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1.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound ; 17(1): 7, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010431

RESUMO

Echocardiography is the most commonly applied technique for non-invasive assessment of cardiac function in small animals. Manual tracing of endocardial borders is time consuming and varies with operator experience. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate a novel automated two-dimensional software algorithm (Auto2DE) for small animals and compare it to the standard use of manual 2D-echocardiographic assessment (2DE). We hypothesized that novel Auto2DE will provide rapid and robust data sets, which are in agreement with manually assessed data of animals.2DE and Auto2DE were carried out using a high-resolution imaging-system for small animals. First, validation cohorts of mouse and rat cine loops were used to compare Auto2DE against 2DE. These data were stratified for image quality by a blinded expert in small animal imaging. Second, we evaluated 2DE and Auto2DE in four mouse models and four rat models with different cardiac pathologies.Automated assessment of LV function by 2DE was faster than conventional 2DE analysis and independent of operator experience levels. The accuracy of Auto2DE-assessed data in healthy mice was dependent on cine loop quality, with excellent agreement between Auto2DE and 2DE in cine loops with adequate quality. Auto2DE allowed for valid detection of impaired cardiac function in animal models with pronounced cardiac phenotypes, but yielded poor performance in diabetic animal models independent of image quality.Auto2DE represents a novel automated analysis tool for rapid assessment of LV function, which is suitable for data acquisition in studies with good and very good echocardiographic image quality, but presents systematic problems in specific pathologies.

2.
West J Emerg Med ; 20(1): 132-137, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643616

RESUMO

Introduction: The Association of American Medical Colleges has introduced the Standardized Video Interview (SVI) to assess the communication and professionalism skills of residency applicants to allow a more holistic view of applicants beyond academic performance. Initial data suggests scores are not correlated with academic performance and provide a new measure of applicant attributes. It is not currently known how the SVI compares to existing metrics for assessing communication and professionalism during the interview process. Methods: Applicants to the University of Wisconsin Emergency Medicine Residency program were invited and interviewed without use of the SVI scores or videos. All faculty interviewers were blinded to applicants' SVI information and asked to rate each applicant on their communication and professionalism on a scale from 1-25 (faculty gestalt score), analogous to the 6-30 scoring used by the SVI. We transformed SVI scores to our 1-25 system (transformed SVI score) for ease of comparison and compared them to faculty gestalt scores as well as applicants' overall score for all components of their interview day (interview score). Results: We collected data for 125 residency candidates. Each applicant received a faculty gestalt score from up to four faculty interviewers. There was no significant correlation of SVI scores with faculty gestalt scores (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient [rs] (123)=0.09, p=0.30) and no correlation with the overall interview score (rs(123)=0.01, p=0.93). Faculty gestalt scores were correlated positively with interview scores (rs(123)=0.65, p<0.01). Conclusion: SVI scores show no significant correlation with faculty gestalt scores of communication and professionalism. This could relate to bias introduced by knowledge of an applicant's academic performance, different types of questions being asked by faculty interviewers, or lack of uniform criteria by which faculty assess these competencies. Further research is needed to determine whether SVI scores or faculty gestalt correlate with performance during residency.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Internato e Residência/normas , Seleção de Pessoal/métodos , Profissionalismo , Gravação em Vídeo , Avaliação Educacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Docentes , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Wisconsin
3.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 25(1): 36-39, jan./mar. 2018. il.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-987927

