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1.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 6(4): 381-387, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35938140

RESUMO

Objective: To assess the association between vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency and the prevalence of fatigue and prespecified neurologic symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia. Patients and Methods: A retrospective chart analysis of patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia in the years 2015-2020 was performed. The values of B12 were collected. The chart reviews assessed reported fatigue and neurologic symptoms, including brain fog, memory loss, cognitive impairment, paresthesias, numbness, and tingling, to assess their correlation with B12 levels. Concurrent vitamin D and thyroid-stimulating hormone levels were reviewed to assess their association with fibromyalgia. Results: A total of 2142 patients with fibromyalgia with documented levels of B12 and vitamin D were included. Of them, 42.4% had B12 deficiency (<400 ng/L). Fatigue and memory loss were more common in the B12 deficiency group. After adjusting for vitamin D levels, B12 deficiency remained statistically significantly associated with the presence of fatigue (odds ratio, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.75; P=.004). Conclusion: This is the first study to report the association of B12 in patients with fibromyalgia complaining of fatigue. This symptom was prevalent in our group of patients with fibromyalgia with B12 deficiency, regardless of whether the cutoff point was 400 or 350 ng/L.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 14(10)2022 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35626016

RESUMO

This study presents proof of concept assays to validate gold nanoparticles loaded with the bacterial peptide 91-99 of the listeriolysin O toxin (GNP-LLO91-99 nanovaccines) as immunotherapy for bladder tumors. GNP-LLO91-99 nanovaccines showed adjuvant abilities as they induce maturation and activation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs) to functional antigen-presenting cells in healthy donors and patients with melanoma or bladder cancer (BC), promoting a Th1 cytokine pattern. GNP-LLO91-99 nanovaccines were also efficient dendritic cell inducers of immunogenic tumor death using different bladder and melanoma tumor cell lines. The establishment of a pre-clinical mice model of subcutaneous BC confirmed that a single dose of GNP-LLO91-99 nanovaccines reduced tumor burden 4.7-fold and stimulated systemic Th1-type immune responses. Proof of concept assays validated GNP-LLO91-99 nanovaccines as immunotherapy by comparison to anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD-1 antibodies. In fact, GNP-LLO91-99 nanovaccines increased percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, and functional antigen-presenting DCs in tumor-infiltrated lymphocytes, while they reduced the levels of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) and suppressor T cells (Treg). We conclude that GNP-LLO91-99 nanovaccines can work as monotherapies or combinatory immunotherapies with anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD-1 antibodies for solid tumors with high T cell infiltration, such as bladder cancer or melanoma.

3.
Clin. transl. oncol. (Print) ; 24(4): 659-669, abril 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-203770

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer is an aggressive tumor, and is the sixth-leading cause of death from cancer. Incidence is rising in Spain, particularly among men. Two main pathological different subtypes have been described: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Growing evidence of their epidemiology and molecular differences explains their different response to novel treatments, and they are therefore likely to be treated as two separate entities in the near future. The best results are obtained with a multidisciplinary therapeutic strategy, and the introduction of immunotherapy is a promising new approach that will improve prognosis. In these guidelines, we review the evidence for the different methods of diagnosis and therapeutic strategies that form the basis of our standard of care.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Diagnóstico , Terapêutica
4.
Lancet Oncol ; 23(5): 659-670, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35427471

