigmented skin macules. Both patients were clinically suspected for the Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), a PHTS subentity. By array-CGH analysis, we identified an interstitial 10q23.1q23.3 deletion in a buccal mucosa sample of Patient 1 that encompassed PTEN, BMPR1A, and KLLN, among others. In contrast, neither sequencing nor array-CGH analysis identified a pathogenic variant in PTEN or BMPR1A in a blood sample of Patient 2. However, in a surgical specimen of the thyroid gland high-level mosaicism for a 10q23.2q23.3 deletion was observed. Additionally, the pathogenic PTEN variant c.956_959delCTTT p.(Thr319LysfsTer24) was detected in his thyroid tissue. The frame shift variant was neither detected in the patient's blood nor in his buccal mucosa sample. Low-level mosaicism for the microdeletion was identified in a buccal swap sample, and reanalysis of the blood sample suggested marginal-level mosaicism for deletion. The 10q23.2q23.3 deletion mosaicism was also identified in a subsequently resected colonic polyp. Thus, in both cases, the diagnosis of a 10q23 deletion syndrome, which clinically presented as BRRS, was established. Overall, the study expands the BRRS spectrum and highlights the relevance of considering mosaicism in PHTS. We conclude that in all patients with a clear clinical suspicion of PHTS, in which genetic analyses of DNA from blood and buccal swap samples fail to identify causative genetic variants, genetic analyses of additional tissues are recommended.

6.
Diseases ; 7(2)2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987377

RESUMO

Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome 2 (ICF2) is a rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency disorder. So far, 27 patients have been reported. Here, we present three siblings with ICF2 due to a homozygous ZBTB24 gene mutation (c.1222 T>G, p. (Cys408Gly)). Immune deficiency in these patients ranged from late-onset combined immunodeficiency (CID) with severe respiratory tract infections and recurrent shingles to asymptomatic selective antibody deficiency. Evident clinical heterogeneity manifested despite a common genetic background, suggesting the pathogenic relevance of epigenetic modification. Immunological follow-up reveals a previously unidentified gradual depletion of B and CD4⁺ T cells in all three presented patients with transition of a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)-like disease to late-onset-CID in one of them. Considering all previously published cases with ICF2, we identify inadequate antibody responses to vaccines and reduction in CD27⁺ memory B cells as prevalent immunological traits. High mortality among ICF2 patients (20%) together with the progressive course of immunodeficiency suggest that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) should be considered as a treatment option in due time.

7.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 649-655, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740824

RESUMO

Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is caused by germline pathogenic variants in both alleles of a mismatch repair gene. Patients have an exceptionally high risk of numerous pediatric malignancies and benefit from surveillance and adjusted treatment. The diversity of its manifestation, and ambiguous genotyping results, particularly from PMS2, can complicate diagnosis and preclude timely patient management. Assessment of low-level microsatellite instability in nonneoplastic tissues can detect CMMRD, but current techniques are laborious or of limited sensitivity. Here, we present a simple, scalable CMMRD diagnostic assay. It uses sequencing and molecular barcodes to detect low-frequency microsatellite variants in peripheral blood leukocytes and classifies samples using variant frequencies. We tested 30 samples from 26 genetically-confirmed CMMRD patients, and samples from 94 controls and 40 Lynch syndrome patients. All samples were correctly classified, except one from a CMMRD patient recovering from aplasia. However, additional samples from this same patient tested positive for CMMRD. The assay also confirmed CMMRD in six suspected patients. The assay is suitable for both rapid CMMRD diagnosis within clinical decision windows and scalable screening of at-risk populations. Its deployment will improve patient care, and better define the prevalence and phenotype of this likely underreported cancer syndrome.

