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1.
Contraception ; 2020 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33160909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To characterize patient and counselor satisfaction with structured, tier-based contraceptive counseling provided by a nonclinician. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a planned secondary analysis of patient and counselor surveys from a study that enrolled women in 2 contraceptive care programs. All participants received structured contraceptive counseling from trained staff members. Women and counselors completed a confidential post-visit survey regarding satisfaction with counseling and medical mistrust. We used univariate and multivariable regressions to examine differences in high satisfaction with counseling (top score), perceived counselor influence, and perceived counselor judgment by participant characteristics. RESULTS: Nine hundred forty-two participants completed surveys; most reported they felt respected (100.0%), trusted the counseling information (99.5%), and that counseling helped them choose a contraceptive method (83.8%). Black race, high school education, public insurance, an income below the federal poverty level, and enrollment site were associated with high medical mistrust. Participants with high medical mistrust were less likely to be highly satisfied with counseling (adjusted relative risk (RR) 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-0.82), more likely to perceive influence (RR 1.77; 95% CI 1.37-2.28), and more likely to perceive judgment (adjusted odds ratio 8.91; 95% CI 3.61-22.01). Mostly, counselors felt they were able to answer participant questions (98.8%), establish good rapport (95.9%), and that participants understood the information presented (98.0%). CONCLUSIONS: Overall, participants were satisfied with tier-based contraceptive counseling delivered by nonclinician staff members. Those with high levels of medical mistrust were less likely to be satisfied. The majority of women found the information beneficial in contraceptive decision making. IMPLICATIONS: Overall, women reported high satisfaction with tier-based contraceptive counseling delivered by a nonclinician in 3 federally qualified health centers. However, women with high medical mistrust were less likely to report high levels of satisfaction and more likely to report perceived influence or judgment from the counselor.

2.
Molecules ; 25(19)2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998189

RESUMO

One of the principal etiological agents associated with losses in horticultural crops is the fungus Colletotrichum sp. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro effectiveness of the essential oil (EO) from Cymbopogon citratus in chitosan supports for the control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from sweet pepper plants. METHODS: The extraction and phytochemical analysis of the EO of C. citratus were performed along with its encapsulation in chitosan-agar in order to compare it with other techniques and determine its effect on C. gloeosporioides. RESULTS: The EO from the citral chemotype (58%) encapsulated in the chitosan-agar, with an 83% encapsulation efficiency in mass percentage, resulted in the total inhibition of mycelial growth at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1370 ppm. This concentration was effective in controlling the disease under greenhouse conditions. The effectivity of the capsules containing EO was superior to that of other controls using EO evaluated in vitro. The capsules demonstrated an effective period of 51 days, with an additional 30 days of effectiveness after a reinfection cycle, thus providing similar results to the control with Trichoderma sp. CONCLUSIONS: Chitosan capsules present a promising strategy in the use of C. citratus EO on C. gloeosporioides, and they are highly effective and stable under in vitro and field conditions.

3.
J Clin Exp Dent ; 12(8): e749-e754, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913572

RESUMO

Background: There is a continuing search for compuounds to improve the chemical plaque inhibitory action of oral hygiene products. Although the antibacterial effects of chlorhexidine (CHX) and essential oils components, citral/myrcene, have been described, there is contradictory information regarding their cytotoxic effects in host tissues. This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of the major components of the oil C. citratus, citral and myrcene on human periodontal ligament fibroblast (HPLF) cultures and their antimicrobial effect on different bacterial species present in supragingival biofilm. Material and Methods: Cytotoxicity of the compounds to HPLF was determined by MTT assay. Antimicrobial activity was tested against reference strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus rhamnosus and for S. mutans clinical strains by broth microdilution assay. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Games-Howell post-hoc multiple comparison or unpaired t tests were used for inter- and intragroup comparisons. Results: Overall, all of the compounds under study showed a cytotoxic effect to HPLF which varied in a dose-dependant manner. Whilst myrcene did not show bacteriostatic activity at tested concentrations, both citral and CHX exhibited bacteriostatic/bactericidal effects to all strains at specific concentrations, being CHX most effective to inhibit bacterial growth at lower concentrations than what observed for citral. Conclusions: Based on these findings, it would possible to conclude that whereas myrcene might be ineffective to control bacterial growth, citral could have a promising antimicrobial activity against dental colonizers with low cytotoxicity, and may be useful for preventing the onset and progression of oral diseases. Key words:Antimicrobial activity, citral, cytotoxicity, chlorhexidine, myrcene.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228729, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053633

