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1.
J Grad Med Educ ; 12(1): 58-65, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32089795

RESUMO

Background: Historically, medically trained experts have served as judges to establish a minimum passing standard (MPS) for mastery learning. As mastery learning expands from procedure-based skills to patient-centered domains, such as communication, there is an opportunity to incorporate patients as judges in setting the MPS. Objective: We described our process of incorporating patients as judges to set the MPS and compared the MPS set by patients and emergency medicine residency program directors (PDs). Methods: Patient and physician panels were convened to determine an MPS for a 21-item Uncertainty Communication Checklist. The MPS for both panels were independently calculated using the Mastery Angoff method. Mean scores on individual checklist items with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were also calculated for both panels and differences analyzed using a t test. Results: Of 240 eligible patients and 42 eligible PDs, 25 patients and 13 PDs (26% and 65% cooperation rates, respectively) completed MPS-setting procedures. The patient-generated MPS was 84.0% (range 45.2-96.2, SD 10.2) and the physician-generated MPS was 88.2% (range 79.7-98.1, SD 5.5). The overall MPS, calculated as an average of these 2 results, was 86.1% (range 45.2-98.1, SD 9.0), or 19 of 21 checklist items. Conclusions: Patients are able to serve as judges to establish an MPS using the Mastery Angoff method for a task performed by resident physicians. The patient-established MPS was nearly identical to that generated by a panel of residency PDs, indicating similar expectations of proficiency for residents to achieve skill "mastery."

2.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 49, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diagnostic uncertainty occurs frequently in emergency medical care, with more than one-third of patients leaving the emergency department (ED) without a clear diagnosis. Despite this frequency, ED providers are not adequately trained on how to discuss diagnostic uncertainty with these patients, who often leave the ED confused and concerned. To address this training need, we developed the Uncertainty Communication Education Module (UCEM) to teach physicians how to discuss diagnostic uncertainty. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the UCEM in improving physician communications. METHODS: The trial is a multicenter, two-arm randomized controlled trial designed to teach communication skills using simulation-based mastery learning (SBML). Resident emergency physicians from two training programs will be randomly assigned to immediate or delayed receipt of the two-part UCEM intervention after completing a baseline standardized patient encounter. The two UCEM components are: 1) a web-based interactive module, and 2) a smart-phone-based game. Both formats teach and reinforce communication skills for patient cases involving diagnostic uncertainty. Following baseline testing, participants in the immediate intervention arm will complete a remote deliberate practice session via a video platform and subsequently return for a second study visit to assess if they have achieved mastery. Participants in the delayed intervention arm will receive access to UCEM and remote deliberate practice after the second study visit. The primary outcome of interest is the proportion of residents in the immediate intervention arm who achieve mastery at the second study visit. DISCUSSION: Patients' understanding of the care they received has implications for care quality, safety, and patient satisfaction, especially when they are discharged without a definitive diagnosis. Developing a patient-centered diagnostic uncertainty communication strategy will improve safety of acute care discharges. Although use of SBML is a resource intensive educational approach, this trial has been deliberately designed to have a low-resource, scalable intervention that would allow for widespread dissemination and uptake. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT04021771). Registration date: July 16, 2019.

