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1.
Cell Stem Cell ; 28(5): 906-922.e6, 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33894142

RESUMO

Severe congenital neutropenia (CN) is a pre-leukemic bone marrow failure syndrome that can evolve to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Mutations in CSF3R and RUNX1 are frequently observed in CN patients, although how they drive the transition from CN to AML (CN/AML) is unclear. Here we establish a model of stepwise leukemogenesis in CN/AML using CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing of CN patient-derived iPSCs. We identified BAALC upregulation and resultant phosphorylation of MK2a as a key leukemogenic event. BAALC deletion or treatment with CMPD1, a selective inhibitor of MK2a phosphorylation, blocked proliferation and induced differentiation of primary CN/AML blasts and CN/AML iPSC-derived hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) without affecting healthy donor or CN iPSC-derived HSPCs. Beyond detailing a useful method for future investigation of stepwise leukemogenesis, this study suggests that targeting BAALC and/or MK2a phosphorylation may prevent leukemogenic transformation or eliminate AML blasts in CN/AML and RUNX1 mutant BAALC(hi) de novo AML.

3.
Fam Cancer ; 2021 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33651299

RESUMO

Approximately 10% of children with newly diagnosed cancer have a cancer predisposition syndrome (CPS). The optimal diagnostic approach to identify them among children diagnosed with cancer is unknown. OBJECTIVE:  To determine whether the use of a one-page questionnaire can improve the CPS diagnosis among children with an oncologic condition. DESIGN:  Comparative effectiveness research. SETTING:  Referral center for children with cancer. RESULTS:  739 children diagnosed with an oncologic condition between 2012 and 2019. All children with a newly diagnosed oncologic condition presenting to Hannover Medical School between January 1st 2017 and December 31st 2019 were prospectively evaluated with a CPS questionnaire. Children in whom the questionnaire suggested the need of a genetic workup were further evaluated. All children diagnosed with an oncologic condition between January 1st 2012 and December 31st 2016 served as control. The CPS diagnoses established during both time periods were evaluated and compared. A CPS was diagnosed in 27 out of 287 children (9.4%) during the questionnaire period versus 24 out of 452 children (5.3%) during the control period (P = 0.032). CONCLUSION:  The CPS questionnaire appears to significantly improve the diagnosis of children with CPS among children with a newly diagnosed oncologic condition.

8.
Fam Cancer ; 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888134

RESUMO

Infantile myofibromatosis (IM), which is typically diagnosed in young children, comprises a wide clinical spectrum ranging from inconspicuous solitary soft tissue nodules to multiple disseminated tumors resulting in life-threatening complications. Familial IM follows an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance and is linked to PDGFRB germline variants. Somatic PDGFRB variants were also detected in solitary and multifocal IM lesions. PDGFRB variants associated with IM constitutively activate PDGFRB kinase activity in the absence of its ligand. Germline variants have lower activating capabilities than somatic variants and, thus, require a second cis-acting hit for full receptor activation. Typically, these mutant receptors remain sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as imatinib. The SIOPE Host Genome Working Group, consisting of pediatric oncologists, clinical geneticists and scientists, met in January 2020 to discuss recommendations for genetic testing and surveillance for patients who are diagnosed with IM or have a family history of IM/PDGFRB germline variants. This report provides a brief review of the clinical manifestations and genetics of IM and summarizes our interdisciplinary recommendations.

9.
Clin Genet ; 98(4): 374-378, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627184

RESUMO

We present two independent cases of syndromic thrombocytopenia with multiple malformations, microcephaly, learning difficulties, dysmorphism and other features. Exome sequencing identified two novel de novo heterozygous variants in these patients, c.35G>T p.(Gly12Val) and c.178G>C p.(Gly60Arg), in the RAP1B gene (NM_001010942.2). These variants have not been described previously as germline variants, however functional studies in literature strongly suggest a clinical implication of these two activating hot spot positions. We hypothesize that pathogenic missense variants in the RAP1B gene cause congenital syndromic thrombocytopenia with a spectrum of associated malformations and dysmorphism, possibly through a gain of function mechanism.

10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1044, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098966

RESUMO

The inclusion of familial myeloid malignancies as a separate disease entity in the revised WHO classification has renewed efforts to improve the recognition and management of this group of at risk individuals. Here we report a cohort of 86 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) families with 49 harboring germline variants in 16 previously defined loci (57%). Whole exome sequencing in a further 37 uncharacterized families (43%) allowed us to rationalize 65 new candidate loci, including genes mutated in rare hematological syndromes (ADA, GP6, IL17RA, PRF1 and SEC23B), reported in prior MDS/AML or inherited bone marrow failure series (DNAH9, NAPRT1 and SH2B3) or variants at novel loci (DHX34) that appear specific to inherited forms of myeloid malignancies. Altogether, our series of MDS/AML families offer novel insights into the etiology of myeloid malignancies and provide a framework to prioritize variants for inclusion into routine diagnostics and patient management.