RESUMO

A produção e consumo de pescado vem crescendo nos últimos anos, com algumas espécies ganhando destaque no cenário nacional como o híbrido Colossoma macropomum X Piaractus brachypomum (tambatinga) e o Brycon microleps (piraputanga). Dados sobre a composição centesimal e teste aceitação são de suma importância para inferir sobre o potencial mercadológico dessas espécies. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi disponibilizar dados relativos a composição centesimal, aceitação sensorial, com escala hedônica estruturada de 9 pontos, intenção de compra dos consumidores e inferir em questões relacionadas a métodos adequados de conservação, possíveis alterações degradativas e potencial mercadológico. Resultados relacionados a composição das espécies estudas (p<0,05) demonstram não haver diferença significativa nos valores de umidade e cinzas, enquanto que o teor de proteínas e lipídeos e consequente valor calórico foram mais elevados nos exemplares de piraputanga; o teor mais elevado de carboidratos foi observado nos exemplares de tambatinga. No teste de aceitação (p<0,05), os atributos aparência, cor e suculência foram melhor avaliados nos exemplares de tambatinga quando comparados aos de piraputanga. Entretanto, com os valores obtidos pode-se inferir que ambas espécies constituem alternativas de elevado valor nutricional ao consumidor além de apresentarem boa aceitação com aproximadamente 60% dos julgadores demonstrando intenção na compra das espécies.


The production and fish consumption has been growing in recent years, with some species gaining prominence on the national scene as hybrid Colossoma macropomum X Piaractus brachypomum (tambatinga) and Brycon microleps (piraputanga). Data on proximate composition and test acceptance are of paramount importance to infer about the market potential of these species. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide data on the chemical composition, sensory acceptance by hedonic scale of 9 points, consumer purchase intent and infer on issues related to adequate conservation methods, possible degradative and market potential changes. Results related to composition of the species studied (p<0,05) showed no significant difference in the values of moisture and ash, while the protein, lipid and consequent caloric value were higher in specimens of piraputanga; the highest carbohydrate content was observed in tambatinga copies. In acceptance testing (p<0,05), the attributes appearance, color and juiciness were better evaluated in specimens of tambatinga when compared to piraputanga. However, with the values obtained can be inferred that both species are alternatives of high nutritional value to the consumer in addition to having good acceptance with approximately 60% of the judges demonstrating intention in buying the species.


Assuntos
Animais , Consumo de Alimentos , Produção de Alimentos
4.
Rev. bras. ciênc. vet ; 24(3): 162-166, jul- set. 2017. il.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-965634

RESUMO

O objetivo do trabalho foi caracterizar a composição centesimal e a aceitação e intenção de compra do pintado amazônico (Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum X Leiarius marmoratus) e do piauçu (Leporinus macrocephalus). Foram obtidos seis exemplares do pintado amazônico e oito do piauçu. Analisou-se o conteúdo de umidade, cinzas, proteínas, lipídeos, carboidratos e valor energético. O teste de aceitação foi conduzido utilizando-se escala hedônica de nove pontos e a intenção de compra utilizando uma escala de cinco pontos. Os valores médios de composição centesimal encontrado foram de 74,67% e 74,90% para umidade, 0,99% e 1,16% de cinzas, 20,49% e 19,67% de proteína, 0,86% e 3,73% para lipídeo, 2,96% e 0,52% para carboidrato e valor energético de 101,63 Kcal/100g e 114,39 Kcal/100g respectivamente, para pintado amazônico e piauçu. Não houve diferença (p>0,05) para os parâmetros umidade, cinzas, proteína e carboidratos, sendo que os valores de lipídeo e valor energético foram maiores para o piauçu (p<0,05). No teste de aceitação, não houve diferença (p>0,05) para os atributos de aroma, textura, suculência e impressão global. Para os atributos de aparência, cor e sabor melhores resultados foram observados para o pintado amazônico (p˂0,05), que também apresentou melhores escores para intenção de compra. Sendo assim, pode-se concluir que o piauçu apresentou maior teor de lipídeos e valor energético que o pintado amazônico e em relação à aceitação e intenção de compra de consumidores a carne do pintado amazônico apresentou melhores escores que o piauçu.


Assuntos
Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Lipídeos
5.
Science ; 348(6233): 428-31, 2015 Apr 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25745067

RESUMO

Methane is a key component in the global carbon cycle, with a wide range of anthropogenic and natural sources. Although isotopic compositions of methane have traditionally aided source identification, the abundance of its multiply substituted "clumped" isotopologues (for example, (13)CH3D) has recently emerged as a proxy for determining methane-formation temperatures. However, the effect of biological processes on methane's clumped isotopologue signature is poorly constrained. We show that methanogenesis proceeding at relatively high rates in cattle, surface environments, and laboratory cultures exerts kinetic control on (13)CH3D abundances and results in anomalously elevated formation-temperature estimates. We demonstrate quantitatively that H2 availability accounts for this effect. Clumped methane thermometry can therefore provide constraints on the generation of methane in diverse settings, including continental serpentinization sites and ancient, deep groundwaters.


