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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4064, 2019 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492854

RESUMO

Population-based biobanks with genomic and dense phenotype data provide opportunities for generating effective therapeutic hypotheses and understanding the genomic role in disease predisposition. To characterize latent components of genetic associations, we apply truncated singular value decomposition (DeGAs) to matrices of summary statistics derived from genome-wide association analyses across 2,138 phenotypes measured in 337,199 White British individuals in the UK Biobank study. We systematically identify key components of genetic associations and the contributions of variants, genes, and phenotypes to each component. As an illustration of the utility of the approach to inform downstream experiments, we report putative loss of function variants, rs114285050 (GPR151) and rs150090666 (PDE3B), that substantially contribute to obesity-related traits and experimentally demonstrate the role of these genes in adipocyte biology. Our approach to dissect components of genetic associations across the human phenome will accelerate biomedical hypothesis generation by providing insights on previously unexplored latent structures.

2.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363759

RESUMO

Complex diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which consists of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are a significant medical burden - 70,000 new cases of IBD are diagnosed in the United States annually. In this Review, we examine the history of genetic variant discovery in complex disease with a focus on IBD. We cover methods that have been applied to microsatellite, common variant, targeted resequencing, and whole-exome and -genome data, specifically focusing on the progression of technologies towards rare-variant discovery. The inception of these methods combined with better availability of population level variation data has led to rapid discovery of IBD-causative and/or -associated variants at over 200 loci; over time, these methods have grown exponentially in both power and ascertainment to detect rare variation. We highlight rare-variant discoveries critical to the elucidation of the pathogenesis of IBD, including those in NOD2, IL23R, CARD9, RNF186, and ADCY7. We additionally identify the major areas of rare-variant discovery that will evolve in the coming years. A better understanding of the genetic basis of IBD and other complex diseases will lead to improved diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and surveillance.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 373-383, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353025

RESUMO

Copy-number variations (CNVs) represent a significant proportion of the genetic differences between individuals and many CNVs associate causally with syndromic disease and clinical outcomes. Here, we characterize the landscape of copy-number variation and their phenome-wide effects in a sample of 472,228 array-genotyped individuals from the UK Biobank. In addition to population-level selection effects against genic loci conferring high mortality, we describe genetic burden from potentially pathogenic and previously uncharacterized CNV loci across more than 3,000 quantitative and dichotomous traits, with separate analyses for common and rare classes of variation. Specifically, we highlight the effects of CNVs at two well-known syndromic loci 16p11.2 and 22q11.2, previously uncharacterized variation at 9p23, and several genic associations in the context of acute coronary artery disease and high body mass index. Our data constitute a deeply contextualized portrait of population-wide burden of copy-number variation, as well as a series of dosage-mediated genic associations across the medical phenome.

5.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 592-599, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926968

RESUMO

Transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) integrate genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and gene expression datasets to identify gene-trait associations. In this Perspective, we explore properties of TWAS as a potential approach to prioritize causal genes at GWAS loci, by using simulations and case studies of literature-curated candidate causal genes for schizophrenia, low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and Crohn's disease. We explore risk loci where TWAS accurately prioritizes the likely causal gene as well as loci where TWAS prioritizes multiple genes, some likely to be non-causal, owing to sharing of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). TWAS is especially prone to spurious prioritization with expression data from non-trait-related tissues or cell types, owing to substantial cross-cell-type variation in expression levels and eQTL strengths. Nonetheless, TWAS prioritizes candidate causal genes more accurately than simple baselines. We suggest best practices for causal-gene prioritization with TWAS and discuss future opportunities for improvement. Our results showcase the strengths and limitations of using eQTL datasets to determine causal genes at GWAS loci.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Doença de Crohn/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética
6.
JAMA ; 321(8): 773-785, 2019 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806694