Assuntos
Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/genética , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adenosina Desaminase/genética , Dineínas do Axonema/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Degradação do RNAm Mediada por Códon sem Sentido , Linhagem , Perforina/genética , Glicoproteínas da Membrana de Plaquetas/genética , RNA Helicases/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-17/genética , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
11.
J Med Genet ; 57(4): 269-273, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494577

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Lynch syndrome (LS) and constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) are hereditary cancer syndromes associated with mismatch repair (MMR) deficiency. Tumours show microsatellite instability (MSI), also reported at low levels in non-neoplastic tissues. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of high-sensitivity MSI (hs-MSI) assessment for the identification of LS and CMMRD in non-neoplastic tissues. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood DNA samples from 131 individuals were grouped into three cohorts: baseline (22 controls), training (11 CMMRD, 48 LS and 15 controls) and validation (18 CMMRD and 18 controls). Custom next generation sequencing panel and bioinformatics pipeline were used to detect insertions and deletions in microsatellite markers. An hs-MSI score was calculated representing the percentage of unstable markers. RESULTS: The hs-MSI score was significantly higher in CMMRD blood samples when compared with controls in the training cohort (p<0.001). This finding was confirmed in the validation set, reaching 100% specificity and sensitivity. Higher hs-MSI scores were detected in biallelic MSH2 carriers (n=5) compared with MSH6 carriers (n=15). The hs-MSI analysis did not detect a difference between LS and control blood samples (p=0.564). CONCLUSIONS: The hs-MSI approach is a valuable tool for CMMRD diagnosis, especially in suspected patients harbouring MMR variants of unknown significance or non-detected biallelic germline mutations.

12.
Genet Med ; 21(12): 2706-2712, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204389

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic pathogenic variants in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause a recessive childhood cancer predisposition syndrome known as constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD). Family members with a heterozygous MMR variant have Lynch syndrome. We aimed at estimating cancer risk in these heterozygous carriers as a novel approach to avoid complicated statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. METHODS: Cumulative colorectal cancer incidence was estimated in a cohort of PMS2- and MSH6-associated families, ascertained by the CMMRD phenotype of the index, by using mutation probabilities based on kinship coefficients as analytical weights in a proportional hazard regression on the cause-specific hazards. Confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained by bootstrapping at the family level. RESULTS: The estimated cumulative colorectal cancer risk at age 70 years for heterozygous PMS2 variant carriers was 8.7% (95% CI 4.3-12.7%) for both sexes combined, and 9.9% (95% CI 4.9-15.3%) for men and 5.9% (95% CI 1.6-11.1%) for women separately. For heterozygous MSH6 variant carriers these estimates are 11.8% (95% CI 4.5-22.7%) for both sexes combined, 10.0% (95% CI 1.83-24.5%) for men and 11.7% (95% CI 2.10-26.5%) for women. CONCLUSION: Our findings are consistent with previous reports that used more complex statistical methods to correct for ascertainment bias. These results underline the need for MMR gene-specific surveillance protocols for Lynch syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/complicações , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/metabolismo , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/metabolismo , Mutação , Fatores de Risco
14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1383-1389, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062505

RESUMO

The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) is caused by heterozygous germline variants in PTEN. Here, we report two unrelated patients with juvenile polyposis, macrocephaly, intellectual disability, and hyperpigmented skin macules. Both patients were clinically suspected for the Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), a PHTS subentity. By array-CGH analysis, we identified an interstitial 10q23.1q23.3 deletion in a buccal mucosa sample of Patient 1 that encompassed PTEN, BMPR1A, and KLLN, among others. In contrast, neither sequencing nor array-CGH analysis identified a pathogenic variant in PTEN or BMPR1A in a blood sample of Patient 2. However, in a surgical specimen of the thyroid gland high-level mosaicism for a 10q23.2q23.3 deletion was observed. Additionally, the pathogenic PTEN variant c.956_959delCTTT p.(Thr319LysfsTer24) was detected in his thyroid tissue. The frame shift variant was neither detected in the patient's blood nor in his buccal mucosa sample. Low-level mosaicism for the microdeletion was identified in a buccal swap sample, and reanalysis of the blood sample suggested marginal-level mosaicism for deletion. The 10q23.2q23.3 deletion mosaicism was also identified in a subsequently resected colonic polyp. Thus, in both cases, the diagnosis of a 10q23 deletion syndrome, which clinically presented as BRRS, was established. Overall, the study expands the BRRS spectrum and highlights the relevance of considering mosaicism in PHTS. We conclude that in all patients with a clear clinical suspicion of PHTS, in which genetic analyses of DNA from blood and buccal swap samples fail to identify causative genetic variants, genetic analyses of additional tissues are recommended.