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pembrolizumab has shown improved progression-free survival versus chemotherapy in patients with newly diagnosed microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer. However, the treatment's effect on overall survival in this cohort of patients was unknown. Here, we present the final overall survival analysis of the KEYNOTE-177 study. METHODS: This randomised, open-label, phase 3 study was done in 193 academic medical centres and hospitals in 23 countries. We recruited patients aged at least 18 years, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and who had previously untreated microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) in blocks of four using an interactive voice response system or integrated web response system to intravenous pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks or to the investigator's choice of intravenous mFOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m2 on day 1, leucovorin 400 mg/m2 on day 1, and fluorouracil 400 mg/m2 bolus on day 1 followed by a continuous infusion of 1200 mg/m2 per day for 2 days on days 1-2) or intravenous FOLFIRI (irinotecan 180 mg/m2 on day 1, leucovorin 400 mg/m2 on day 1, and fluorouracil 400 mg/m2 bolus on day 1 followed by a continuous infusion of 1200 mg/m2 per day for 2 days on days 1-2), every 2 weeks with or without intravenous bevacizumab 5 mg/kg every 2 weeks or intravenous weekly cetuximab (first dose 400 mg/m2, then 250 mg/m2 for every subsequent dose). Patients receiving chemotherapy could cross over to pembrolizumab for up to 35 treatment cycles after progression. The co-primary endpoints were overall survival and progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. KEYNOTE-177 is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02563002, and is no longer enrolling patients. FINDINGS: Between Feb 11, 2016, and Feb 19, 2018, 852 patients were screened, of whom 307 (36%) were randomly assigned to pembrolizumab (n=153) or chemotherapy (n=154). 93 (60%) patients crossed over from chemotherapy to anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 therapy (56 patients to on-study pembrolizumab and 37 patients to off-study therapy). At final analysis (median follow-up of 44·5 months [IQR 39·7-49·8]), median overall survival was not reached (NR; 95% CI 49·2-NR) with pembrolizumab vs 36·7 months (27·6-NR) with chemotherapy (hazard ratio [HR] 0·74; 95% CI 0·53-1·03; p=0·036). Superiority of pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for overall survival was not demonstrated because the prespecified α of 0·025 needed for statistical significance was not achieved. At this updated analysis, median progression-free survival was 16·5 months (95% CI 5·4-38·1) with pembrolizumab versus 8·2 months (6·1-10·2) with chemotherapy (HR 0·59, 95% CI 0·45-0·79). Treatment-related adverse events of grade 3 or worse occurred in 33 (22%) of 153 patients in the pembrolizumab group versus 95 (66%) of 143 patients in the chemotherapy group. Common adverse events of grade 3 or worse that were attributed to pembrolizumab were increased alanine aminotransferase, colitis, diarrhoea, and fatigue in three (2%) patients each, and those attributed to chemotherapy were decreased neutrophil count (in 24 [17%] patients), neutropenia (22 [15%]), diarrhoea (14 [10%]), and fatigue (13 [9%]). Serious adverse events attributed to study treatment occurred in 25 (16%) patients in the pembrolizumab group and in 41 (29%) patients in the chemotherapy group. No deaths attributed to pembrolizumab occurred; one death due to intestinal perforation was attributed to chemotherapy. INTERPRETATION: In this updated analysis, although pembrolizumab continued to show durable antitumour activity and fewer treatment-related adverse events compared with chemotherapy, there was no significant difference in overall survival between the two treatment groups. These findings support pembrolizumab as an efficacious first-line therapy in patients with microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer. FUNDING: MSD.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias Colorretais , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA/genética , Diarreia/etiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Fluoruracila , Humanos , Leucovorina , Instabilidade de Microssatélites
5.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 24(4): 658-669, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347573

RESUMO

Esophageal cancer is an aggressive tumor, and is the sixth-leading cause of death from cancer. Incidence is rising in Spain, particularly among men. Two main pathological different subtypes have been described: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Growing evidence of their epidemiology and molecular differences explains their different response to novel treatments, and they are therefore likely to be treated as two separate entities in the near future. The best results are obtained with a multidisciplinary therapeutic strategy, and the introduction of immunotherapy is a promising new approach that will improve prognosis. In these guidelines, we review the evidence for the different methods of diagnosis and therapeutic strategies that form the basis of our standard of care.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Neoplasias Esofágicas , Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/terapia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/terapia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Prognóstico
6.
Biochem Mol Biol Educ ; 50(3): 326-333, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263036

RESUMO

Laboratory-based practical classes are an essential component in teaching molecular biology for undergraduate students. Universidad Regional Amazonica Ikiam is a higher education institution located in the Ecuadorian Amazon rainforest, a high biodiversity place, including amphibians. Based on this, we have established a practical molecular biology program with eight sessions that contextualize the biodiverse surroundings of the University. This program stimulates synchronization of information between theory and practice and improves research skills. During these sessions, students are motivated to identify and characterize antimicrobial peptides from Ecuadorian frog skin secretions, using molecular biology techniques and biochemistry and microbiology knowledge. This practical course was held twice with a total of 56 students from the fifth semester of the biotechnology engineering. The evaluation of the practical program was carried out through a questionnaire applied to students using the Likert scale. Overall, this form of teaching had high receptivity and presented benefits for student learning. Interestingly, 80% of respondents strongly agreed that this course provided tools and knowledge for the development of their undergraduate dissertation. Therefore, practical courses tailored to the student's context can stimulate student learning and interest. Additionally, this experimental methodology is interdisciplinary and can be applied to other research fields and subjects.