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a correlation between the endocannabinoid system and hepatic fibrosis based on the activation of CB1 and CB2 receptors; where CB1 has profibrogenic effects. Gene therapy with a plasmid carrying a shRNA for CB1 delivered by hydrodynamic injection has the advantage of hepatic tropism, avoiding possible undesirable effects of CB1 pharmacological inhibition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate hydrodynamics-based liver transfection in an experimental model of liver cirrhosis of a plasmid with the sequence of a shRNA for CB1 and its antifibrogenic effects. METHODS: Three shRNA (21pb) were designed for blocking CB1 mRNA at positions 877, 1232 and 1501 (pshCB1-A, B, C). Sequences were cloned in the pENTR™/U6. Safety was evaluated monitoring CB1 expression in brain tissue. The silencing effect was determined in rat HSC primary culture and CCl4 cirrhosis model. Hydrodynamic injection in cirrhotic liver was through iliac vein and with a dose of 3mg/kg plasmid. Serum levels of liver enzymes, mRNA levels of TGF-ß1, Col IA1 and α-SMA and the percentage of fibrotic tissue were analyzed. RESULTS: Hydrodynamic injection allows efficient CB1 silencing in cirrhotic livers and pshCB1-B (position 1232) demonstrated the main CB1-silencing. Using this plasmid, mRNA level of fibrogenic molecules and fibrotic tissue considerably decrease in cirrhotic animals. Brain expression of CB1 remained unaltered. CONCLUSION: Hydrodynamics allows a hepatotropic and secure transfection in cirrhotic animals. The sequence of the shCB1-B carried in a plasmid or any other vector has the potential to be used as therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis.


Assuntos
Inativação Gênica , Hidrodinâmica , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/metabolismo , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Estreladas do Fígado/citologia , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Plasmídeos/metabolismo , RNA Interferente Pequeno/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor CB1 de Canabinoide/genética , Transfecção , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
5.
Rev Argent Microbiol ; 52(1): 61-71, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31153682

RESUMO

Strategies aimed at achieving food safety in crops of high nutritional value should be carried out through sustainable agricultural practices aimed at soil conservation, high yield and food safety. This latter characteristic implies food production without detectable traces of agrochemicals that threaten health. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of the herbicide glyphosate on the chemical and biological fertility of the soil and to determine its residual activity on biofortified bean seeds in Codazzi, Department of Cesar, Colombia. The method included a correlational analysis of soil quality, crop yield and residuality in bean grains. The treatments included glyphosate application and synthetic and natural mulches, compared to manual control. The results showed differences in the response of chemical, microbiological and yield indicators between treatments and the initial conditions of the bean rhizosphere. The use of the herbicide glyphosate in mulch-free soil generates yield losses of 29% associated with a higher incidence of pests and fungal diseases; in all treatments, no glyphosate residuality was detected in seeds; however, residuality was detected in other molecules derived from insecticides associated with the local production system. In conclusion, in plots with high weed pressure by Cyperus rotundus, the use of mulch is recommended as an alternative to maintain bean productivity over time; by offering protection against the effect of the herbicide on both the root system of the plant and the soil microbiota of the biofortified bean crop.

6.
Cienc. tecnol. salud ; 6(2): 120-131, jul dic 2019. ^c27 cmilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095875

RESUMO

La Reserva de la Biosfera Maya (RBM) es un área protegida de relevancia nacional, regional y mundial por la diversidad biológica asociada y los beneficios que se obtienen de esta. En su plan maestro se plantea el conjunto de elementos de conservación a partir de los cuales se orientan estrategias y se evalúa la efectividad de manejo de dicha reserva, entre los cuales se incluye a Tapirella bairdii (tapir), por lo que es importante contar con un monitoreo de esta especie como una herramienta para la administración de esta reserva. En el 2015 se inició el desarrollo de un protocolo de monitoreo basado en la estimación de la probabilidad de ocupación y el presente estudio constituye la continuación de esta iniciativa a través de la implementación de las temporadas de muestreo en 2017 y 2018. Se registró la presencia del tapir en cinco zonas núcleo de la RBM empleando trampas cámara y se estimó la probabilidad de ocupación. Los valores estimados sugieren una rela¬ción de la ocupación con la integridad ecológica, en la cual hay una mayor ocupación en áreas con menor perturbación. Se generaron modelos con cinco covariables relacionadas con amenazas potenciales, sin embargo fue el modelo nulo el que se seleccionó de acuerdo al criterio definido. Los resultados sugieren que la integridad ecológica en las áreas de estudio está siendo afectada como consecuencia de las presiones antrópicas por lo que es necesario el fortalecimiento de aquellas con menores valores de ocupación