3.
Acad Emerg Med ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733003

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: More than 2 million patients present to a U.S. emergency department (ED) annually and leave without being seen (LWBS) due to delays in initiating care. We evaluated whether tele-intake at the time of presentation would reduce LWBS rates and ED throughput measures. METHODS: We conducted a before-and-after study at an urban community hospital. The intervention was use of a tele-intake physician to triage patients from 11 am to 6 pm, 7 days per week. Tele-intake providers performed a triage history and physical examination, documented findings, and initiated orders in the medical record. We assessed the impact of this program using the domains of the National Quality Forum framework evaluating access, provider experience, and effectiveness of care. The main outcome was 24-hour LWBS rate. Secondary outcomes were overall door to provider and door to disposition times, left without treatment complete (LWTC), left against medical advice (AMA), left without treatment (LWOT), and physician experience. We compared the 6-month tele-intake period to the same period from the prior year (October 1 to April 1, 2017 vs. 2016). Additionally, we conducted a survey of our physicians to assess their experience with the program. RESULTS: Total ED volume was similar in the before and after periods (19,892 patients vs. 19,646 patients). The 24-hour LWBS rate was reduced from 2.30% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.0% to 2.5%) to 1.69% (95% CI = 1.51% to 1.87%; p < 0.001). Overall door to provider time decreased (median = 19 [interquartile range {IQR} = 9 to 38] minutes vs. 16.2 [IQR = 7.8 to 34.3] minutes; p < 0.001), but ED length of stay for all patients (defined as door in to door out time for all patients) minimally increased (median = 184 [IQR = 100 to 292] minutes vs. 184.3 [IQR = 104.4 to 300] minutes; p < 0.001). There was an increase in door to discharge times (median = 146 [IQR = 83 to 231] minutes vs. 148 [IQR = 88.2 to 233.6] minutes; p < 0.001) and door to admit times (median = 330 [IQR = 253 to 432] minutes vs. 357.6 [IQR = 260.3 to 514.5] minutes; p < 0.001). We saw an increase in LWTC (0.59% [95% CI = 0.49% to 0.70%] vs. 1.1% [95% CI = 0.9% to 1.2%]; p < 0.001), but no change in AMA (1.4% [95% CI = 1.2% to 1.6%] vs. 1.6% [95% CI = 1.4% to 1.78%]; p = 0.21) or LWOT (4.3% [95% CI = 4.1% to 4.6%] vs. 4.4% [95% CI = 4.1% to 4.7%]; p = 0.7). Tele-intake providers thought tele-intake added value (12/15, 80%) and allowed them to effectively address medical problems (14/15, 95%), but only (10/15, 67%) thought that it was as good as in-person triage. Of the receiving physicians, most agreed with statements that tele-intake did not interfere with care (19/22, 86%), helped complement care (19/21, 90%), and gave the patient a better experience (19/22, 86%). CONCLUSIONS: Remote tele-intake provided in an urban community hospital ED reduced LWBS and time to provider but increased LWTC rates and had no impact on LWOT.

4.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(6): 910-917, 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31738718

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Many patients who are discharged from the emergency department (ED) with a symptom-based discharge diagnosis (SBD) have post-discharge challenges related to lack of a definitive discharge diagnosis and follow-up plan. There is no well-defined method for identifying patients with a SBD without individual chart review. We describe a method for automated identification of SBDs from ICD-10 codes using the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. METHODS: We mapped discharge diagnosis, with use of ICD-10 codes from a one-month period of ED discharges at an urban, academic ED to UMLS concepts and semantic types. Two physician reviewers independently manually identified all discharge diagnoses consistent with SBDs. We calculated inter-rater reliability for manual review and the sensitivity and specificity for our automated process for identifying SBDs against this "gold standard." RESULTS: We identified 3642 ED discharges with 1382 unique discharge diagnoses that corresponded to 875 unique ICD-10 codes and 10 UMLS semantic types. Over one third (37.5%, n = 1367) of ED discharges were assigned codes that mapped to the "Sign or Symptom" semantic type. Inter-rater reliability for manual review of SBDs was very good (0.87). Sensitivity and specificity of our automated process for identifying encounters with SBDs were 84.7% and 96.3%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Use of our automated process to identify ICD-10 codes that classify into the UMLS "Sign or Symptom" semantic type identified the majority of patients with a SBD. While this method needs refinement to increase sensitivity of capture, it has potential to automate an otherwise highly time-consuming process. This novel use of informatics methods can facilitate future research specific to patients with SBDs.

6.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 3(1): 54, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418089

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Group concept mapping (GCM) is a research method that engages stakeholders in generating, structuring and representing ideas around a specific topic or question. GCM has been used with patients to answer questions related to health and disease but little is known about the patient experience as a participant in the process. This paper explores the patient experience participating in GCM as assessed with direct observation and surveys of participants. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis performed within a larger study in which 3 GCM iterations were performed to engage patients in identifying patient-important outcomes for diabetes care. Researchers tracked the frequency and type of assistance required by each participant to complete the sorting and rating steps of GCM. In addition, a 17-question patient experience survey was administered over the telephone to the participants after they had completed the GCM process. Survey questions asked about the personal impact of participating in GCM and the ease of various steps of the GCM process. RESULTS: Researchers helped patients 92 times during the 3 GCM iterations, most commonly to address software and computer literacy issues, but also with the sorting phase itself. Of the 52 GCM participants, 40 completed the post-GCM survey. Respondents averaged 56 years of age, were 50% female and had an average hemoglobin A1c of 9.1%. Ninety-two percent (n = 37) of respondents felt that they had contributed something important to this research project and 90% (n = 36) agreed or strongly agreed that their efforts would help others with diabetes. Respondents reported that the brainstorming session was less difficult when compared with sorting and rating of statements. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that patients find value in participating in GCM. Patients reported less comfort with the sorting step of GCM when compared with brainstorming, an observation that correlates with our observations from the GCM sessions. Researchers should consider using paper sorting methods and objective measures of sorting quality when using GCM in patient-engaged research to improve the patient experience and concept map quality.