Assuntos
Receptores de Proteínas Morfogenéticas Ósseas Tipo I/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 10 , Síndrome do Hamartoma Múltiplo/genética , Mosaicismo , Mutação , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
15.
Diseases ; 7(2)2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987377

RESUMO

Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial anomalies syndrome 2 (ICF2) is a rare autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency disorder. So far, 27 patients have been reported. Here, we present three siblings with ICF2 due to a homozygous ZBTB24 gene mutation (c.1222 T>G, p. (Cys408Gly)). Immune deficiency in these patients ranged from late-onset combined immunodeficiency (CID) with severe respiratory tract infections and recurrent shingles to asymptomatic selective antibody deficiency. Evident clinical heterogeneity manifested despite a common genetic background, suggesting the pathogenic relevance of epigenetic modification. Immunological follow-up reveals a previously unidentified gradual depletion of B and CD4⁺ T cells in all three presented patients with transition of a common variable immunodeficiency (CVID)-like disease to late-onset-CID in one of them. Considering all previously published cases with ICF2, we identify inadequate antibody responses to vaccines and reduction in CD27⁺ memory B cells as prevalent immunological traits. High mortality among ICF2 patients (20%) together with the progressive course of immunodeficiency suggest that hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) should be considered as a treatment option in due time.

16.
Hum Mutat ; 40(5): 649-655, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740824

RESUMO

Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is caused by germline pathogenic variants in both alleles of a mismatch repair gene. Patients have an exceptionally high risk of numerous pediatric malignancies and benefit from surveillance and adjusted treatment. The diversity of its manifestation, and ambiguous genotyping results, particularly from PMS2, can complicate diagnosis and preclude timely patient management. Assessment of low-level microsatellite instability in nonneoplastic tissues can detect CMMRD, but current techniques are laborious or of limited sensitivity. Here, we present a simple, scalable CMMRD diagnostic assay. It uses sequencing and molecular barcodes to detect low-frequency microsatellite variants in peripheral blood leukocytes and classifies samples using variant frequencies. We tested 30 samples from 26 genetically-confirmed CMMRD patients, and samples from 94 controls and 40 Lynch syndrome patients. All samples were correctly classified, except one from a CMMRD patient recovering from aplasia. However, additional samples from this same patient tested positive for CMMRD. The assay also confirmed CMMRD in six suspected patients. The assay is suitable for both rapid CMMRD diagnosis within clinical decision windows and scalable screening of at-risk populations. Its deployment will improve patient care, and better define the prevalence and phenotype of this likely underreported cancer syndrome.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites
17.
J Med Genet ; 56(2): 53-62, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415209

RESUMO

Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) is a rare childhood cancer predisposition syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations in one of four mismatch-repair genes. Besides very high tumour risks, CMMRD phenotypes are often characterised by the presence of signs reminiscent of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Because NF1 signs may be present prior to tumour onset, CMMRD is a legitimate differential diagnosis in an otherwise healthy child suspected to have NF1/Legius syndrome without a detectable underlying NF1/SPRED1 germline mutation. However, no guidelines indicate when to counsel and test for CMMRD in this setting. Assuming that CMMRD is rare in these patients and that expected benefits of identifying CMMRD prior to tumour onset should outweigh potential harms associated with CMMRD counselling and testing in this setting, we aimed at elaborating a strategy to preselect, among children suspected to have NF1/Legius syndrome without a causative NF1/SPRED1 mutation and no overt malignancy, those children who have a higher probability of having CMMRD. At an interdisciplinary workshop, we discussed estimations of the frequency of CMMRD as a differential diagnosis of NF1 and potential benefits and harms of CMMRD counselling and testing in a healthy child with no malignancy. Preselection criteria and strategies for counselling and testing were developed and reviewed in two rounds of critical revisions. Existing diagnostic CMMRD criteria were adapted to serve as a guideline as to when to consider CMMRD as differential diagnosis of NF1/Legius syndrome. In addition, counselling and testing strategies are suggested to minimise potential harms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Aconselhamento Genético , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Incidência , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Mutação , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/epidemiologia , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Pais , Seleção de Pacientes , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
18.
Breast Cancer Res ; 20(1): 87, 2018 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30086788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most prevalent tumor entity in Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Up to 80% of individuals with a Li-Fraumeni-like phenotype do not harbor detectable causative germline TP53 variants. Yet, no systematic panel analyses for a wide range of cancer predisposition genes have been conducted on cohorts of women with breast cancer fulfilling Li-Fraumeni(-like) clinical diagnostic criteria. METHODS: To specifically help explain the diagnostic gap of TP53 wild-type Li-Fraumeni(-like) breast cancer cases, we performed array-based CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and panel-based sequencing of 94 cancer predisposition genes on 83 breast cancer patients suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome who had previously had negative test results for causative BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53 germline variants. RESULTS: We identified 13 pathogenic or likely pathogenic germline variants in ten patients and in nine genes, including four copy number aberrations and nine single-nucleotide variants or small indels. Three patients presented as double-mutation carriers involving two different genes each. In five patients (5 of 83; 6% of cohort), we detected causative pathogenic variants in established hereditary breast cancer susceptibility genes (i.e., PALB2, CHEK2, ATM). Five further patients (5 of 83; 6% of cohort) were found to harbor pathogenic variants in genes lacking a firm association with breast cancer susceptibility to date (i.e., Fanconi pathway genes, RECQ family genes, CDKN2A/p14ARF, and RUNX1). CONCLUSIONS: Our study details the mutational spectrum in breast cancer patients suggestive of Li-Fraumeni syndrome and indicates the need for intensified research on monoallelic variants in Fanconi pathway and RECQ family genes. Notably, this study further reveals a large portion of still unexplained Li-Fraumeni(-like) cases, warranting comprehensive investigation of recently described candidate genes as well as noncoding regions of the TP53 gene in patients with Li-Fraumeni(-like) syndrome lacking TP53 variants in coding regions.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(6): 1449-1454, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29696793