The Maya Biosphere Reserve (MBR) is a protected area of national, regional and global relevance due to the associated bio¬logical diversity and the benefits obtained from it. In its master plan, a set of conservation elements are selected, on which strategies are oriented and the management effectiveness is evaluated, among which Tapirella bairdii (Baird's tapir) is included, so it is important to have a monitoring of this species as a tool for the management of this reserve. In 2015, the development of a monitoring protocol based on the estimation of the probability of occupancy started and the present study constitutes the continuation of this initiative through the implementation of the sampling seasons in 2017 and 2018. It was registered the presence of the tapir in five core areas of the MBR using camera traps and the probability of occupancy was estimated. The estimated values in the study areas suggest a relationship of occupancy with the ecological integrity, in which there is a greater occupancy in areas with less disturbance. Models with five covariates related to potential threats were generated, however it was the null model that was selected according to the defined criteria. The results indicate that ecological integrity in the study areas is being affected as a result of the anthropic pressures, so it is necessary to strengthen those with lower occupancy values


Assuntos
Reservas Naturais/análise , Reservas Naturais/prevenção & controle , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Biodiversidade , Fauna/classificação
7.
Gac Med Mex ; 154(Supp 2): S36-S40, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532121

RESUMO

Introduction: Community dermatology (CD) is integrated by dermatologists, epidemiologists and interested people. It has 27 years of experience at the Guerrero State. Due to unsafety issues, the teaching and medical attention model had to be changed from presential to virtual trough telemedicine. Method: Transversal, descriptive, observational and analytic study, in which results from teaching-learning of the health personal that was capacitated throughout the telemedicine network at the Guerrero State were evaluated, during nine courses that reached 35 telemedicine centers. Results: 2465 health workers were capacitated in basic dermatology, which were evaluated in their general knowledge of dermatology before and after every course. The utility of this modality of teaching was statistically evaluated with a random simple in 611 attendees with satisfactory results. Discussion: Teaching through telemedicine network, represents an improvement for CD by reaching a higher number of attendees to several reception centers simultaneously, minimizing transportation expenses and improving the safety of the participants at the activities, with the advantage of allowing continuity of the CD purposes.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Dermatologia/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Telemedicina/organização & administração , Estudos Transversais , Dermatologia/organização & administração , Humanos , México , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração
8.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 50(4): 426-430, Dec. 2018. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-977266

RESUMO

Se evaluó la efectividad de Baubassil® (Beauveria bassiana) sobre la garrapata Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. En la fase in vitro, se determinaron la temperatura óptima de germinación del hongo mediante microcultivos a 25, 30 y 35° C, y la mortalidad de las garrapatas. En campo, en un diseño aleatorio, se utilizaron 30 vacas cebuinas; 15 vacas se trataron con Baubassil® una vez por semana con 1 x 10(6) conidias/ml y un grupo control se dejó sin tratamiento. Se observó que a temperaturas de 25, 30 y 35 °C, la germinación del entomopató-geno fue del 97,5, el 94,7 y el 6,3%, respectivamente. En los animales tratados con Baubassil® se obtuvo una efectividad corregida del 96,8%. En el Caribe Seco, Baubassil® constituiría una alternativa de control del ectoparásito, pues no existen registros anteriores en La Guajira del control sostenible de esta garrapata.


The effectiveness of Baubassil® (Beauveria bassiana) on the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was evaluated. In the in vitro phase, the optimal germination temperature of the fungus was determined by microcultures at 25, 30 and 35 °C and the mortality of ticks. In the field, in a randomized design, 30 cebuine cows; 15 cows were treated with Baubassil® once a week at a 1 x 10(6) conidia/ml, and a control group was left untreated. It was observed that at temperatures of 25, 30 and 35 °C, germination of the entomopathogen was 97.5, 94.7 and 6.3%, respectively. In animals treated with Baubassil® obtained a corrected effectiveness of 96.8% on ticks in the fifth week of application. The use of Baubassil® would be a valid alternative for controlling the cattle tick under the agroecological conditions of the Dry Caribbean.

9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(4): 1519-1529, oct.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003342

RESUMO

Resumen La caries dental, es una patología de origen multifactorial y actualmente los productos naturales son un tratamiento alternativo eficiente. El trabajo buscó evaluar la actividad antimicrobiana del aceite esencial de tres sustancias (Cymbopogon citratus y los componentes citral y mirceno) contra Streptococcus mutans ATCC UA159, así como su citotoxicidad sobre queratinocitos y fibroblastos humanos. A través de Microscopía Electrónica de Barrido, se observó la morfología típica de S. mutans, y una formación característica de polisacáridos, con una disposición más estructurada a las 48 h. El efecto de viabilidad bacteriana contra S. mutans en biofilms se evaluó a través de la exposición a las tres sustancias mediante el uso de la técnica de alto rendimiento MBEC, a concentraciones de 1, 0.1 y 0.01 μg/ml y clorhexidina como control positivo. La citotoxicidad de los compuestos se evaluó sobre queratinocitos y fibroblastos, mediante la técnica de reducción de MTT, utilizando 0.5 mM de H2O2 como control de muerte celular (control negativo) y etanol 1 % como control del vehículo (control positivo). Las tres sustancias evaluadas, tuvieron efectos sobre la viabilidad bacteriana de S. mutans con una mortalidad entre 74 y 96 %, sin diferencia significativa entre ellos (P > 0.393); adicionalmente, no fue evidente la citotoxicidad sobre queratinocitos y fibroblastos en un tratamiento de 24 h. Las sustancias evaluadas mostraron efectos antimicrobianos significativos; por lo tanto, estos deben estudiarse más a fondo como posibles coadyuvantes para prevenir la caries dental que causa efectos adversos menores.