8.
J Med Genet ; 56(2): 53-62, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415209

RESUMO

Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a rare childhood cancer predisposition syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations in one of four mismatch-repair genes. Besides very high tumour risks, CMMRD phenotypes are often characterised by the presence of signs reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Because NF1 signs may be present prior to tumour onset, CMMRD is a legitimate differential diagnosis in an otherwise healthy child suspected to have NF1/Legius syndrome without a detectable underlying NF1/SPRED1 germline mutation. However, no guidelines indicate when to counsel and test for CMMRD in this setting. Assuming that CMMRD is rare in these patients and that expected benefits of identifying CMMRD prior to tumour onset should outweigh potential harms associated with CMMRD counselling and testing in this setting, we aimed at elaborating a strategy to preselect, among children suspected to have NF1/Legius syndrome without a causative NF1/SPRED1 mutation and no overt malignancy, those children who have a higher probability of having CMMRD. At an interdisciplinary workshop, we discussed estimations of the frequency of CMMRD as a differential diagnosis of NF1 and potential benefits and harms of CMMRD counselling and testing in a healthy child with no malignancy. Preselection criteria and strategies for counselling and testing were developed and reviewed in two rounds of critical revisions. Existing diagnostic CMMRD criteria were adapted to serve as a guideline as to when to consider CMMRD as differential diagnosis of NF1/Legius syndrome. In addition, counselling and testing strategies are suggested to minimise potential harms.

9.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 87, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most prevalent tumor entity in Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Up to 80% of individuals with a Li-Fraumeni-like phenotype do not harbor detectable causative germline TP53 variants. Yet, no systematic panel analyses for a wide range of cancer predisposition genes have been conducted on cohorts of women with breast cancer fulfilling Li-Fraumeni(-like) clinical diagnostic criteria. METHODS: To specifically help explain the diagnostic gap of TP53 wild-type Li-Fraumeni(-like) breast cancer cases, we performed array-based CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and panel-based sequencing of 94 cancer predisposition genes on 83 breast cancer patients suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome who had previously had negative test results for causative BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 germline variants. RESULTS: We identified 13 pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline variants in ten patients and in nine genes, including four copy number aberrations and nine single-nucleotide variants or small indels. Three patients presented as double-mutation carriers involving two different genes each. In five patients (5 of 83; 6% of cohort), we detected causative pathogenic variants in established hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes (i.e., PALB2, CHEK2, ATM). Five further patients (5 of 83; 6% of cohort) were found to harbor pathogenic variants in genes lacking a firm association with breast cancer susceptibility to date (i.e., Fanconi pathway genes, RECQ family genes, CDKN2A/p14ARF, and RUNX1). CONCLUSIONS: Our study details the mutational spectrum in breast cancer patients suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome and indicates the need for intensified research on monoallelic variants in Fanconi pathway and RECQ family genes. Notably, this study further reveals a large portion of still unexplained Li-Fraumeni(-like) cases, warranting comprehensive investigation of recently described candidate genes as well as noncoding regions of the TP53 gene in patients with Li-Fraumeni(-like) syndrome lacking TP53 variants in coding regions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto Jovem
10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(6): 1449-1454, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696793

RESUMO

KBG syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by constitutive haploinsufficiency of the ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 11 (ANKRD11) being the result of either loss-of-function gene variants or 16q24.3 microdeletions. The syndrome is characterized by a variable clinical phenotype comprising a distinct facial gestalt and variable neurological involvement. ANKRD11 is frequently affected by loss of heterozygosity in cancer. It influences the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of nuclear receptors and tumor suppressive function of tumor protein TP53. ANKRD11 thus serves as a candidate tumor suppressor gene and it has been speculated that its haploinsufficiency may lead to an increased cancer risk in KBG syndrome patients. While no systematic data are available, we report here on the second KBG syndrome patient who developed a malignancy. At 17 years of age, the patient was diagnosed with a left-sided paratesticular extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumor. Genetic investigations identified a somatic truncating gene variant in SMARCB1, which was not present in the germline, and a constitutional de novo 16q24.3 microdeletion leading to a loss of the entire ANKRD11 locus. Thus, KBG syndrome was diagnosed, which was in line with the clinical phenotype of the patient. At present, no specific measures for cancer surveillance can be recommended for KBG syndrome patients. However, a systematic follow-up and inclusion of KBG syndrome patients in registries (e.g., those currently established for cancer prone syndromes) will provide empiric data to support or deny an increased cancer risk in KBG syndrome in the future.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Anormalidades Dentárias/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/etiologia , Adolescente , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/etiologia , Facies , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/tratamento farmacológico , Tumor Rabdoide/cirurgia , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia , Anormalidades Dentárias/etiologia
11.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(8): 421-427, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501611