Assuntos
Ciclo do Carbono , Metano/biossíntese , Methanomicrobiales/metabolismo , Animais , Isótopos de Carbono/química , Bovinos , Água Subterrânea/química , Hidrogênio/química , Metano/química , Temperatura Ambiente
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 59: 125-33, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23603080

RESUMO

The potential gastroprotection of polysaccharides (SP) isolated from maté (Ilex paraguariensis) leaves of different growth stages, under different sunlight conditions and of processing methods were evaluated. The SP consist of type I arabinogalactan (AG1) containing a (1→4)-linked ß-Galp chain, with substituents of arabinosyl units at O-6. This arabinogalactan seems to be attached to rhamnosyl units from a RG1, via 1→4 linkage. Oral administration of SP1, SP9, SP10, SP11 and SP12 inhibited the gastric lesions induced by ethanol in rats. Altogether, the present data indicate the therapeutic role of maté polysaccharides against gastric lesion and propose its use or of its crude plant extract as a phytotherapic medicine.


Assuntos
Ilex paraguariensis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/química , Úlcera Gástrica/prevenção & controle , Administração Oral , Animais , Etanol , Feminino , Estrutura Molecular , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Úlcera Gástrica/induzido quimicamente
7.
J Occup Environ Med ; 55(2): 156-63, 2013 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23047659

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To increase influenza vaccination rates among industrial employees and their families through a campaign at a large corporation. METHODS: This prospective, multisite study used employee surveys and claims data to evaluate an evidence-based worksite vaccination program. RESULTS: Vaccination rates among insured employees and dependents (N = 13,520) increased significantly after the intervention (P < 0.001). More than 90% of vaccinated employees received vaccine at employer-sponsored events. There was a strong association between employee and family vaccination status. Primary reasons for receiving the vaccine were economic (free 84%; convenient 80%; avoid absenteeism 82%), rather than health-related. Knowledge was associated with vaccination, but customized education did not change beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: Worksite programs can demonstrably increase vaccination rates among industrial employees and families. Consideration should be given to repositioning vaccination from medical treatment to community initiatives offered with other worksite health promotion programs.


Assuntos
Participação da Comunidade/estatística & dados numéricos , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Participação da Comunidade/psicologia , Tomada de Decisões , Família , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Indústrias , Seguro Saúde , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vacinação/psicologia , Local de Trabalho
8.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 10: 448, 2009 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20038296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The reconstruction of gene regulatory networks from time series gene expression data is one of the most difficult problems in systems biology. This is due to several reasons, among them the combinatorial explosion of possible network topologies, limited information content of the experimental data with high levels of noise, and the complexity of gene regulation at the transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. At the same time, quantitative, dynamic models, ideally with probability distributions over model topologies and parameters, are highly desirable. RESULTS: We present a novel approach to infer such models from data, based on nonlinear differential equations, which we embed into a stochastic Bayesian framework. We thus address both the stochasticity of experimental data and the need for quantitative dynamic models. Furthermore, the Bayesian framework allows it to easily integrate prior knowledge into the inference process. Using stochastic sampling from the Bayes' posterior distribution, our approach can infer different likely network topologies and model parameters along with their respective probabilities from given data. We evaluate our approach on simulated data and the challenge #3 data from the DREAM 2 initiative. On the simulated data, we study effects of different levels of noise and dataset sizes. Results on real data show that the dynamics and main regulatory interactions are correctly reconstructed. CONCLUSIONS: Our approach combines dynamic modeling using differential equations with a stochastic learning framework, thus bridging the gap between biophysical modeling and stochastic inference approaches. Results show that the method can reap the advantages of both worlds, and allows the reconstruction of biophysically accurate dynamic models from noisy data. In addition, the stochastic learning framework used permits the computation of probability distributions over models and model parameters, which holds interesting prospects for experimental design purposes.