Abstract Dental caries is a pathology of multifactorial origin and currently natural products are an efficient alternative treatment. The work sought to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the three substances (Cymbopogon citratus essential oil and the citral and myrcene components) against Streptococcus mutans ATCC UA159, as well as their cytotoxicity on keratinocytes and human fibroblasts. Through Scanning electron microscopy, the typical morphology of S. mutans was observed and, a characteristic formation of polysaccharides, with more structured arrangement at 48 h. The bacterial viability effect against S. mutans on biofilms was evaluated through exposure to the three substances by using the MBEC technique-high-throughput at concentrations of 1, 0.1, and 0.01 µg/mL and chlorhexidine as positive control. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated on keratinocytes and fibroblasts through the MTT reduction technique, using 0.5 mM H2O2 as cell-death control (negative control) and ethanol 1 % as vehicle control (positive control). The three substances evaluated had effects on the bacterial viability of S. mutans with mortality between 74 and 96 %, without significant difference among them (P > 0.393); additionally, no cytotoxicity was evident on keratinocytes and fibroblasts in a 24 h treatment. The substances evaluated showed significant antimicrobial effects; hence, these should be studied further as potential co-adjuvants to prevent dental caries that cause minor adverse effects.

10.
Rev Argent Microbiol ; 50(4): 426-430, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29402489

RESUMO

The effectiveness of Baubassil®(Beauveria bassiana) on the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was evaluated. In the in vitro phase, the optimal germination temperature of the fungus was determined by microcultures at 25, 30 and 35°C and the mortality of ticks. In the field, in a randomized design, 30 cebuine cows; 15 cows were treated with Baubassil® once a week at a 1×106 conidia/ml, and a control group was left untreated. It was observed that at temperatures of 25, 30 and 35°C, germination of the entomopathogen was 97.5, 94.7 and 6.3%, respectively. In animals treated with Baubassil® obtained a corrected effectiveness of 96.8% on ticks in the fifth week of application. The use of Baubassil® would be a valid alternative for controlling the cattle tick under the agroecological conditions of the Dry Caribbean.


Assuntos
Beauveria/fisiologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Doenças dos Bovinos/terapia , Ectoparasitoses/terapia , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Rhipicephalus/microbiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Colômbia , Distribuição Aleatória , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Revista Corpoica ; 18(2): 353-377, 2017.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa | ID: biblio-911748

RESUMO

El sector de plantas aromáticas, medicinales y condimentarias reúne una amplia variedad de especies nativas e introducidas con potencial agroindustrial. Para contribuir al diagnóstico tecnológico del sector en Colombia y brindar elementos de planificación estratégica hacia mejores niveles de desarrollo e internacionalización, se priorizaron ciertas especies aromáticas en este artículo y se planteó una vigilancia tecnología del 2004 al 2014. Se hizo una búsqueda de artículos científicos y patentes en ocho bases de datos en el ámbito nacional, iberoamericano y mundial según temáticas priorizadas. Los datos se procesaron mediante Microsoft Excel, EndNote, Vantage Point (2014) y Thomson Data Analyzer. A nivel nacional, la temática más registrada fue el material de siembra y el mejoramiento genético, mientras que en Iberoamérica y el mundo, fue el efecto biocida. Los países líderes en investigaciones sobre las aromáticas vigiladas fueron Brasil, Colombia y Cuba. A nivel internacional, los líderes en producción científica en PubMed y Scopus fueron India, EE. UU., Brasil y Colombia. La tendencia mundial de patentes es creciente, y su principal enfoque es "Necesidades corrientes de la vida". En conclusión, la vigilancia tecnológica ofreció una visión global de avances y tendencias en investigación y desarrollo tecnológico en áreas temáticas vinculadas con las plantas aromáticas. Además, se identificaron posibles aliados investigativos y fluctuación de la producción científica a través del tiempo.