7.
J Gen Intern Med ; 34(11): 2610-2619, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To enhance the acute care delivery system, a comprehensive understanding of the patient's perspectives for seeking care in the emergency department (ED) versus primary care (PC) is necessary. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative metasynthesis on reasons patients seek care in the ED instead of PC. A comprehensive literature search in PubMed, CINAHL, Psych Info, and Web of Science was completed to identify qualitative studies relevant to the research question. Articles were critically appraised using the McMaster University Critical Review Form for Qualitative Studies. We excluded pediatric articles and nonqualitative and mixed-methods studies. The metasynthesis was completed with an interpretive approach using reciprocal translation analyses. RESULTS: Nine articles met criteria for inclusion. Eleven themes under four domains were identified. The first domain was acuity of condition that led to the ED visit. In this domain, themes included pain: "it's urgent because it hurts," and concern for severe illness. The second domain was barriers associated with PC, which included difficulty accessing PC when ill: "my doctor said he was booked up and he instructed me to go to the ED." The third domain was related to multiple advantages associated with ED care: "my doctor cannot do X-rays and laboratory tests, while the ED has all the technical support." In this domain, patients also identified 24/7 accessibility of the ED and no need for an immediate copay at the ED as advantageous. The fourth domain included fulfillment of medical needs. Themes in this domain included the alleviation of pain and the perceived expertise of the ED healthcare providers. CONCLUSIONS: In this qualitative metasynthesis, reasons patients visit the ED over primary care included (1) urgency of the medical condition, (2) barriers to accessing primary care, (3) advantages of the ED, and (4) fulfillment of medical needs and quality of care in the ED.

8.
Curr Hypertens Rep ; 21(8): 58, 2019 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190099

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The goals of this paper were to examine recent literature on the social determinants of health as they relate to hypertension and cardiovascular disease, and discuss relevance to the practice of emergency medicine. RECENT FINDINGS: Social determinants of health, defined by the World Health Organization as "the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age" ( https://www.who.int/social_determinants/thecommission/en/ ) play a complex role in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease and the persistence of racial disparities in related health outcomes. Deciphering the independent association between minority status and social determinants in the United States is challenging. As a result, much of the recent interventional work has targeted populations by race or ethnicity in order to address these disparities. There is opportunity to expand the work on social determinants of health and hypertension. This includes exploring innovative approaches to identifying at-need individuals and breaking down traditional siloes to develop multidimensional interventions. New funding and payment mechanisms will allow for providers and health systems to identify and target modifiable social determinants of health at the level of the individual patient to improve outcomes.

9.
J Patient Rep Outcomes ; 3(1): 9, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30714080

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Group brainstorming is a technique for the elicitation of patient input that has many potential uses, however no data demonstrate concept saturation. In this study we explore concept saturation in group brainstorming performed in a single session as compared to two or three sessions. METHODS: Fifty-two predominately African American adults patients with moderately to poorly controlled Diabetes Mellitus participated in three separate group brainstorming sessions as part of a PCORI-funded group concept mapping study examining comparing methods for the elicitation of patient important outcomes (PIOs). Brainstorming was unstructured, in response to a prompt designed to elicit PIOs in diabetes care. We combined similar brainstormed responses from all three sessions into a 'master list' of unique PIOs, and then compared the proportion obtained at each individual session, as well as those obtained in combinations of 2 sessions, to the master list. RESULTS: Twenty-four participants generated 85 responses in session A, 14 participants generated 63 in session B, and 14 participants generated 47 in session C. Compared to the master list, the individual sessions contributed 87%, 76%, and 63% of PIOs. Session B added 3 unique PIOs not present in session A, and session C added 2 PIOs not present in either A or B. No single session achieved >90% saturation of the master list, but all 3 combinations of 2 sessions achieved > 90%. CONCLUSIONS: Single sessions elicited only 63-87% of the patient-important outcomes obtained across all three sessions, however all combinations of two sessions elicited over 90% of the master list, suggesting that 2 sessions are sufficient for concept saturation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02792777 . Registered 2 June 2016.