Assuntos
Bioquímica , Biologia Molecular , Bioquímica/educação , Currículo , Humanos , Biologia Molecular/educação , Estudantes , Universidades
7.
Curr Top Med Chem ; 22(2): 109-131, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Allium sativum L., or garlic, is one of the most studied plants worldwide within the field of traditional medicine. Current interests lie in the potential use of garlic as a preventive measure and adjuvant treatment for viral infections, e.g., SARS-CoV-2. Even though it cannot be presented as a single treatment, its beneficial effects are beyond doubt. The World Health Organization has deemed it an essential part of any balanced diet with immunomodulatory properties. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to review the literature on the effects of garlic compounds and preparations on immunomodulation and viral infection management, with emphasis on SARS-CoV- -2. METHODS: Exhaustive literature search has been carried out on electronic databases. CONCLUSION: Garlic is a fundamental part of a well-balanced diet which helps maintain general good health. The reported information regarding garlic's ability to beneficially modulate inflammation and the immune system is encouraging. Nonetheless, more efforts must be made to understand the actual medicinal properties and mechanisms of action of the compounds found in this plant to inhibit or diminish viral infections, particularly SARS-CoV-2. Based on our findings, we propose a series of innovative strategies to achieve such a challenge in the near future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Alho , Doenças Metabólicas , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Imunomodulação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886337

RESUMO

(1) Background: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) people's health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is affected by glycemic control. Regular exercise is strongly recommended to these patients due to its cardiovascular and metabolic benefits. However, a large percentage of patients with T1DM people present a sedentary behavior because of the fear of a post-exercise hypoglycemia event, lack of time, lack of motivation and the complicated management of exercise, glycemic and insulin dose interaction. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is an efficient and safe methodology since it prevents hypoglycemia and does not require much time, which are the main barriers for this population to doing exercise and increasing physical conditioning. (2) Methods: Nineteen sedentary adults (37 ± 6.5 years) with T1DM, were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of either HIIT (12-16-20 × 30-s intervals interspersed with 1-min rest periods) performed thrice weekly, or to the control group, which did not train. HRQoL, sleep quality, exercise motivation and enjoyment were measured as psychological variables. (4) Results: HRQoL improved in physical and social domains, PF (1.9%); PR (80.3%); GH (16.6); SF (34.1%). Sleep quality improved in the HIIT group by 21.4%. Enjoyment improved by 7% and intrinsic motivation was increased by 13%. (5) Conclusions: We suggest that the 6-week HIIT program used in the present study is safe, since no severe hypoglycemia were reported, and an effective strategy in improving HRQoL, sleep quality, exercise motivation and enjoyment which are important psychological well-being factors in T1DM people.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Treinamento Intervalado de Alta Intensidade , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/terapia , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Motivação , Prazer , Qualidade de Vida
9.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34872775

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Retrospective studies and meta-analyses suggest that upfront primary tumour resection (UPTR) confers a survival benefit in patients with asymptomatic unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) undergoing chemotherapy, however a consensus of its role in routine clinical practice in the current era of targeted therapies is lacking. This retrospective study aimed to analyse the survival benefit of UPTR in terms of tumour location and mutational status, in patients with synchronous mCRC receiving chemotherapy and targeted therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Survival was analysed in a pooled cohort of synchronous mCRC patients treated with a first-line anti-VEGF or anti-EGFR inhibitor in seven trials of the Spanish TTD group, according to UPTR, tumour-sidedness and mutational profiling. RESULTS: Of 1334 eligible patients, 642 (48%) had undergone UPTR. UPTR was associated with significantly longer overall survival (OS; 25.0 vs 20.3 months; HR 1.30, 95%CI 1.15-1.48; p < 0.0001). UPTR was associated with significant OS benefit in both left-sided (HR 1.38, 95%CI 1.13-1.69; p = 0.002) and right-sided (HR 1.39, 95%CI 1.00-1.94; p = 0.049) tumours, RASwt (HR 1.29, 95%CI 1.05-1.60; p = 0.016) and BRAFwt (HR 1.49, 95%CI 1.21-1.84; p = 0.0002) tumours, and treatment with anti-EGFRs (HR 1.47, 95%CI 1.13-1.92; p = 0.004) and anti-VEGFs (HR 1.25, 95%CI 1.08-1.44; p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis identified number of metastatic sites, RAS status, primary tumour location and UPTR as independent prognostic factors for OS. CONCLUSION: Considering the selection bias inherent to this study, our results support UPTR before first-line anti-EGFR or anti-VEGF targeted therapy in right and left-sided asymptomatic unresectable synchronous mCRC patients. RAS/BRAF mutational status may also influence UPTR function.

