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1.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 38: 101906, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137493

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For the past few months, HMOs have faced crowded emergency rooms and insufficient hospital and intensive-care-unit beds, all from the worst pandemic of this century, COVID-19. METHODS: In a large HMO in Brazil, our approach was to allow treating physicians to prescribe antiviral medications immediately at presentation, and prednisone starting on day-6 of symptoms to treat pulmonary inflammation. We implemented this COVID-19 protocol for outpatients and studied 717 consecutive SARS-CoV-2-positive patients age 40 years or older presenting at our emergency rooms. RESULTS: Use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), prednisone or both significantly reduced hospitalization risk by 50-60%. Ivermectin, azithromycin and oseltamivir did not substantially reduce risk further. Hospitalization risk was doubled for people with type-2 diabetes or obesity, increased by two-thirds for people with heart disease, and by 75% for each decade of age over age 40. Similar magnitudes of reduced risk with HCQ and prednisone use were seen for mortality risk, though were not significant because of only 11 deaths among the 717 patients. No cardiac arrhythmias requiring medication termination were observed for any of the medications. CONCLUSIONS: This work adds to the growing literature of studies that have found substantial benefit for use of HCQ combined with other agents in the early outpatient treatment of COVID-19, and adds the possibility of steroid use to enhance treatment efficacy.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33105052

RESUMO

A full-term pregnancy is associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk; however, whether the effect of additional pregnancies is independent of age at last pregnancy is unknown. The associations between other pregnancy-related factors and endometrial cancer risk are less clear. We pooled individual participant data from 11 cohort and 19 case-control studies participating in the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium (E2C2) including 16 986 women with endometrial cancer and 39 538 control women. We used one- and two-stage meta-analytic approaches to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) for the association between exposures and endometrial cancer risk. Ever having a full-term pregnancy was associated with a 41% reduction in risk of endometrial cancer compared to never having a full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56-0.63). The risk reduction appeared the greatest for the first full-term pregnancy (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.72-0.84), with a further ~15% reduction per pregnancy up to eight pregnancies (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14-0.28) that was independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. Incomplete pregnancy was also associated with decreased endometrial cancer risk (7%-9% reduction per pregnancy). Twin births appeared to have the same effect as singleton pregnancies. Our pooled analysis shows that, while the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater for a full-term pregnancy than an incomplete pregnancy, each additional pregnancy is associated with further reduction in endometrial cancer risk, independent of age at last full-term pregnancy. These results suggest that the very high progesterone level in the last trimester of pregnancy is not the sole explanation for the protective effect of pregnancy.

3.
Gastroenterology ; 2020 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32918910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) and its premalignant lesion, Barrett's esophagus (BE), are characterized by a strong and yet unexplained male predominance (with a male-to-female ratio in EA incidence of up to 6:1). Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 20 susceptibility loci for these conditions. However, potential sex differences in genetic associations with BE/EA remain largely unexplored. METHODS: Given strong genetic overlap, BE and EA cases were combined into a single case group for analysis. These were compared with population-based controls. We performed sex-specific GWAS of BE/EA in 3 separate studies and then used fixed-effects meta-analysis to provide summary estimates for >9 million variants for male and female individuals. A series of downstream analyses were conducted separately in male and female individuals to identify genes associated with BE/EA and the genetic correlations between BE/EA and other traits. RESULTS: We included 6758 male BE/EA cases, 7489 male controls, 1670 female BE/EA cases, and 6174 female controls. After Bonferroni correction, our meta-analysis of sex-specific GWAS identified 1 variant at chromosome 6q11.1 (rs112894788, KHDRBS2-MTRNR2L9, PBONF = .039) that was statistically significantly associated with BE/EA risk in male individuals only, and 1 variant at chromosome 8p23.1 (rs13259457, PRSS55-RP1L1, PBONF = 0.057) associated, at borderline significance, with BE/EA risk in female individuals only. We also observed strong genetic correlations of BE/EA with gastroesophageal reflux disease in male individuals and obesity in female individuals. CONCLUSIONS: The identified novel sex-specific variants associated with BE/EA could improve the understanding of the genetic architecture of the disease and the reasons for the male predominance.