RESUMO

Importance: Use of thiopurines may be limited by myelosuppression. TPMT pharmacogenetic testing identifies only 25% of at-risk patients of European ancestry. Among patients of East Asian ancestry, NUDT15 variants are associated with thiopurine-induced myelosuppression (TIM). Objective: To identify genetic variants associated with TIM among patients of European ancestry with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Design, Setting, and Participants: Case-control study of 491 patients affected by TIM and 679 thiopurine-tolerant unaffected patients who were recruited from 89 international sites between March 2012 and November 2015. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and exome-wide association studies (EWAS) were conducted in patients of European ancestry. The replication cohort comprised 73 patients affected by TIM and 840 thiopurine-tolerant unaffected patients. Exposures: Genetic variants associated with TIM. Main Outcomes and Measures: Thiopurine-induced myelosuppression, defined as a decline in absolute white blood cell count to 2.5 × 109/L or less or a decline in absolute neutrophil cell count to 1.0 × 109/L or less leading to a dose reduction or drug withdrawal. Results: Among 1077 patients (398 affected and 679 unaffected; median age at IBD diagnosis, 31.0 years [interquartile range, 21.2 to 44.1 years]; 540 [50%] women; 602 [56%] diagnosed as having Crohn disease), 919 (311 affected and 608 unaffected) were included in the GWAS analysis and 961 (328 affected and 633 unaffected) in the EWAS analysis. The GWAS analysis confirmed association of TPMT (chromosome 6, rs11969064) with TIM (30.5% [95/311] affected vs 16.4% [100/608] unaffected patients; odds ratio [OR], 2.3 [95% CI, 1.7 to 3.1], P = 5.2 × 10-9). The EWAS analysis demonstrated an association with an in-frame deletion in NUDT15 (chromosome 13, rs746071566) and TIM (5.8% [19/328] affected vs 0.2% [1/633] unaffected patients; OR, 38.2 [95% CI, 5.1 to 286.1], P = 1.3 × 10-8), which was replicated in a different cohort (2.7% [2/73] affected vs 0.2% [2/840] unaffected patients; OR, 11.8 [95% CI, 1.6 to 85.0], P = .03). Carriage of any of 3 coding NUDT15 variants was associated with an increased risk (OR, 27.3 [95% CI, 9.3 to 116.7], P = 1.1 × 10-7) of TIM, independent of TPMT genotype and thiopurine dose. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients of European ancestry with IBD, variants in NUDT15 were associated with increased risk of TIM. These findings suggest that NUDT15 genotyping may be considered prior to initiation of thiopurine therapy; however, further study including additional validation in independent cohorts is required.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/genética , Doença de Crohn/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Pirofosfatases/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/tratamento farmacológico , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Exoma , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/uso terapêutico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Jan 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610202

RESUMO

Suicide accounts for nearly 800,000 deaths per year worldwide with rates of both deaths and attempts rising. Family studies have estimated substantial heritability of suicidal behavior; however, collecting the sample sizes necessary for successful genetic studies has remained a challenge. We utilized two different approaches in independent datasets to characterize the contribution of common genetic variation to suicide attempt. The first is a patient reported suicide attempt phenotype asked as part of an online mental health survey taken by a subset of participants (n = 157,366) in the UK Biobank. After quality control, we leveraged a genotyped set of unrelated, white British ancestry participants including 2433 cases and 334,766 controls that included those that did not participate in the survey or were not explicitly asked about attempting suicide. The second leveraged electronic health record (EHR) data from the Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC, 2.8 million patients, 3250 cases) and machine learning to derive probabilities of attempting suicide in 24,546 genotyped patients. We identified significant and comparable heritability estimates of suicide attempt from both the patient reported phenotype in the UK Biobank (h2SNP = 0.035, p = 7.12 × 10-4) and the clinically predicted phenotype from VUMC (h2SNP = 0.046, p = 1.51 × 10-2). A significant genetic overlap was demonstrated between the two measures of suicide attempt in these independent samples through polygenic risk score analysis (t = 4.02, p = 5.75 × 10-5) and genetic correlation (rg = 1.073, SE = 0.36, p = 0.003). Finally, we show significant but incomplete genetic correlation of suicide attempt with insomnia (rg = 0.34-0.81) as well as several psychiatric disorders (rg = 0.26-0.79). This work demonstrates the contribution of common genetic variation to suicide attempt. It points to a genetic underpinning to clinically predicted risk of attempting suicide that is similar to the genetic profile from a patient reported outcome. Lastly, it presents an approach for using EHR data and clinical prediction to generate quantitative measures from binary phenotypes that can improve power for genetic studies.