10.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 19(1): 7, 2019 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30621586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data are limited regarding how to effectively and efficiently identify patient priorities for research or clinical care. Our goal was to compare the comprehensiveness and efficiency of group concept mapping (GCM), a group participatory method, to interviews for identifying patient goals when seeking care. METHODS: We engaged patients with moderately- to poorly-controlled diabetes mellitus in either GCM or an individual interview. The primary outcome was the comprehensiveness of GCM brainstorming (the first stage of GCM) as compared to interviews for eliciting patient-important outcomes (PIOs) related to seeking care. Secondary outcomes included 1) comprehensiveness of GCM brainstorming and interviews compared to a master list of PIOs and 2) efficiency of GCM brainstorming, the entire GCM process and interviews. RESULTS: We engaged 89 interview participants and 52 GCM participants (across 3 iterations of GCM) to identify outcomes most important to patients when making decisions related to diabetes management. We identified 26 PIOs in interviews, 33 PIOs in the first GCM brainstorming session, and 38 PIOs across all three GCM brainstorming sessions. The initial GCM brainstorming session identified 77% (20/26) of interview PIOs, and all 3 GCM brainstorming sessions combined identified 88% (23/26). When comparing GCM brainstorming and interviews to the master list of PIOs, the initial GCM brainstorming sessions identified 80% (33/41), all 3 GCM brainstorming sessions identified 93% (38/41) and interviews identified 63% (26/41) of all PIOs. Compared to interviews, GCM brainstorming required less research team time, more patient time, and had a lowest cost. The entire GCM process still required less research team time than interviews, though required more patient time and had a higher cost than interviews. CONCLUSIONS: GCM brainstorming is a powerful tool for effectively and efficiently identifying PIOs in certain scenarios, though it does not provide the breadth and depth of individual interviews or the higher level conceptual organization of the complete process of GCM. Selection of the optimal method for patient engagement should include consideration of multiple factors including depth of patient input desired, research team expertise, resources, and the population to be engaged. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT02792777. Registration information submitted 6/2/2016, with the registration first posted on the ClinicalTrials.gov website 6/8/2016. Data collection began on 4/29/2016.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Acad Emerg Med ; 26(5): 501-509, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30246487

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the relationship between patient uncertainty at the time of emergency department (ED) discharge as measured by the "Uncertainty Scale" (U-Scale) and 30-day return ED visits. We hypothesized that a higher score on the U-Scale predicts a higher likelihood of a 30-day return ED visit. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional single-site pilot study performed with adult patients discharged from an urban academic ED to assess the relationship of U-Scale total and subscale scores with 30-day return ED visits. We collected demographic and U-Scale scores at the time of ED discharge and subsequent 30-day ED utilization data by follow-up telephone call. RESULTS: No association was found between the total U-Scale score and subsequent ED utilization. Patients with higher uncertainty on the Treatment Quality subscale of the U-Scale had higher odds of a 30-day return ED visit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.16), while patients with lower uncertainty on the Decision to Seek Care subscale had higher odds of a 30-day return ED visit (AOR = 0.68). CONCLUSION: Patient uncertainty as measured by the U-Scale total score was not predictive of subsequent ED utilization. However, uncertainty related to treatment quality and the decision to seek care as measured by the U-Scale subscales may be important in predicting repeat ED utilization. Unlike individual patient factors such as age and race that have been associated with frequent ED visits in prior studies, these domains of uncertainty are potentially modifiable. Providers and health systems may successfully prevent recurrent acute care encounters through implementation of interventions designed to address patient uncertainty. Further work is needed to refine the U-Scale and test its predictive utility among a larger patient cohort.

12.
Telemed J E Health ; 25(2): 137-142, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30048210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preadmission testing (PAT) before surgical procedures ensures patient safety and decreases last minute case cancellations. INTRODUCTION: PAT before surgery improves efficiency for the health system; however, the process is often inconvenient for the patient. We sought to determine the impact of telemedicine on the presurgical assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review comparing patients who participated in telemedicine-based PAT to patients who had a routine, on-site PAT. Our outcomes aligned with National Quality Forum recommended domains for telehealth measures: access (time spent in evaluation), experience (patient satisfaction), and effectiveness (case cancellation rate). RESULTS: There were 7,803 people evaluated; 361 with telemedicine and 7,442 without telemedicine. Compared with those not using telemedicine, the telemedicine group spent less time in the PAT by 24 min (95% confidence interval, 21.4-26.5), and had no case cancellations (0% vs. 1.1%; 95% confidence interval for the difference, 0.028-1.25%). Patient experience showed high rates of satisfaction with telemedicine. DISCUSSION: We found that using telemedicine for PAT had benefits in terms of access, patient experience, and effectiveness, the three domains recommended for use in telehealth quality measures by the National Quality Forum. The improvements in evaluation times are beneficial for both patients and providers. CONCLUSIONS: PAT utilizing telemedicine reduced overall patient time in the PAT and improved patient satisfaction without increasing the operative case cancellation rate.