4.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(11): 1025-1042, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32959149

RESUMO

While childbearing protects against risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), few studies have explored the impact on maternal EOC risk of sex of offspring, which may affect the maternal environment during pregnancy. We performed a pooled analysis among parous participants from 12 case-controls studies comprising 6872 EOC patients and 9101 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression for case-control associations and polytomous logistic regression for histotype-specific associations, all adjusted for potential confounders. In general, no associations were found between offspring sex and EOC risk. However, compared to bearing only female offspring, bearing one or more male offspring was associated with increased risk of mucinous EOC (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.01-2.07), which appeared to be limited to women reporting menarche before age 13 compared to later menarche (OR = 1.71 vs 0.99; P-interaction = 0.02). Bearing increasing numbers of male offspring was associated with greater risks of mucinous tumors (OR = 1.31, 1.84, 2.31, for 1, 2 and 3 or more male offspring, respectively; trend-p = 0.005). Stratifying by hormonally-associated conditions suggested that compared to bearing all female offspring, bearing a male offspring was associated with lower risk of endometrioid cancer among women with a history of adult acne, hirsutism, or polycystic ovary syndrome (OR = 0.49, 95% CI = 0.28-0.83) but with higher risk among women without any of those conditions (OR = 1.64 95% CI = 1.14-2.34; P-interaction = 0.003). Offspring sex influences the childbearing-EOC risk relationship for specific histotypes and conditions. These findings support the differing etiologic origins of EOC histotypes and highlight the importance of EOC histotype-specific epidemiologic studies. These findings also suggest the need to better understand how pregnancy affects EOC risk.

5.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 29(6): 565-581, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898013

RESUMO

High mobility group A protein-2 (HMGA2) is an architectural transcription factor that binds to the A/T-rich DNA minor groove and is responsible for regulating transcriptional activity of multiple genes indirectly through chromatin change and assembling enhanceosome. HMGA2 is overexpressed in multiple tumor types, suggesting its involvement in cancer initiation and progression, thus, making it an ideal candidate for cancer diagnostic and prognostic. We performed a systematic review to examine the role of HMGA2 as a universal tumor cancer diagnostic and prognostic marker. We used Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies to systematically search OvidMedline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for English language studies, published between 1995 and June 2019. Meta-analysis provided pooled risk estimates and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for an association between overall survival and recurrence of cancers for studies with available estimates. We identified 42 eligible studies with a total of 5123 tumor samples in 15 types of cancer. The pooled percentage of HMGA2 gene expression in tumor samples was 65.14%. Meta-analysis showed that cancer patients with HMGA2 positive have significantly reduced survival, compared to patients without HMGA2 gene [pooled-hazard ratio (HR) = 1.85, 95% CI 1.48-2.22]. There was a positive association between cancer patients with HMGA2 overexpression and cancer recurrence though this association did not reach significance (pooled-HR = 1.44, 95% CI 0.80-2.07). Overexpression of HMGA2 was found in 15 types of cancer. There was an association between HMGA2 overexpression with reduced survival of cancer patients. HMGA2 is thus considered a promising universal tumor marker for prognostics.

6.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32766851

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parity is associated with decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer; however, the relationship between incomplete pregnancies and invasive ovarian cancer risk is unclear. This relationship was examined using 15 case-control studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC). Histotype-specific associations, which have not been examined previously with large sample sizes, were also evaluated. METHODS: A pooled analysis of 10,470 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 16,942 controls was conducted. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between incomplete pregnancies and invasive epithelial ovarian cancer were estimated using logistic regression. All models were conditioned on OCAC study, race/ethnicity, age, and education level, and adjusted for number of complete pregnancies, oral contraceptive use, and history of breastfeeding. The same approach was used for histotype-specific analyses. RESULTS: Ever having an incomplete pregnancy was associated with a 16% reduction in ovarian cancer risk (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.79 to 0.89). There was a trend of decreasing risk with increasing number of incomplete pregnancies (two-sided Ptrend <.001). An inverse association was observed for all major histotypes; it was strongest for clear cell ovarian cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Incomplete pregnancies are associated with a reduced risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer. Pregnancy, including incomplete pregnancy, was associated with a greater reduction in risk of clear cell ovarian cancer, but the result was broadly consistent across histotypes. Future work should focus on understanding the mechanisms underlying this reduced risk.