8.
Bioinformatics ; 2018 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30520965

RESUMO

Summary: Large biobanks linking phenotype to genotype have led to an explosion of genetic association studies across a wide range of phenotypes. Sharing the knowledge generated by these resources with the scientific community remains a challenge due to patient privacy and the vast amount of data. Here we present Global Biobank Engine (GBE), a web-based tool that enables exploration of the relationship between genotype and phenotype in biobank cohorts, such as the UK Biobank. GBE supports browsing for results from genome-wide association studies, phenome-wide association studies, gene-based tests, and genetic correlation between phenotypes. We envision GBE as a platform that facilitates the dissemination of summary statistics from biobanks to the scientific and clinical communities. Availability and implementation: GBE currently hosts data from the UK Biobank and can be found freely available at biobankengine.stanford.edu.

9.
Circ Genom Precis Med ; 11(7): e002162, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29997226

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PCSK9 inhibition is a potent new therapy for hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease. Although short-term clinical trial results have not demonstrated major adverse effects, long-term data will not be available for some time. Genetic studies in large biobanks offer a unique opportunity to predict drug effects and provide context for the evaluation of future clinical trial outcomes. METHODS: We tested the association of the PCSK9 missense variant rs11591147 with predefined phenotypes and phenome-wide, in 337 536 individuals of British ancestry in the UK Biobank, with independent discovery and replication. Using a Bayesian statistical method, we leveraged phenotype correlations to evaluate the phenome-wide impact of PCSK9 inhibition with higher power at a finer resolution. RESULTS: The T allele of rs11591147 showed a protective effect on hyperlipidemia (odds ratio, 0.63±0.04; P=2.32×10-38), coronary heart disease (odds ratio, 0.73±0.09; P=1.05×10-6), and ischemic stroke (odds ratio, 0.61±0.18; P=2.40×10-3) and was associated with increased type 2 diabetes mellitus risk adjusted for lipid-lowering medication status (odds ratio, 1.24±0.10; P=1.98×10-7). We did not observe associations with cataracts, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, and cognitive dysfunction. Leveraging phenotype correlations, we observed evidence of a protective association with cerebral infarction and vascular occlusion. These results explore the effects of direct PCSK9 inhibition; off-target effects cannot be predicted using this approach. CONCLUSIONS: This result represents the first genetic evidence in a large cohort for the protective effect of PCSK9 inhibition on ischemic stroke and corroborates exploratory evidence from clinical trials. PCSK9 inhibition was not associated with variables other than those related to LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, suggesting that other effects are either small or absent.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1204-1211, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29861106

RESUMO

There is a limited understanding about the impact of rare protein-truncating variants across multiple phenotypes. We explore the impact of this class of variants on 13 quantitative traits and 10 diseases using whole-exome sequencing data from 100,296 individuals. Protein-truncating variants in genes intolerant to this class of mutations increased risk of autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, intellectual disability, and ADHD. In individuals without these disorders, there was an association with shorter height, lower education, increased hospitalization, and reduced age at enrollment. Gene sets implicated from GWASs did not show a significant protein-truncating variants burden beyond what was captured by established Mendelian genes. In conclusion, we provide a thorough investigation of the impact of rare deleterious coding variants on complex traits, suggesting widespread pleiotropic risk.

11.
Genome Res ; 28(7): 968-974, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29858273

RESUMO

Variation in RNA splicing (i.e., alternative splicing) plays an important role in many diseases. Variants near 5' and 3' splice sites often affect splicing, but the effects of these variants on splicing and disease have not been fully characterized beyond the two "essential" splice nucleotides flanking each exon. Here we provide quantitative measurements of tolerance to mutational disruptions by position and reference allele-alternative allele combinations. We show that certain reference alleles are particularly sensitive to mutations, regardless of the alternative alleles into which they are mutated. Using public RNA-seq data, we demonstrate that individuals carrying such variants have significantly lower levels of the correctly spliced transcript, compared to individuals without them, and confirm that these specific substitutions are highly enriched for known Mendelian mutations. Our results propose a more refined definition of the "splice region" and offer a new way to prioritize and provide functional interpretation of variants identified in diagnostic sequencing and association studies.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo/genética , Mutação/genética , Nucleotídeos/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Processamento de RNA/genética , Alelos , Éxons/genética , Humanos
12.
PLoS Genet ; 14(5): e1007329, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29795570