RESUMO

We report here on the first family with short stature and Silver-Russell-like phenotype due to a microdeletion in 12q14.3. The Netchine-Harbison clinical scoring system was used for the clinical diagnosis of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). The three affected first-degree relatives (index patient, mother and brother) presented with prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, feeding difficulties, a prominent forehead and a failure to thrive, but did not show relative macrocephaly. In addition, our index patient showed dysmorphic facial features, periodically increased sweating, and scoliosis. Learning problems and cardiac arrhythmia presented as additional features of her brother. Using high-resolution array-CGH, heterozygosity for a 1.67 Mb deletion in 12q14.3 was detected in the index patient. The heterozygous loss was confirmed by MLPA in the index patient and the other two affected family members. The deletion includes the genes HMGA2, LLPH, TMBIM4, IRAK3, HELB, GRIP1, and the pseudogene RPSAP52. We conclude from these results and from the data of other patients reported in the literature that haploinsufficiency of HMGA2 leads to the short stature in this family.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/patologia
13.
Genes Cancer ; 8(1-2): 472-483, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28435519

RESUMO

GT198, located 470 kb downstream of BRCA1, encodes for the nuclear PSMC3-interacting protein, which functions as co-activator of steroid hormone-mediated gene expression, and is involved in RAD51 and DMC1-mediated homologous recombination during DNA repair of double-strand breaks. Recently, germline variants in GT198 have been identified in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) patients, mainly in cases with early-onset. We screened a cohort of 166 BRCA1/2 mutation-negative HBOC patients, of which 56 developed early-onset breast cancer before the age of 36 years, for GT198 variants. We identified 7 novel or rare GT198 variants in 8 out of 166 index patients: c.-115G>A (rs191843707); c.-70T>A (rs752276800); c.-37A>T (rs199620968); c.-24C>G (rs200359709); c.519G>A p.(Trp173*); c.537+51G>C (rs375509656); c.*24G>A. Three out of 7 identified variants (c.-115G>A, c.519G>A and c.*24G>A) with putative pathogenic impact were found in HBOC patients with breast cancer onset at ≤ 36 years. The nonsense mutation c.519G>A p.(Trp173*) was located within the DNA binding domain of GT198 and is predicted to induce nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. Functional analyses of c.-115G>A, and c.*24A>G indicated an influence of these variants on gene expression. This is the second study that gives evidence for an association between pathogenic GT198 germline variants and early-onset breast cancer in HBOC.