7.
Am J Med ; 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771461

RESUMO

Approximately 9 months of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavius-2 (SARS-CoV-2 [COVID-19]) spreading across the globe has led to widespread COVID-19 acute hospitalizations and death. The rapidity and highly communicable nature of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak has hampered the design and execution of definitive randomized, controlled trials of therapy outside of the clinic or hospital. In the absence of clinical trial results, physicians must use what has been learned about the pathophysiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection in determining early outpatient treatment of the illness with the aim of preventing hospitalization or death. This article outlines key pathophysiological principles that relate to the patient with early infection treated at home. Therapeutic approaches based on these principles include 1) reduction of reinoculation, 2) combination antiviral therapy, 3) immunomodulation, 4) antiplatelet/antithrombotic therapy, and 5) administration of oxygen, monitoring, and telemedicine. Future randomized trials testing the principles and agents discussed will undoubtedly refine and clarify their individual roles; however, we emphasize the immediate need for management guidance in the setting of widespread hospital resource consumption, morbidity, and mortality.

8.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(8): 880-892, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32779232

RESUMO

It is of great scientific interest to identify interactions between genetic variants and environmental exposures that may modify the risk of complex diseases. However, larger sample sizes are usually required to detect gene-by-environment interaction (G × E) than required to detect genetic main association effects. To boost the statistical power and improve the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms, we incorporate functional genomics information, specifically, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), into a data-adaptive G × E test, called aGEw. This test adaptively chooses the best eQTL weights from multiple tissues and provides an extra layer of weighting at the genetic variant level. Extensive simulations show that the aGEw test can control the Type 1 error rate, and the power is resilient to the inclusion of neutral variants and noninformative external weights. We applied the proposed aGEw test to the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (discovery cohort of 3,585 cases and 3,482 controls) and the PanScan II genome-wide association study data (replication cohort of 2,021 cases and 2,105 controls) with smoking as the exposure of interest. Two novel putative smoking-related pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes, TRIP10 and KDM3A, were identified. The aGEw test is implemented in an R package aGE.

10.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(11): 1444-1449, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32685966
11.
Hum Genet ; 2020 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32671597

RESUMO

Jews are estimated to be at increased risk of pancreatic cancer compared to non-Jews, but their observed 50-80% excess risk is not explained by known non-genetic or genetic risk factors. We conducted a GWAS in a case-control sample of American Jews, largely Ashkenazi, including 406 pancreatic cancer patients and 2332 controls, identified in the dbGaP, PanScan I/II, PanC4 and GERA data sets. We then examined resulting SNPs with P < 10-7 in an expanded sample set, of 539 full- or part-Jewish pancreatic cancer patients and 4117 full- or part-Jewish controls from the same data sets. Jewish ancestries were genetically determined using seeded FastPCA. Among the full Jews, a novel genome-wide significant association was detected on chromosome 19p12 (rs66562280, per-allele OR = 1.55, 95% CI = 1.33-1.81, P = 10-7.6). A suggestive relatively independent association was detected on chromosome 19p13.3 (rs2656937, OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.31-1.78, P = 10-7.0). Similar associations were seen for these SNPs among the full and part Jews combined. This is the first GWAS conducted for pancreatic cancer in the increased-risk Jewish population. The SNPs rs66562280 and rs2656937 are located in introns of ZNF100-like and ARRDC5, respectively, and are known to alter regulatory motifs of genes that play integral roles in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