RESUMO

As part of a broader collaborative network of exome sequencing studies, we developed a jointly called data set of 5,685 Ashkenazi Jewish exomes. We make publicly available a resource of site and allele frequencies, which should serve as a reference for medical genetics in the Ashkenazim (hosted in part at https://ibd.broadinstitute.org, also available in gnomAD at http://gnomad.broadinstitute.org). We estimate that 34% of protein-coding alleles present in the Ashkenazi Jewish population at frequencies greater than 0.2% are significantly more frequent (mean 15-fold) than their maximum frequency observed in other reference populations. Arising via a well-described founder effect approximately 30 generations ago, this catalog of enriched alleles can contribute to differences in genetic risk and overall prevalence of diseases between populations. As validation we document 148 AJ enriched protein-altering alleles that overlap with "pathogenic" ClinVar alleles (table available at https://github.com/macarthur-lab/clinvar/blob/master/output/clinvar.tsv), including those that account for 10-100 fold differences in prevalence between AJ and non-AJ populations of some rare diseases, especially recessive conditions, including Gaucher disease (GBA, p.Asn409Ser, 8-fold enrichment); Canavan disease (ASPA, p.Glu285Ala, 12-fold enrichment); and Tay-Sachs disease (HEXA, c.1421+1G>C, 27-fold enrichment; p.Tyr427IlefsTer5, 12-fold enrichment). We next sought to use this catalog, of well-established relevance to Mendelian disease, to explore Crohn's disease, a common disease with an estimated two to four-fold excess prevalence in AJ. We specifically attempt to evaluate whether strong acting rare alleles, particularly protein-truncating or otherwise large effect-size alleles, enriched by the same founder-effect, contribute excess genetic risk to Crohn's disease in AJ, and find that ten rare genetic risk factors in NOD2 and LRRK2 are enriched in AJ (p < 0.005), including several novel contributing alleles, show evidence of association to CD. Independently, we find that genomewide common variant risk defined by GWAS shows a strong difference between AJ and non-AJ European control population samples (0.97 s.d. higher, p<10-16). Taken together, the results suggest coordinated selection in AJ population for higher CD risk alleles in general. The results and approach illustrate the value of exome sequencing data in case-control studies along with reference data sets like ExAC (sites VCF available via FTP at ftp.broadinstitute.org/pub/ExAC_release/release0.3/) to pinpoint genetic variation that contributes to variable disease predisposition across populations.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Judeus/genética , Doenças Raras/genética , Algoritmos , Doença de Crohn/epidemiologia , Genética Populacional , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Haplótipos , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Epidemiologia Molecular , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças Raras/epidemiologia
13.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1612, 2018 04 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691392

RESUMO

Protein-truncating variants can have profound effects on gene function and are critical for clinical genome interpretation and generating therapeutic hypotheses, but their relevance to medical phenotypes has not been systematically assessed. Here, we characterize the effect of 18,228 protein-truncating variants across 135 phenotypes from the UK Biobank and find 27 associations between medical phenotypes and protein-truncating variants in genes outside the major histocompatibility complex. We perform phenome-wide analyses and directly measure the effect in homozygous carriers, commonly referred to as "human knockouts," across medical phenotypes for genes implicated as being protective against disease or associated with at least one phenotype in our study. We find several genes with strong pleiotropic or non-additive effects. Our results illustrate the importance of protein-truncating variants in a variety of diseases.

16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(2): 379-384, 2018 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29279374

RESUMO

A major challenge in evaluating the contribution of rare variants to complex disease is identifying enough copies of the rare alleles to permit informative statistical analysis. To investigate the contribution of rare variants to the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related traits, we performed deep whole-genome analysis of 1,034 members of 20 large Mexican-American families with high prevalence of T2D. If rare variants of large effect accounted for much of the diabetes risk in these families, our experiment was powered to detect association. Using gene expression data on 21,677 transcripts for 643 pedigree members, we identified evidence for large-effect rare-variant cis-expression quantitative trait loci that could not be detected in population studies, validating our approach. However, we did not identify any rare variants of large effect associated with T2D, or the related traits of fasting glucose and insulin, suggesting that large-effect rare variants account for only a modest fraction of the genetic risk of these traits in this sample of families. Reliable identification of large-effect rare variants will require larger samples of extended pedigrees or different study designs that further enrich for such variants.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Americanos Mexicanos/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/métodos
17.
Sci Data ; 4: 170179, 2017 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29257133