Assuntos
Plantas/classificação , Desenvolvimento Tecnológico , Colômbia , Base de Dados
12.
MedUNAB ; 19(2): 95-102, 2016. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-876582

RESUMO

Objetivo: Describir los comportamientos sexuales en personas VIH positivas en tres ciudades de Colombia antes y después de conocer el diagnóstico e identificar cambios en estos comportamientos. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo, de corte trasversal, en el que participaron 85 individuos de tres ciudades colombianas, entrevistados durante el año 2011. Se cumplió con los parámetros éticos para investigaciones con personas. Para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el software SPSS 18.0. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias significativas al comparar el comportamiento sexual antes y después de conocer el diagnóstico VIH positivo. el 23% de los entrevistados manifestó no haber iniciado actividades sexuales después del diagnóstico, el 62.5% empezó a usar el condón en todas sus relaciones sexuales. Las relaciones sexuales con personas VIH positivo aumentaron a un 35.4%. Las infecciones de transmisión sexual disminuyeron a un 12.3%. El consumo de alcohol previo al inicio de relaciones sexuales disminuyó a un 31.8%. Conclusiones: Se encontraron cambios en los comportamientos de riesgo de las personas después de recibir el diagnóstico; sin embargo, dichas modificaciones no son suficientes por tratarse de la trasmisión de una infección mortal y de elevados costos socioeconómicos.


Objective: To describe sexual behaviors of HIV positive patients in three cities of Colombia, before and after learning diagnosis and to identify changes. Methodology: Quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study, with participation of 85 individuals from three cities of Colombia who were interviewed during 2011. Ethical standards for research involving individuals were met during the study. The SPSS software version 18.0 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Significant differences were found when comparing their sexual behavior before and after knowing HIV positive diagnosis, 23.0% of respondents said that they had not resumed sexual activity, 62.5% of the patients began to use the condom in all sexual relations. Sex with HIV-positive people increased a 35.4%. Sexually transmitted infections were reduced to a 12.3%. The consumption of alcohol prior to the onset of sexual intercourse decreased to 31.8%. Conclusions: Changes were found regarding risky behaviors of people after knowing the diagnosis; however, such modifications are not enough regarding the transmission of a deadly infection and with high social and economic costs.


Objetivo: Descrever o comportamento sexual em pessoas HIV-positivas em três cidades na Colômbia antes e depois de conhecer o diagnóstico e identificar mudanças no esses comportamentos. Metodologia: Estudo descritivo de transversal, em que 85 indivíduos participaram em três cidades colombianas, entrevistado em 2011. Eles se conheceram os padrões éticos para a investigação com as pessoas. Para análise estatística foi utilizado SPSS 18.0 software. Resultados: Diferenças significativas na comparação entre o comportamento sexual foram encontrados antes e depois de aprender sobre o diagnóstico de HIV positivo. 23% dos entrevistados disseram que a atividade sexual não ter iniciado após o diagnóstico, 62,5% começaram a usar preservativos em todas as relações sexuais. Sexo com pessoas HIV positivas aumentou para 35,4%. infecções sexualmente transmissíveis diminuiu para 12,3%. O consumo de álcool antes do início do sexo diminuiu para 31,8%. Conclusões: foram encontradas alterações nos comportamentos de risco de pessoas depois de receber o diagnóstico; No entanto, estas alterações não são suficientes, porque é a transmissão de uma infecção fatal e custos socioeconómicos elevados.


Assuntos
Humanos , Comportamento Sexual , Aconselhamento Sexual , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida , HIV , Parceiros Sexuais , Infecções por HIV , Soroprevalência de HIV , Coito , Sexo Seguro , Sexo sem Proteção
13.
Nutr Hosp ; 31(6): 2472-8, 2015 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26040354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the indicator height for age in Mexican children with Down Syndrome (DS) with two different reference patterns of growth (American and Spanish) that might be suitable for the Mexican population. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was performed including 235 Mexican children and adolescents of both sexes with DS aged 45 days to 16 years enrolled in two specialized schools in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara. The dependent variables were weight/age; height/age; weight/ height and BMI. The data expressed was percentiles and the chi-square test was used to compare the distribution of the height/age index with American and Spanish reference patterns. In addition, a chi-square test was performed for the goodness of fit of the height/age index, with breakpoints lower and greater than the 50th percentile. RESULTS: The percentage of participants who were below the 50th percentile in the height/age index was significantly higher with the Spanish vs. the American reference pattern. The chi-square test for goodness of fit showed that the frequency of cases located below the 50th percentile in the height/age index was significantly higher with the American pattern in the age groups of 0 to 36 months (p = 0.022) and 37 to 72 months (p <0.001), but it was not significant (p = 0.225) in the older than 72 months age group. CONCLUSION: The American reference pattern is a better fit for the growth of Mexican children with DS compared with the Spanish reference pattern, and the distribution profile obtained with the standard growth and WHO reference was not suitable for the assessment of children with Down syndrome.