10.
Eur J Hosp Pharm ; 2021 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the economic impact of introducing biosimilars of bevacizumab for the management of cancer patients receiving systemic bevacizumab in the National Health System (SNHS) of Spain. METHODS: A 3-year budget impact analysis model was adapted to estimate the cost of introducing biosimilars of bevacizumab in the SNHS for the adult population who were candidates to receive treatment with bevacizumab. Values for the estimation of the population were obtained from the literature and were validated by an expert panel. In this analysis only pharmaceutical costs (€, year 2021) obtained from official databases were considered. A sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the robustness of the model. RESULTS: The introduction of bevacizumab biosimilars would generate an annual cost saving of €11 558 268 (-5.1%) for the first year with a penetration share of biosimilars from 30.0%, €29 126 373 (-8.5%) for the second year with a share of 50.0% and €52 361 778 (-13.6%) for the third year with a share of 80.0%. The total pharmaceutical costs of the scenario without biosimilars are €227 033 352 for the first year, €342 663 209 for the second year and €385 013 076 for the third year. In contrast, the pharmaceutical costs of the scenario with bevacizumab biosimilars are €215 475 084, €313 536 836 and €332 651 297 for years 1, 2 and 3, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The introduction of biosimilars in the Spanish Health System would generate saving costs in the pharmacological budget to boost biological drugs from the first year.

12.
Front Neurol ; 12: 743732, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659101

RESUMO

Introduction: Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in Latin America, a region with countless gaps to be addressed to decrease its burden. In 2018, at the first Latin American Stroke Ministerial Meeting, stroke physician and healthcare manager representatives from 13 countries signed the Declaration of Gramado with the priorities to improve the region, with the commitment to implement all evidence-based strategies for stroke care. The second meeting in March 2020 reviewed the achievements in 2 years and discussed new objectives. This paper will review the 2-year advances and future plans of the Latin American alliance for stroke. Method: In March 2020, a survey based on the Declaration of Gramado items was sent to the neurologists participants of the Stroke Ministerial Meetings. The results were confirmed with representatives of the Ministries of Health and leaders from the countries at the second Latin American Stroke Ministerial Meeting. Results: In 2 years, public stroke awareness initiatives increased from 25 to 75% of countries. All countries have started programs to encourage physical activity, and there has been an increase in the number of countries that implement, at least partially, strategies to identify and treat hypertension, diabetes, and lifestyle risk factors. Programs to identify and treat dyslipidemia and atrial fibrillation still remained poor. The number of stroke centers increased from 322 to 448, all of them providing intravenous thrombolysis, with an increase in countries with stroke units. All countries have mechanical thrombectomy, but mostly restricted to a few private hospitals. Pre-hospital organization remains limited. The utilization of telemedicine has increased but is restricted to a few hospitals and is not widely available throughout the country. Patients have late, if any, access to rehabilitation after hospital discharge. Conclusion: The initiative to collaborate, exchange experiences, and unite societies and governments to improve stroke care in Latin America has yielded good results. Important advances have been made in the region in terms of increasing the number of acute stroke care services, implementing reperfusion treatments and creating programs for the detection and treatment of risk factors. We hope that this approach can reduce inequalities in stroke care in Latin America and serves as a model for other under-resourced environments.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34467494