RESUMO

To investigate the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to high resolution, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia catalogued variation from whole-genome sequencing of 2,657 European individuals and exome sequencing of 12,940 individuals of multiple ancestries. Over 27M SNPs, indels, and structural variants were identified, including 99% of low-frequency (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.1-5%) non-coding variants in the whole-genome sequenced individuals and 99.7% of low-frequency coding variants in the whole-exome sequenced individuals. Each variant was tested for association with T2D in the sequenced individuals, and, to increase power, most were tested in larger numbers of individuals (>80% of low-frequency coding variants in ~82 K Europeans via the exome chip, and ~90% of low-frequency non-coding variants in ~44 K Europeans via genotype imputation). The variants, genotypes, and association statistics from these analyses provide the largest reference to date of human genetic information relevant to T2D, for use in activities such as T2D-focused genotype imputation, functional characterization of variants or genes, and other novel analyses to detect associations between sequence variation and T2D.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Variação Genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos
18.
NPJ Genom Med ; 2: 22, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263833

RESUMO

Recent understanding of the causal role of blood-detectable somatic protein-truncating DNA variants in leukemia prompts questions about the generalizability of such observations across cancer types. We used the cancer genome atlas exome sequencing (~8000 samples) to compare 22 different cancer phenotypes with more than 6000 controls using a case-control study design and demonstrate that mosaic protein truncating variants in these genes are also associated with solid-tumor cancers. The absence of these cancer-associated mosaic variants from the tumors themselves suggest these are not themselves tumor drivers. Through analysis of different cancer phenotypes we observe gene-specificity for mosaic mutations. We confirm a specific link between PPM1D and ovarian cancer, consistent with previous reports linking PPM1D to breast and ovarian cancer. Additionally, glioblastoma, melanoma and lung cancers show gene specific burdens of mosaic protein truncating mutations. Taken together, these results extend existing observations and broadly link solid-tumor cancers to somatic blood DNA changes.

19.
Nature ; 550(7675): 244-248, 2017 10 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29022598

RESUMO

X chromosome inactivation (XCI) silences transcription from one of the two X chromosomes in female mammalian cells to balance expression dosage between XX females and XY males. XCI is, however, incomplete in humans: up to one-third of X-chromosomal genes are expressed from both the active and inactive X chromosomes (Xa and Xi, respectively) in female cells, with the degree of 'escape' from inactivation varying between genes and individuals. The extent to which XCI is shared between cells and tissues remains poorly characterized, as does the degree to which incomplete XCI manifests as detectable sex differences in gene expression and phenotypic traits. Here we describe a systematic survey of XCI, integrating over 5,500 transcriptomes from 449 individuals spanning 29 tissues from GTEx (v6p release) and 940 single-cell transcriptomes, combined with genomic sequence data. We show that XCI at 683 X-chromosomal genes is generally uniform across human tissues, but identify examples of heterogeneity between tissues, individuals and cells. We show that incomplete XCI affects at least 23% of X-chromosomal genes, identify seven genes that escape XCI with support from multiple lines of evidence and demonstrate that escape from XCI results in sex biases in gene expression, establishing incomplete XCI as a mechanism that is likely to introduce phenotypic diversity. Overall, this updated catalogue of XCI across human tissues helps to increase our understanding of the extent and impact of the incompleteness in the maintenance of XCI.


Assuntos
Especificidade de Órgãos/genética , Análise de Célula Única , Inativação do Cromossomo X/genética , Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Feminino , Genes Ligados ao Cromossomo X/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transcriptoma/genética
20.
Bioinformatics ; 33(15): 2405-2407, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369165

RESUMO

Summary: Genetic research utilizes a decomposition of trait variances and covariances into genetic and environmental parts. Our software package biMM is a computationally efficient implementation of a bivariate linear mixed model for settings where hundreds of traits have been measured on partially overlapping sets of individuals. Availability and Implementation: Implementation in R freely available at www.iki.fi/mpirinen . Contact: matti.pirinen@helsinki.fi. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Modelos Estatísticos , Software , Genômica/métodos , Humanos
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