12.
Am J Epidemiol ; 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381806

RESUMO

More than 1.6 million Americans have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 and >10 times that number carry antibodies to it. High-risk patients presenting with progressing symptomatic disease have only hospitalization treatment with its high mortality. An outpatient treatment that prevents hospitalization is desperately needed. Two candidate medications have been widely discussed: remdesivir, and hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin. Remdesivir has shown mild effectiveness in hospitalized inpatients, but no trials have been registered in outpatients. Hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin has been widely misrepresented in both clinical reports and public media, and outpatient trials results are not expected until September. Early outpatient illness is very different than later hospitalized florid disease and the treatments differ. Evidence about use of hydroxychloroquine alone, or of hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin in inpatients, is irrelevant concerning efficacy of the pair in early high-risk outpatient disease. Five studies, including two controlled clinical trials, have demonstrated significant major outpatient treatment efficacy. Hydroxychloroquine+azithromycin has been used as standard-of-care in more than 300,000 older adults with multicomorbidities, with estimated proportion diagnosed with cardiac arrhythmias attributable to the medications 47/100,000 users, of which estimated mortality is <20%, 9/100,000 users, compared to the 10,000 Americans now dying each week. These medications need to be widely available and promoted immediately for physicians to prescribe.

13.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(11): 1218-1226, 2020 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458969

RESUMO

More than 1.6 million Americans have been infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), and more than 10 times that number carry antibodies to it. High-risk patients with progressing symptomatic disease currently have only hospitalization treatment, with its high mortality, available to them. An outpatient treatment that prevents hospitalization is desperately needed. Two candidate medications have been widely discussed: remdesivir and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZ). Remdesivir has shown mild effectiveness in hospitalized inpatients, but no trials in outpatients have been registered. HCQ + AZ has been widely misrepresented in both clinical reports and public media, and results of outpatient trials are not expected until September. Early outpatient illness is very different from later florid disease requiring hospitalization, and the treatments differ. Evidence about use of HCQ alone, or of HCQ + AZ in inpatients, is irrelevant with regard to the efficacy of HCQ + AZ in early high-risk outpatient disease. Five studies, including 2 controlled clinical trials, have demonstrated significant major outpatient treatment efficacy. HCQ + AZ has been used as the standard of care in more than 300,000 older adults with multiple comorbid conditions; the estimated proportion of such patients diagnosed with cardiac arrhythmia attributable to the medications is 47 per 100,000 users, among whom estimated mortality is less than 20% (9/100,000 users), as compared with the 10,000 Americans now dying each week. These medications need to be made widely available and promoted immediately for physicians to prescribe.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Azitromicina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(7): 1501-1508, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal malignancies, with few known risk factors and biomarkers. Several blood protein biomarkers have been linked to PDAC in previous studies, but these studies have assessed only a limited number of biomarkers, usually in small samples. In this study, we evaluated associations of circulating protein levels and PDAC risk using genetic instruments. METHODS: To identify novel circulating protein biomarkers of PDAC, we studied 8,280 cases and 6,728 controls of European descent from the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, using genetic instruments of protein quantitative trait loci. RESULTS: We observed associations between predicted concentrations of 38 proteins and PDAC risk at an FDR of < 0.05, including 23 of those proteins that showed an association even after Bonferroni correction. These include the protein encoded by ABO, which has been implicated as a potential target gene of PDAC risk variant. Eight of the identified proteins (LMA2L, TM11D, IP-10, ADH1B, STOM, TENC1, DOCK9, and CRBB2) were associated with PDAC risk after adjusting for previously reported PDAC risk variants (OR ranged from 0.79 to 1.52). Pathway enrichment analysis showed that the encoding genes for implicated proteins were significantly enriched in cancer-related pathways, such as STAT3 and IL15 production. CONCLUSIONS: We identified 38 candidates of protein biomarkers for PDAC risk. IMPACT: This study identifies novel protein biomarker candidates for PDAC, which if validated by additional studies, may contribute to the etiologic understanding of PDAC development.