Assuntos
Biologia Computacional/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Dinâmica não Linear
9.
Microb Cell Fact ; 8: 42, 2009 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19646274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In industry and academic research, there is an increasing demand for flexible automated microfermentation platforms with advanced sensing technology. However, up to now, conventional platforms cannot generate continuous data in high-throughput cultivations, in particular for monitoring biomass and fluorescent proteins. Furthermore, microfermentation platforms are needed that can easily combine cost-effective, disposable microbioreactors with downstream processing and analytical assays. RESULTS: To meet this demand, a novel automated microfermentation platform consisting of a BioLector and a liquid-handling robot (Robo-Lector) was sucessfully built and tested. The BioLector provides a cultivation system that is able to permanently monitor microbial growth and the fluorescence of reporter proteins under defined conditions in microtiter plates. Three examplary methods were programed on the Robo-Lector platform to study in detail high-throughput cultivation processes and especially recombinant protein expression. The host/vector system E. coli BL21(DE3) pRhotHi-2-EcFbFP, expressing the fluorescence protein EcFbFP, was hereby investigated. With the method 'induction profiling' it was possible to conduct 96 different induction experiments (varying inducer concentrations from 0 to 1.5 mM IPTG at 8 different induction times) simultaneously in an automated way. The method 'biomass-specific induction' allowed to automatically induce cultures with different growth kinetics in a microtiter plate at the same biomass concentration, which resulted in a relative standard deviation of the EcFbFP production of only +/- 7%. The third method 'biomass-specific replication' enabled to generate equal initial biomass concentrations in main cultures from precultures with different growth kinetics. This was realized by automatically transferring an appropiate inoculum volume from the different preculture microtiter wells to respective wells of the main culture plate, where subsequently similar growth kinetics could be obtained. CONCLUSION: The Robo-Lector generates extensive kinetic data in high-throughput cultivations, particularly for biomass and fluorescence protein formation. Based on the non-invasive on-line-monitoring signals, actions of the liquid-handling robot can easily be triggered. This interaction between the robot and the BioLector (Robo-Lector) combines high-content data generation with systematic high-throughput experimentation in an automated fashion, offering new possibilities to study biological production systems. The presented platform uses a standard liquid-handling workstation with widespread automation possibilities. Thus, high-throughput cultivations can now be combined with small-scale downstream processing techniques and analytical assays. Ultimately, this novel versatile platform can accelerate and intensify research and development in the field of systems biology as well as modelling and bioprocess optimization.

10.
Int J Cancer ; 111(4): 530-8, 2004 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15239130

RESUMO

The tumor site is a strong clinical factor in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). To clarify the biologic and clinical role of p53 alterations in HNSCC, we have examined the prevalence and the nature of p53 alterations in a large cohort of tumors from the different sites. For immunohistochemical analysis of p53 protein expression, we introduced tyramide signal amplification immunohistochemistry (TSA-IHC) on a tissue microarray. This allowed the discrimination between normal low-level expression and reduced or lost expression. Two hundred fifty-three tumors were subjected to mutational analysis by genomic DNA sequencing, employing also the p53 GeneChip from Affymetrix. The prevalence of all p53 alterations, i.e., mutations, overexpression and loss of expression, was significantly higher in hypopharyngeal tumors than in the other sites (p = 0.001). Laryngeal tumors showed the lowest rate of p53 alterations, but revealed a distinct mutation spectrum: most mutations affected exon 5 (p = 0.013) and the S2' domain (p = 0.002), and most hot-spot 248 mutations occurred in the larynx (p < 0.001). Sequencing by p53GeneChip technology was shown to be only insignificantly more sensitive than dideoxy sequencing. In agreement with p53 mutations occurring prior to invasiveness, their prevalence did not increase with tumor stage, and all mutation classes lacked prognostic significance. The large patient cohort of this study showed that p53 is differentially affected in the different tumor sites of the head and neck, but its mode of inactivation does not play a major role in tumor progression.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes p53/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/biossíntese , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prognóstico , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Regulação para Cima
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