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to propose a continuous physicochemical model accounting for the active chlorine production used to degrade recalcitrant sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in an electrochemical flow reactor. The computational model describes the fluid mechanics and mass transfer occurring in the re/actor, along with the electrode kinetics of hydrogen evolution reaction arising on a stainless steel cathode, and the chloride oxidation on a DSA. Specifically, the anodic contributions assume the heterogeneous nature of the adsorbed chlorine species formed on this surface, which are a model requirement to correctly define the experimental reactor performance and degradation efficiency of the contaminant. The experimental validation conducted at different applied current densities, volumetric flows, and chloride concentrations is adequately explained by the model, thus evidencing some of the phenomena controlling the electrocatalytic chlorine production for environmental applications. The best conditions to eliminate the SMX are proposed based on the theoretical analysis of the current efficiency calculated with the model, and experimentally confirmed. The use of the Ti/RuO2-ZrO2-Sb2O3 anode at the bench scale improves the SMX removal by using electro-generated chlorine species adsorbed on its surface, which remarkably increases the oxidation potential of the system along with chlorine desorbed from the electrode. This is a technological innovation concerning other mediated oxidation methods entirely using oxidants in solution.

14.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr (Engl Ed) ; 50(3): 214-224, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34544585

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has caused feelings of anxiety, confusion, and panic among the world population. Due to these psychological changes resulting from the stress produced by the disease, we sought to investigate the psychological impact of the pandemic on the university student community. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 1,283 students were surveyed, of which 1,149 students were selected. The majority of the subjects were female, and the overall average age was of 20 years. They were provided with an 82-question online questionnaire divided into four sections; looking for the prevalence of significant symptomatology of major depression and generalised anxiety using the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scales; and factors that potentially affect the mental health of our university population. RESULTS: We found a high prevalence of significant depression (47.08%) and anxiety (27.06%) symptomatology, considering a score of 10 or more as cut-off point. There was no significant difference in depression and anxiety symptomatology between the health-care students and non-health-care students. CONCLUSIONS: Our results, together with what is observed in the literature, allow us to conclude that the college student population has a high risk of mental illness, and these should be taken into consideration for the search of effective strategies for detection and control of mental health illnesses. Undoubtedly, the COVID-19 pandemic is a red flag that shows the need to upgrade mental health programmes in universities and to validate virtual instruments.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etiologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Ocupações em Saúde/educação , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Testes Psicológicos , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105985, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34284323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 pandemic has forced important changes in health care worldwide. Stroke care networks have been affected, especially during peak periods. We assessed the impact of the pandemic and lockdowns in stroke admissions and care in Latin America. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A multinational study (7 countries, 18 centers) of patients admitted during the pandemic outbreak (March-June 2020). Comparisons were made with the same period in 2019. Numbers of cases, stroke etiology and severity, acute care and hospitalization outcomes were assessed. RESULTS: Most countries reported mild decreases in stroke admissions compared to the same period of 2019 (1187 vs. 1166, p = 0.03). Among stroke subtypes, there was a reduction in ischemic strokes (IS) admissions (78.3% vs. 73.9%, p = 0.01) compared with 2019, especially in IS with NIHSS 0-5 (50.1% vs. 44.9%, p = 0.03). A substantial increase in the proportion of stroke admissions beyond 48 h from symptoms onset was observed (13.8% vs. 20.5%, p < 0.001). Nevertheless, no differences in total reperfusion treatment rates were observed, with similar door-to-needle, door-to-CT, and door-to-groin times in both periods. Other stroke outcomes, as all-type mortality during hospitalization (4.9% vs. 9.7%, p < 0.001), length of stay (IQR 1-5 days vs. 0-9 days, p < 0.001), and likelihood to be discharged home (91.6% vs. 83.0%, p < 0.001), were compromised during COVID-19 lockdown period. CONCLUSIONS: In this Latin America survey, there was a mild decrease in admissions of IS during the COVID-19 lockdown period, with a significant delay in time to consultations and worse hospitalization outcomes.