15.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(6): e200421, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32239218

RESUMO

Importance: Breastfeeding has been associated with a reduced risk of epithelial ovarian cancer in multiple studies, but others showed no association. Whether risk reduction extends beyond that provided by pregnancy alone or differs by histotype is unclear. Furthermore, the observed associations between duration and timing of breastfeeding with ovarian cancer risk have been inconsistent. Objective: To determine the association between breastfeeding (ie, ever/never, duration, timing) and ovarian cancer risk overall and by histotype. Design, Setting, and Participants: A pooled analysis of parous women with ovarian cancer and controls from 13 case-control studies participating in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium was performed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs of the overall association were calculated using multivariable logistic regression and polytomous logistic regression for histotype-specific associations. All data were collected from individual sites from November 1989 to December 2009, and analysis took place from September 2017 to July 2019. Exposures: Data on breastfeeding history, including duration per child breastfed, age at first and last breastfeeding, and years since last breastfeeding were collected by questionnaire or interview and was harmonized across studies. Main Outcomes and Measures: Diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer. Results: A total of 9973 women with ovarian cancer (mean [SD] age, 57.4 [11.1] years) and 13 843 controls (mean [SD] age, 56.4 [11.7] years) were included. Breastfeeding was associated with a 24% lower risk of invasive ovarian cancer (odds ratio [OR], 0.76; 95% CI, 0.71-0.80). Independent of parity, ever having breastfed was associated with reduction in risk of all invasive ovarian cancers, particularly high-grade serous and endometrioid cancers. For a single breastfeeding episode, mean breastfeeding duration of 1 to 3 months was associated with 18% lower risk (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.76-0.88), and breastfeeding for 12 or more months was associated with a 34% lower risk (OR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.58-0.75). More recent breastfeeding was associated with a reduction in risk (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.47-0.66 for <10 years) that persisted for decades (OR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77-0.90 for ≥30 years; P for trend = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: Breastfeeding is associated with a significant decrease in risk of ovarian cancer overall and for the high-grade serous subtype, the most lethal type of ovarian cancer. The findings suggest that breastfeeding is a potentially modifiable factor that may lower risk of ovarian cancer independent of pregnancy alone.

16.
Ann Epidemiol ; 42: 42-49, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992492

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This population-based cross-sectional study describes self-harm (SH) behaviors and associated factors in 2898 Chinese left-behind children (LBC). METHODS: Descriptive statistics were used to present and compare the distributional characteristics of SH behaviors. Binary and ordinal logistic-regression models for survey data were applied to explore associated factors of SH. RESULTS: Among the LBC, 48% (95% CI: 42%-54%) reported SH behaviors. SH was prominently associated with suicidal ideation. Boys, junior high-school students, and LBC whose fathers were poorly educated were observed to have higher prevalence of SH. Boys, local ethnic minorities, junior high-school students, and LBC whose fathers were comparatively well educated were observed to be at increased risk of more medically serious SH behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: SH is a substantial public health problem among rural Chinese LBC. Targeted intervention measures should be developed to reduce future suicide risk.


Assuntos
Criança Abandonada/psicologia , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Ideação Suicida , Criança , Criança Abandonada/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamento Autodestrutivo/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31756444

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) occurs most frequently in men. We performed a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate whether genetic factors that regulate levels of sex hormones are associated with risk of EAC or Barrett's esophagus (BE). METHODS: We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis using data from patients with EAC (n = 2488) or BE (n = 3247) and control participants (n = 2127), included in international consortia of genome-wide association studies in Australia, Europe, and North America. Genetic risk scores or single-nucleotide variants were used as instrumental variables for 9 specific sex hormones. Logistic regression provided odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs. RESULTS: Higher genetically predicted levels of follicle-stimulating hormones were associated with increased risks of EAC and/or BE in men (OR, 1.14 per allele increase; 95% CI, 1.01-1.27) and in women (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.03-1.59). Higher predicted levels of luteinizing hormone were associated with a decreased risk of EAC in men (OR, 0.92 per SD increase; 95% CI, 0.87-0.99) and in women (OR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.79-1.09), and decreased risks of BE (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.77-0.99) and EAC and/or BE (OR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.79-1.00) in women. We found no clear associations for other hormones studied, including sex hormone-binding globulin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, progesterone, or free androgen index. CONCLUSIONS: In a Mendelian randomization analysis of data from patients with EAC or BE, we found an association between genetically predicted levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones and risk of BE and EAC.