14.
Blood ; 129(16): 2266-2279, 2017 04 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28202457

RESUMO

Several monogenic causes of familial myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) have recently been identified. We studied 2 families with cytopenia, predisposition to MDS with chromosome 7 aberrations, immunodeficiency, and progressive cerebellar dysfunction. Genetic studies uncovered heterozygous missense mutations in SAMD9L, a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome arm 7q. Consistent with a gain-of-function effect, ectopic expression of the 2 identified SAMD9L mutants decreased cell proliferation relative to wild-type protein. Of the 10 individuals identified who were heterozygous for either SAMD9L mutation, 3 developed MDS upon loss of the mutated SAMD9L allele following intracellular infections associated with myeloid, B-, and natural killer (NK)-cell deficiency. Five other individuals, 3 with spontaneously resolved cytopenic episodes in infancy, harbored hematopoietic revertant mosaicism by uniparental disomy of 7q, with loss of the mutated allele or additional in cisSAMD9L truncating mutations. Examination of 1 individual indicated that somatic reversions were postnatally selected. Somatic mutations were tracked to CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cell populations, being further enriched in B and NK cells. Stimulation of these cell types with interferon (IFN)-α or IFN-γ induced SAMD9L expression. Clinically, revertant mosaicism was associated with milder disease, yet neurological manifestations persisted in 3 individuals. Two carriers also harbored a rare, in trans germ line SAMD9L missense loss-of-function variant, potentially counteracting the SAMD9L mutation. Our results demonstrate that gain-of-function mutations in the tumor suppressor SAMD9L cause cytopenia, immunodeficiency, variable neurological presentation, and predisposition to MDS with -7/del(7q), whereas hematopoietic revertant mosaicism commonly ameliorated clinical manifestations. The findings suggest a role for SAMD9L in regulating IFN-driven, demand-adapted hematopoiesis.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Mutação , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/diagnóstico , Pancitopenia/diagnóstico , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Proliferação de Células , Criança , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/química , Disfunção Cognitiva/complicações , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Disfunção Cognitiva/imunologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Hematopoese/imunologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/complicações , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Imunofenotipagem , Interferon Tipo I/farmacologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mosaicismo , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/complicações , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/imunologia , Células Mieloides/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Mieloides/imunologia , Células Mieloides/patologia , Pancitopenia/complicações , Pancitopenia/genética , Pancitopenia/imunologia , Linhagem , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/metabolismo
15.
Am J Med Genet A ; 173(4): 1017-1037, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28168833

RESUMO

Heritable predisposition is an important cause of cancer in children and adolescents. Although a large number of cancer predisposition genes and their associated syndromes and malignancies have already been described, it appears likely that there are more pediatric cancer patients in whom heritable cancer predisposition syndromes have yet to be recognized. In a consensus meeting in the beginning of 2016, we convened experts in Human Genetics and Pediatric Hematology/Oncology to review the available data, to categorize the large amount of information, and to develop recommendations regarding when a cancer predisposition syndrome should be suspected in a young oncology patient. This review summarizes the current knowledge of cancer predisposition syndromes in pediatric oncology and provides essential information on clinical situations in which a childhood cancer predisposition syndrome should be suspected.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Criança , Grupos Focais/métodos , Expressão Gênica , Aconselhamento Genético/ética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Genética Médica/história , Genética Médica/instrumentação , Genética Médica/métodos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/patologia , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Sociedades Médicas/história , Síndrome
16.
Mol Carcinog ; 56(7): 1753-1764, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28218421

RESUMO

Mismatch-repair deficient (MMR-D) malignancies include Lynch Syndrome (LS), which is secondary to germline mutations in one of the MMR genes, and the rare childhood-form of constitutional mismatch repair-deficiency (CMMR-D); caused by bi-allelic MMR gene mutations. A hallmark of LS-associated cancers is microsatellite instability (MSI), characterized by coding frameshift mutations (cFSM) in target genes. By contrast, tumors arising in CMMR-D patients are thought to display a somatic mutation pattern differing from LS. This study has the main goal to identify cFSM in MSI target genes relevant in CMMR-D and to compare the spectrum of common somatic mutations, including alterations in DNA polymerases POLE and D1 between LS and CMMR-D. CMMR-D-associated tumors harbored more somatic mutations compared to LS cases, especially in the TP53 gene and in POLE and POLD1, where novel mutations were additionally identified. Strikingly, MSI in classical mononucleotide markers BAT40 and CAT25 was frequent in CMMR-D cases. MSI-target gene analysis revealed mutations in CMMR-D-associated tumors, some of them known to be frequently hit in LS, such as RNaseT2, HT001, and TGFßR2. Our results imply a general role for these cFSM as potential new drivers of MMR-D tumorigenesis.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Mutação da Fase de Leitura/genética , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico
18.
Fam Cancer ; 16(1): 67-71, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27573199