Assuntos
Estatura , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Síndrome de Down/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Padrões de Referência
14.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(6): 2472-2478, jun. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-142340

RESUMO

Objective: to compare the indicator height for age in Mexican children with Down Syndrome (DS) with two different reference patterns of growth (American and Spanish) that might be suitable for the Mexican population. Methods: a cross-sectional study was performed including 235 Mexican children and adolescents of both sexes with DS aged 45 days to 16 years enrolled in two specialized schools in the metropolitan area of Guadalajara. The dependent variables were weight/age; height/age; weight/ height and BMI. The data expressed was percentiles and the chi-square test was used to compare the distribution of the height/age index with American and Spanish reference patterns. In addition, a chi-square test was performed for the goodness of fit of the height/age index, with breakpoints lower and greater than the 50th percentile. Results: the percentage of participants who were below the 50th percentile in the height/age index was significantly higher with the Spanish vs. the American reference pattern. The chi-square test for goodness of fit showed that the frequency of cases located below the 50th percentile in the height/age index was significantly higher with the American pattern in the age groups of 0 to 36 months (p = 0.022) and 37 to 72 months (p< 0.001), but it was not significant (p = 0.225) in the older than 72 months age group. Conclusion: the American reference pattern is a better fit for the growth of Mexican children with DS compared with the Spanish reference pattern, and the distribution profile obtained with the standard growth and WHO reference was not suitable for the assessment of children with Down syndrome (AU)


Objetivo: comparar el índice talla/edad en niños con síndrome de Down (SD) con dos patrones de referencia (americano y español) que podrían ser adecuados en niños mexicanos. Métodos: en un estudio transversal se incluyeron 295 niños y adolescentes de ambos sexos con SD desde 45 días hasta 16 años de edad, inscritos en dos escuelas del área metropolitana de Guadalajara. Variables dependientes: peso/edad; talla/edad; peso/talla e IMC. Los datos fueron expresados en percentiles y se utilizó la prueba de chicuadrado para comparar la distribución del índice de talla/edad entre los patrones de referencia de EUA y de España. Se realizó una prueba de bondad de ajuste del índice talla/edad con puntos de corte menor y mayor al percentil 50. Resultados: el porcentaje de participantes por debajo del percentil 50 en el índice de talla/edad fue significativamente mayor con la referencia española vs. americana. La prueba de bondad de ajuste mostró que la frecuencia de casos debajo del percentil 50 en el índice talla/edad fue significativamente mayor con la referencia estadounidense en el grupo de edad de 0-36 meses (p = 0,022) y 37-72 meses (p< 0,001), pero no fue significativa en el grupo de edad mayor de 72 meses. Conclusión: la referencia estadounidense se ajustó más al crecimiento de los niños mexicanos con síndrome de Down que la referencia española. El perfil de distribución obtenido con el estándar de crecimiento y referencia de la OMS no fue adecuado para la evaluación de niños con síndrome de Down (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Humanos , Peso-Idade/fisiologia , Síndrome de Down/fisiopatologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Crescimento/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil
15.
Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis ; 2014: 787458, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24723947

RESUMO

Staphylococcus epidermidis is an important cause of nosocomial infection and bacteremia. It is also a common contaminant of blood cultures and, as a result, there is frequently uncertainty as to its diagnostic significance when recovered in the clinical laboratory. One molecular strategy that might be of value in clarifying the interpretation of S. epidermidis identified in blood culture is multilocus sequence typing. Here, we examined 100 isolates of this species (50 blood isolates representing true bacteremia, 25 likely contaminant isolates, and 25 skin isolates) and the ability of sequence typing to differentiate them. Three machine learning algorithms (classification regression tree, support vector machine, and nearest neighbor) were employed. Genetic variability was substantial between isolates, with 44 sequence types found in 100 isolates. Sequence types 2 and 5 were most commonly identified. However, among the classification algorithms we employed, none were effective, with CART and SVM both yielding only 73% diagnostic accuracy and nearest neighbor analysis yielding only 53% accuracy. Our data mirror previous studies examining the presence or absence of pathogenic genes in that the overlap between truly significant organisms and contaminants appears to prevent the use of MLST in the clarification of blood cultures recovering S. epidermidis.

16.
Rev. gerenc. políticas salud ; 12(24): 209-225, ene.-jun. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-683067

RESUMO

Problema: las instituciones formadoras de recursos humanos en salud prestan servicios a lacomunidad en condiciones diferentes a otros servicios de salud; la satisfacción al recibir dichaatención se relaciona con la aceptación que experimenta el usuario y depende de variables internasy externas. Objetivo: se exploraron los factores que influyen en la aceptación de la atenciónrecibida, en un grupo de pacientes tratados en la Facultad de Odontología de la Universidad deAntioquia. Método: estudio exploratorio cuantitativo y cualitativo mediante encuesta telefónicaa 55 pacientes y ocho entrevistas a profundidad. Resultados y discusión: el 78 % fueron mujeres,mayores de 55 años, de estratos socioeconómicos bajos. La valoración del servicio fue positivapor la atención oportuna, el trato de profesores y estudiantes, y las condiciones físicas durantela atención. Al profundizar en las entrevistas se resaltaron experiencias subjetivas propias delpaciente y factores inherentes al servicio y al talento humano...