18.
BMC Cancer ; 19(1): 1020, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664937

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that Gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) may be involved in cancer occurrence and progression. However, the prognostic role of serum GGT in pancreatic cancer (PC) survival lacks adequate evaluation. In this study, we aimed to analyze the association between serum GGT measured at diagnosis and overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic PC. METHODS: We identified 320 patients with histopathologically confirmed metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) diagnosed during 2015 and 2016 at a specialized cancer hospital in southwestern China. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards models were used to determine associations between serum GGT and OS in metastatic PDAC. RESULTS: Controlled for possible confounding factors, serum GGT was significantly associated with OS: serum GGT > 48 U/L yielded a hazard ratio of 1.53 (95% CI: 1.19-1.97) for mortality risk. A significant dose-response association between serum GGT and OS was also observed. Subgroup analysis showed a possible interaction between GGT and blood glucose level. CONCLUSION: Serum GGT could be a potential indicator of survival in metastatic PDAC patients. Underlying mechanisms for this association should be investigated.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/sangue , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/secundário , China , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/secundário , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Asian J Psychiatr ; 46: 1-5, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568979

RESUMO

Psychological resilience of Chinese left-behind children (LBC) remains under-studied. In this cross-sectional survey, we intended to analyze factors associated with resilience in a large group of LBC. One-stage random cluster sampling was used to select 2898 LBC aged between 10 and 17 years in Yunnan province of southwestern China. Face-to-face interview was used to collect relevant information from the participants. Resilience was measured by the Resilience Scale for Chinese Adolescents (RSCA). Multivariate logistic regression models revealed that having a better educated mother, feeling closer to people living in the same residence, and having more close friends were associated with higher psychological resilience in LBC. LBC who felt less close to people living in the same residence were consistently lower in all five dimensions of resilience. Compared with LBC with 2 or less close friends, LBC with more close friends had significantly greater resilience in goal concentration, family support, and interpersonal assistance. Higher mother's education level was related to higher resilience in emotion regulation, family support, and interpersonal assistance. Our findings suggest that dimension-specific intervention measures should be developed and implemented to improve psychological resilience of LBC.


Assuntos
Avós , Relações Pais-Filho , Resiliência Psicológica , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , China , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 62: 101577, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mendelian randomization (MR) analyses have been increasingly used to seek evidence of causal associations. This systematic review aims at characterizing and evaluating the reporting of MR analyses in oncological studies. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched to identify MR cancer studies until December 31, 2017. Two of the authors independently selected and evaluated reporting quality of the studies. Reporting quality in MR studies before 2016 and in 2016/17 was compared. RESULTS: Cancer studies with MR analyses in 2016 and 2017 accounted for 55.8% of the total number of studies identified. In the 77 eligible articles, 39 (50.6%) did not report subjects' characteristics, 53 (68.8%) did not conduct power estimation, 40 (51.9%) did not state all of the first three MR assumptions (i.e., genetic instrument is associated with exposure, is not associated with confounders, and acts on outcome only through exposure), and 31 (40.3%) did not exclude SNPs that diverged from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. More studies estimated power in 2016/2017 than before 2016 (p = 0.028). CONCLUSIONS: Some MR cancer studies did not sufficiently report essential information, posing obstacles for critical appraisal. This study proposes for MR analysis a guideline/checklist for future publications in cancer and other biomedical research.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Neoplasias/genética , Guias como Assunto , Humanos
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