Assuntos
Eficiência Organizacional , Satisfação do Paciente , Período Pré-Operatório , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Adulto , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Emerg Nurs ; 45(1): 46-53, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29960719

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Prior research suggests that uncertainty related to symptoms is a driver of emergency department (ED) use, and that patients often leave the ED with uncertainty not being addressed. Our objective was to engage patients to identify domains that contribute to feelings of uncertainty and decisions to use the ED. METHODS: We used Group Concept Mapping, a quasi-qualitative/quasi-quantitative method, to elicit patients' views on how uncertainty related to experiencing symptoms contributes to decisions to access the ED. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants who either sought treatment at the ED twice within a 30-day period, or visited both the ED and a primary care provider at least once within the past year. RESULTS: Thirty-four participants engaged in two rounds of Group Concept Mapping during which participants participated in structured brainstorming of ideas, followed by ranking and clustering of ideas into domains. The first round generated 47 idea statements reflecting uncertainty about consequences, severity, emergency room services, primary care options, finances, and psychologic concerns. The second round generated 52 idea statements reflecting uncertainty about self-management, causation, diagnosis and treatment plan, trust in the provider and institution, accessibility, and alternative care options. DISCUSSION: Factors that contribute to uncertainty and decision-making about ED use are both intrinsic (ie, cause, symptom severity) and extrinsic (ie, finances, accessibility). These domains can inform approaches to measure the uncertainty that patients experience, and to design and test interventions for nurses and other providers to help manage patient uncertainty during acute illness.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Incerteza , Adulto , Idoso , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
14.
Am J Emerg Med ; 37(5): 890-894, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100333

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Claims data raises the possibility that on demand telemedicine programs might increase new utilization, offsetting the cost benefits described in some retrospective analyses. We prospectively evaluated the cost of a synchronous audio-video on-demand telemedicine taking into account both what patients would have done instead of the telemedicine visit as well as the care patients received after the visit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of patients who received care from an on-demand telemedicine program. At the time of the visit, we surveyed patients about the alternative care that would have been requested, if they had not done the telemedicine visit. We also obtained information following the visit about what further care was received. Using cost data derived from the literature we performed a sensitivity analysis to determine the cost impact of the on-demand telemedicine visit. RESULTS: There were 650 patients enrolled with a mean age of 37 who were 68% female; 74% had their care concerns resolved on the telemedicine visit; only 16% would have "done nothing" if they had not done the telemedicine visit, representing possible new utilization. Net cost savings per telemedicine visit was calculated to range from $19-$121 per visit. CONCLUSIONS: In our on-demand telemedicine program, we found the majority of health concerns could be resolved in a single consultation and new utilization was infrequent. Synchronous audio-video telemedicine consults resulted in short-term cost savings by diverting patients from more expensive care settings.


Assuntos
Consulta Remota/economia , Adulto , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Consulta Remota/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Healthc Manag ; 63(5): e116-e129, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180038

RESUMO

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Higher levels of institutional trust have been associated with increased preventive healthcare use, greater adherence to treatment plans, and improved overall self-rated health status. However, little attention has been paid to understanding approaches to improve patient institutional trust. This study used group concept mapping to elicit patient perspectives on ways to improve patient trust. Eighteen insured individuals living in Delaware County, Pennsylvania, participated in the concept mapping sessions. Participants first brainstormed in a group setting to develop a list of ideas about how systems could improve trust, then each participant sorted the ideas into thematic domains and rated the statements based on both importance and feasibility. Four primary domains for improving institutional trust emerged: privacy, patient-provider relationship, respect for patients, and health system guidelines. Multiple action items to improve patient trust of the system were provided for each domain, and participants rated the "privacy" domain as the most feasible and important to address.We suggest that future local efforts to build institutional trust implement processes to improve the protection of patient privacy, support patient-provider relationships, and engender respect for patients, and that institutions develop system-level guidelines to support these principles. Next steps involve exploring the importance of these domains across other populations and developing and testing targeted interventions.