RESUMO

In a 14-year-old boy with polyposis and rectosigmoid carcinoma, we identified a novel POLE germline mutation, p.(Val411Leu), previously found as recurrent somatic mutation in 'ultramutated' sporadic cancers. This is the youngest reported cancer patient with polymerase proofreading-associated polyposis indicating that POLE mutation p.(Val411Leu) may confer a more severe phenotype than previously reported POLE and POLD1 germline mutations. The patient had multiple café-au-lait macules and a pilomatricoma mimicking the clinical phenotype of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency. We hypothesize that these skin features may be common to different types of constitutional DNA repair defects associated with polyposis and early-onset cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , DNA Polimerase II/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Manchas Café com Leite/genética , Doenças do Cabelo/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Pilomatrixoma/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Poli-ADP-Ribose , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética
19.
Oncotarget ; 7(41): 67626-67649, 2016 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27590516

RESUMO

Altered metabolism in tumor cells has been a focus of cancer research for as long as a century but has remained controversial and vague due to an inhomogeneous overall picture. Accumulating genomic, metabolomic, and lastly panomic data as well as bioenergetics studies of the past few years enable a more comprehensive, systems-biologic approach promoting deeper insight into tumor biology and challenging hitherto existing models of cancer bioenergetics. Presenting a compendium on breast cancer-specific metabolome analyses performed thus far, we review and compile currently known aspects of breast cancer biology into a comprehensive network, elucidating previously dissonant issues of cancer metabolism. As such, some of the aspects critically discussed in this review include the dynamic interplay or metabolic coupling between cancer (stem) cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts, the intratumoral and intertumoral heterogeneity and plasticity of cancer cell metabolism, the existence of distinct metabolic tumor compartments in need of separate yet simultaneous therapeutic targeting, the reliance of cancer cells on oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial power, and the role of pro-inflammatory, pro-tumorigenic stromal conditioning. Comprising complex breast cancer signaling networks as well as combined metabolomic and genomic data, we address metabolic consequences of mutations in tumor suppressor genes and evaluate their contribution to breast cancer predisposition in a germline setting, reasoning for distinct personalized preventive and therapeutic measures. The review closes with a discussion on central root mechanisms of tumor cell metabolism and rate-limiting steps thereof, introducing essential strategies for therapeutic targeting.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos
20.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(11): 1598-1604, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27329736

RESUMO

Biallelic PMS2 mutations are responsible for more than half of all cases of constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD), a recessively inherited childhood cancer predisposition syndrome. The mismatch repair gene PMS2 is partly embedded within one copy of an inverted 100-kb low-copy repeat (LCR) on 7p22.1. In an individual with CMMRD syndrome, PMS2 was found to be homozygously inactivated by a complex chromosomal rearrangement, which separates the 5'-part from the 3'-part of the gene. The rearrangement involves sequences of the inverted 100-kb LCR and a human endogenous retrovirus element and may be associated with an inversion that is indistinguishable from the known inversion polymorphism affecting the ~0.7-Mb sequence intervening the LCR. Its formation is best explained by a replication-based mechanism (RBM) such as fork stalling and template switching/microhomology-mediated break-induced replication (FoSTeS/MMBIR). This finding supports the hypothesis that the inverted LCR can not only facilitate the formation of the non-allelic homologous recombination-mediated inversion polymorphism but it also promotes the occurrence of more complex rearrangements that can be associated with a large inversion, as well, but are mediated by a RBM. This further suggests that among the inversion polymorphism on 7p22.1, more complex rearrangements might be hidden. Furthermore, as the locus is embedded in a common fragile site (CFS) region, this rearrangement also supports the recently raised hypothesis that CFS sequence motifs may facilitate replication-based rearrangement mechanisms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 7/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Rearranjo Gênico , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Criança , Sítios Frágeis do Cromossomo , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Inversão de Sequência
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