Problem: human resource training institutions provide health services to the community underconditions different from other health services, the satisfaction receiving such care is related tothe acceptance experienced by the user and depends on internal and external variables. Objective:we explored the factors that influence the acceptance of care provided in a group of patientstreated at the Faculty of Dentistry at the University of Antioquia. Method: quantitative andqualitative exploratory study using telephone survey of 55 patients and eight depth interviews.Results and discussion: 78% were women, aged 55 years, low socioeconomic strata. The assessmentof the service was positive for timely attention, the treatment of teachers and students,and the physical conditions during the attention. The interviews highlighted the patient’s ownsubjective experiences and factors inherent to service and human resources...


Problema: as instituições formadoras de recurso humano em saúde prestam serviços à comunidadeem condições diferentes a outros serviços de saúde; a satisfação no recebimento de talatenção relaciona-se com o aceite que experimenta o utente e depende de variáveis internas eexternas. Objetivo: exploraram-se os fatores que influem na aceitação da atenção recebida, emum grupo de pacientes tratados na Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Antioquia.Método: estudo exploratório quantitativo e qualitativo mediante inquérito telefônico a 55 pacientese oito entrevistas em profundidade. Resultados e discussão: o 78 % foram mulheres maioresde 55 anos, de estrato socioeconômico baixo. A avaliação do serviço foi positiva pela atençãooportuna, o trato de professores e estudantes e as condições físicas durante o atendimento. Aoaprofundar nas entrevistas exaltaram-se experiências subjetivas próprias do paciente e fatoresinerentes ao serviço e talento humano...


Assuntos
Odontologia Comunitária , Assistência Odontológica , Serviços de Saúde , Satisfação do Paciente , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Colômbia
17.
Rev. colomb. psiquiatr ; 42(1): 51-62, ene.-mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-678078

RESUMO

Introducción: El artículo presenta las características sociodemográficas del desarrollo psico-sexual y del delito sexual en hombres privados de la libertad por delitos sexuales recluidos en una cárcel de Manizales (Colombia) en el 2011. Además, describe las diferencias entre los abusadores de personas menores o iguales a 12 años y abusadores de personas mayores de esa edad. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo con muestreo aleatorio simple. Se realizó una entrevista semiestructurada en la que se indagaron las características sociodemográficas, el desarrollo psicosexual, las características del delito y la prevalencia de trastornos mentales en una muestra de 80 personas condenadas por delitos sexuales y recluidas en el Establecimiento Penitenciario de Mediana Seguridad de Manizales. Se llevaron a cabo análisis univariado y bivariado, utilizando la prueba χ² y análisis de regresión logística con las variables que mostraron significancia estadística en el análisis bivariado. Resultados: Se encontró que los condenados por delitos sexuales pertenecen a los estratos socioeconómicos bajos, tienen una baja escolaridad y no recibieron educación sexual. Estos hallazgos adquieren más relevancia cuando los delitos son cometidos contra menores o iguales a 12 años de edad. Conclusiones: La falta de educación sexual, la baja escolaridad y el nivel socioeconómico bajo son factores asociados para la presentación de las agresiones sexuales. Es importante que la sociedad (en especial las instituciones responsables de la salud) encuentre otras medidas adicionales a la penalización de estos comportamientos para lograr un mejor control del problema.


This article introduces the socio-demographic characteristics of psychosexual development and sexual crimes in men deprived of liberty for such crimes who are doing time in a Manizales prison (Colombia) in 2011. It also describes the differences between abusers of individuals under 12 years of age or who are 12 years old, and abusers of individuals over that age. Methodology: This is a descriptive, retrospective study performed by simple random sampling. It consisted of semi-structured interviews in which socio-demographic characteristics, psychosexual development, characteristics of crime, and prevalence of mental disorders were analyzed in a sample of 80 inmates convicted of sexual offenses at the Medium-security Pentientiary center in the city of Manizales. Univariate and bivariate analysis were performed using the χ² test and the logistic regression analysis with variables showing statistical significance in the bivariate analysis. Results: It was found that convicted sex offenders belong to lower socioeconomic levels, have low educational levels, and did not receive any sexual education. Such findings become more relevant when the crimes in questions are committed against 12-year-olders or children under this age. Conclusions: The lack of sexual education, low educational levels and lower socioeconomic levels are associated factors in the case of sexual offenses. It is important for society (particularly health-care institutions) to find additional measures for the criminalization of such behaviors in order to achieve a better control of the problem.