16.
J Healthc Manag ; 63(4): 271-280, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29985255

RESUMO

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: Nonprofit hospitals achieve tax exemption through community benefit investments. The objective of this study was to characterize urban and suburban nonprofit hospitals' community benefit expenditures and to estimate regional per capita community benefit spending relative to community need. Community benefit expenditures, both overall and by subtype, were compared for urban versus suburban nonprofit hospitals in a large metropolitan area, the greater Philadelphia region. Estimated zip code-level per capita expenditures were mapped in the urban core area. We found that urban hospitals report higher overall community benefit expenditures than suburban hospitals yet invest less in community health improvement services, both proportionally and absolutely, despite spending similar proportions on charity care. There is an overlap in hospital-identified community benefit service areas in the urban core, but the degree of overlap is not related to community poverty levels. There is significant variation in zip code-level per capita community benefit expenditures, which does not correlate with community need. Community benefit investments offer the potential to improve community health, yet without regional coordination, the ability to maximize the potential of these investments is limited. This study's findings highlight the need to implement policies that increase transparency, accountability, and regional coordination of community benefit spending.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Hospitais Comunitários/economia , Colaboração Intersetorial , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos/economia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Comunitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
17.
Ann Emerg Med ; 72(3): 282-288, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29764689

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Although diagnosis is a valuable tool for health care providers, and often the reason patients say they are seeking care, it may not serve the same needs for patients as for providers. The objective of this study is to explore what patients specifically want addressed when seeking a diagnosis at their emergency department (ED) visit. We propose that understanding these needs will facilitate a more patient-centered approach to acute care delivery. METHODS: This qualitative study uses semistructured telephone interviews with participants recently discharged from the ED of a large urban academic teaching hospital to explore their expectations of their ED visit and postdischarge experiences. RESULTS: Thirty interviews were analyzed. Many participants reported wanting a diagnosis as a primary reason for seeking emergency care. When further asked to identify the functions of a diagnosis, they described wanting an explanation for their symptoms, treatment and guidance for symptoms, and clear communication about testing, treatment, and diagnosis. For many, a diagnosis was viewed as a necessary step toward achieving these goals. CONCLUSION: Although diagnosis may not be a feasible outcome of every acute care visit, addressing the needs associated with seeking a diagnosis may be achievable. Reframing acute care encounters to focus on addressing specific patient needs, and not just identifying a diagnosis, may lead to more effective transitions home and improved patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Serviços de Diagnóstico/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Satisfação do Paciente , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Cureus ; 10(1): e2088, 2018 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29564193

RESUMO

Introduction Diagnostic uncertainty is common in healthcare encounters. Effective communication is important to help patients and providers navigate diagnostic uncertainty, especially at transitions of care. This study sought to assess the experience and training of emergency medicine (EM) residents with communication of diagnostic uncertainty. Methods This was a survey study of a national sample of EM residents. The survey questions elicited quantitative and qualitative responses about experiences with and educational preparation for communication with patients in the setting of diagnostic uncertainty. Results A sample of 263 emergency medicine residents who had trained at over 87 medical schools and 37 residency programs responded to the survey. Nearly half of participants noted they frequently encountered challenges with these conversations;  63% reported having been "somewhat" or less trained to have these conversations during residency, and 51% expressed a strong desire for more training in how to approach these discussions. Survey respondents reported that prior educational experiences in the communication of diagnostic uncertainty were largely informal and that many residents experience frustration in clinical encounters due to inability to meet patients' expectations of reaching a diagnosis at the time of discharge. Conclusion This study found that emergency medicine residents frequently struggle in communicating with patients when there is diagnostic uncertainty upon emergency department discharge and perceived the need for training in how to communicate in these situations. The development of targeted educational strategies for improving communication in the setting of diagnostic uncertainty is consistent with emergency medicine core competencies and may improve patient and provider satisfaction with these clinical encounters.

20.
J Health Psychol ; : 1359105317752827, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29376420

RESUMO

Research suggests that patient uncertainty related to experiencing symptoms may drive decisions to seek care. The only validated measure of patient uncertainty assesses uncertainty related to defined illness. In prior work, we engaged patients to describe uncertainty related to symptoms and used findings to develop the 'U-Scale' scale. In this work, we present results from preliminary scale reliability and validity testing. Psychometric testing demonstrated content validity, high internal consistency, and evidence for concurrent validity. Next steps include administration in diverse populations for continued refinement and validation, and exploration of the potential contribution of uncertainty to healthcare utilization.

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