RESUMO

KBG syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by constitutive haploinsufficiency of the ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein 11 (ANKRD11) being the result of either loss-of-function gene variants or 16q24.3 microdeletions. The syndrome is characterized by a variable clinical phenotype comprising a distinct facial gestalt and variable neurological involvement. ANKRD11 is frequently affected by loss of heterozygosity in cancer. It influences the ligand-dependent transcriptional activation of nuclear receptors and tumor suppressive function of tumor protein TP53. ANKRD11 thus serves as a candidate tumor suppressor gene and it has been speculated that its haploinsufficiency may lead to an increased cancer risk in KBG syndrome patients. While no systematic data are available, we report here on the second KBG syndrome patient who developed a malignancy. At 17 years of age, the patient was diagnosed with a left-sided paratesticular extrarenal malignant rhabdoid tumor. Genetic investigations identified a somatic truncating gene variant in SMARCB1, which was not present in the germline, and a constitutional de novo 16q24.3 microdeletion leading to a loss of the entire ANKRD11 locus. Thus, KBG syndrome was diagnosed, which was in line with the clinical phenotype of the patient. At present, no specific measures for cancer surveillance can be recommended for KBG syndrome patients. However, a systematic follow-up and inclusion of KBG syndrome patients in registries (e.g., those currently established for cancer prone syndromes) will provide empiric data to support or deny an increased cancer risk in KBG syndrome in the future.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16 , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/genética , Neoplasias Testiculares/genética , Anormalidades Dentárias/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/etiologia , Adolescente , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/etiologia , Facies , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/etiologia , Masculino , Linhagem , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/genética , Tumor Rabdoide/tratamento farmacológico , Tumor Rabdoide/cirurgia , Neoplasias Testiculares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Testiculares/cirurgia , Anormalidades Dentárias/etiologia
20.
Eur J Med Genet ; 61(8): 421-427, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29501611

RESUMO

We report here on the first family with short stature and Silver-Russell-like phenotype due to a microdeletion in 12q14.3. The Netchine-Harbison clinical scoring system was used for the clinical diagnosis of Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS). The three affected first-degree relatives (index patient, mother and brother) presented with prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, feeding difficulties, a prominent forehead and a failure to thrive, but did not show relative macrocephaly. In addition, our index patient showed dysmorphic facial features, periodically increased sweating, and scoliosis. Learning problems and cardiac arrhythmia presented as additional features of her brother. Using high-resolution array-CGH, heterozygosity for a 1.67 Mb deletion in 12q14.3 was detected in the index patient. The heterozygous loss was confirmed by MLPA in the index patient and the other two affected family members. The deletion includes the genes HMGA2, LLPH, TMBIM4, IRAK3, HELB, GRIP1, and the pseudogene RPSAP52. We conclude from these results and from the data of other patients reported in the literature that haploinsufficiency of HMGA2 leads to the short stature in this family.


Assuntos
Deleção Cromossômica , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12/genética , Fenótipo , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Síndrome de Silver-Russell/patologia
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