18.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr ; 42(1): 51-62, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26572712

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: This article introduces the socio-demographic characteristics of psychosexual development and sexual crimes in men deprived of liberty for such crimes who are doing time in a Manizales prison (Colombia) in 2011. It also describes the differences between abusers of individuals under 12 years of age or who are 12 years old, and abusers of individuals over that age. METHODOLOGY: This is a descriptive, retrospective study performed by simple random sampling. It consisted of semi-structured interviews in which socio-demographic characteristics, psychosexual development, characteristics of crime, and prevalence of mental disorders were analyzed in a sample of 80 inmates convicted of sexual offenses at the Medium-security Pentientiary center in the city of Manizales. Univariate and bivariate analysis were performed using the χ(2) test and the logistic regression analysis with variables showing statistical significance in the bivariate analysis. RESULTS: It was found that convicted sex offenders belong to lower socioeconomic levels, have low educational levels, and did not receive any sexual education. Such findings become more relevant when the crimes in questions are committed against 12-year-olders or children under this age. CONCLUSIONS: The lack of sexual education, low educational levels and lower socioeconomic levels are associated factors in the case of sexual offenses. It is important for society (particularly health-care institutions) to find additional measures for the criminalization of such behaviors in order to achieve a better control of the problem.

19.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 40(3): 213-223, jul.-oct. 2012. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: lil-663764

RESUMO

Introducción: La mujer embarazada experimenta dolor por causas diferentes al trabajo de parto o al parto. Durante el embarazo pueden presentarse síndromes dolorosos agudos o se agudizan dolores crónicos que deben ser tratados, asegurándose siempre de mantener la seguridad para la madre y el feto. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión de la literatura científica acerca del manejo del dolor de causas no obstétricas durante el embarazo, y las posibilidades e implicaciones de las diferentes terapias disponibles tanto farmacológicas como intervencionistas. Materiales y niétodos: Revisión no sistemática. Se consultaron las siguientes bases de datos: Medline, Pubmed, FDA y Drugs, en búsqueda de artículos en inglés relevantes. Resultados: Se seleccionaron los artículos correspondientes a los diferentes tipos de terapia disponibles en el manejo del dolor durante el embarazo. Conclusión: El manejo integral de las patologías que pudieran generar dolor durante el embarazo requiere del uso de medicamentos que no siempre son 100% seguros. Su tratamiento debe ser interdisciplinario y humanizado, teniendo en cuenta las implicaciones para la madre y el feto, y mientras sea posible, optimizando alternativas terapéuticas no farmacológicas.


Introduction: In pregnancy, women experience pain for reasons other than labor or delivery. Painful syndromes may occur during pregnancy, or chronic pain may become more acute, and patients should be offered treatment, always bearing in mind maternal and fetal safety. Objective: To conduct a review of the scientific literature on the management of non-obstetric pain during pregnancy and the potential implications of the different pharmacological and interventional therapies available. Materials and methods: Non-systematic review in the following databases: Medline, Pubmed, FDA and Drugs with a search of relevant articles in English. Results:The articles related to the various types of therapies for pain management during pregnancy were selected. Conclusion: The comprehensive approach to the management of conditions that may produce pain during pregnancy requires the use of medications that are not always 100% safe. Treatment must be inter-disciplinary and humanized, and consider the implications for the mother and fetus, optimizing, whenever possible, non-pharmacological therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Humanos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21095678

RESUMO

One of the most important elements for the rehabilitation process regards to the correct evaluation of the biomechanical and the electrophysiological responses. This evaluation must be done during the therapy. In general, the improvements achieved by the treatment are slightly and difficult to be distinguished. This is a difficult task when the changes in the signals obtained by the bio-amplifiers (EMG, electro-goniometry, etc) are evaluated by a wired system because the patient cannot interact with its environment freely. The present work tackles the design, construction and implementation of a platform to carry out biomechanical analysis for upper and lower limbs. The included variables in the biomechanical system are the angular position, linear acceleration, electromyography signals and force executed by the limbs. The designed scheme considers the wireless monitoring of relevant signals; such variables allow us to analyze the effectiveness achieved by the therapy. Processing and data exhibition are carry out in a personal computer. Two application examples regarding the biomechanical wrist evaluation and the EMG correlation are presented. Nonlinear algorithms to analyze the information obtained in the system are used to evaluate the biomechanical responses produced in different patients.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Braço/fisiologia , Artrometria Articular/instrumentação , Eletromiografia/instrumentação , Articulações/fisiologia , Perna (Membro)/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Biotecnologia/instrumentação , Desenho de Equipamento , Análise de Falha de Equipamento , Humanos , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Transdutores
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