Assuntos
COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Procedimentos Endovasculares/tendências , Hospitalização/tendências , Padrões de Prática Médica/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Tempo para o Tratamento/tendências , COVID-19/transmissão , Causas de Morte/tendências , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Atenção à Saúde , Mortalidade Hospitalar/tendências , Humanos , América Latina , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Alta do Paciente/tendências , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Curr Oncol ; 28(3): 2097-2106, 2021 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199694

RESUMO

The SCOPE project aimed to better understand practice patterns, identify drivers for treatment goals, and determine third- and fourth-line treatment choices for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). The survey was developed by an expert panel of gastrointestinal oncologists. Questions concerned general practice patterns, and treatment decisions for three hypothetical patient case scenarios. Participants had to routinely manage patients with mCRC. We present results from 629 participants who provided input on patient treatment scenarios (data cutoff: 17/01/2020). Prolonging overall survival (OS; 51%) was the main aim in first line. In third line, quality of life (QOL) was the primary goal (34%). Forty-three percent also cited efficacy-focused goals; 18% and 13% noted prolonging OS and improving progression-free survival as main aims, respectively. For fit and active patients, 89% of respondents considered trifluridine-tipiracil an appropriate third-line treatment; regorafenib (31%) or clinical trial enrollment (29%) were the fourth-line options. For patients with comorbidities and limited caregiver support, trifluridine-tipiracil was the preferred third-line treatment (70%). For KRAS-mutated patients with comorbidities and adverse events who received prior oxaliplatin, 90% considered oxaliplatin rechallenge an unsuitable third-line treatment, mainly due to the risk of cumulative toxicity (75%). In the third/fourth-line settings, trifluridine-tipiracil followed by regorafenib was the most common option (54%); 17% chose regorafenib followed by trifluridine-tipiracil. Efficacy coupled with QOL are important goals in third-line treatment. Daily practice patterns reflect the guideline recommendations in third- and fourth-line settings, with a trend toward using trifluridine-tipiracil versus regorafenib in KRAS-wildtype and KRAS-mutant tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais , Qualidade de Vida , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Consenso , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes ; 5(4): 771-782, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34226884

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate physician perceptions and attitudes toward telemedicine use at a tertiary care academic institution in northeast Florida during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An anonymous 38-question cross-sectional survey was developed using Qualtrics survey software (Qualtrics) and e-mailed to all staff physicians from all specialty disciplines at Mayo Clinic in Florida. The survey was open from August 17, 2020, through September 1, 2020. Collected data included general demographic characteristics and employment information, attitude and experience with telemedicine use before and during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, perception of patients' experience, and the effect of telemedicine on burnout. RESULTS: The survey was distributed to 529 eligible physicians at our institution, with 103 physicians responding (20%). The distribution of specialties was 22% primary care specialties, 41% other internal medicine subspecialties, and 18% surgical specialties. Collectively, 63% found comparable quality of care when provided virtually (vs in-person) whereas 80% perceived telemedicine as cost-effective. A total of 76% of physicians felt that telemedicine increased flexibility and control over patient care activities, with 36% reporting improved work-life balance and 30% reporting improved burnout symptoms. Overall, 42% preferred using telemedicine over in-person visits when possible. CONCLUSION: Physicians generally had positive attitudes regarding the adoption of telemedicine and perceived that the quality of health care delivery as generally comparable to in-person care. Future studies are needed to explore attitudes regarding telemedicine after the pandemic and how this virtual technology may be further used to improve physicians' professional and personal well-being.

20.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(5): 665-677, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33812497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the KEYNOTE-177 study, pembrolizumab monotherapy provided statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvements in progression-free survival versus chemotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer. To further support the efficacy and safety findings of the KEYNOTE-177 study, results of the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) analyses are reported here. METHODS: KEYNOTE-177 is an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial being done at 192 cancer centres in 23 countries, in patients aged 18 years and older with microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer, with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1, and who had not received previous systemic therapy for metastatic disease. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) centrally by use of interactive voice response or integrated web response technology to receive pembrolizumab 200 mg intravenously every 3 weeks or investigator's choice chemotherapy (mFOLFOX6 [leucovorin, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin] or FOLFIRI [leucovorin, fluorouracil, and irinotecan] intravenously every 2 weeks with or without intravenous bevacizumab or cetuximab). Patients and investigators were not masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival (previously reported) and overall survival (data to be reported at the time of the final analysis). HRQOL outcomes were evaluated as prespecified exploratory endpoints. The analysis population comprised all randomly assigned patients who received at least one dose of study treatment and completed at least one HRQOL assessment. HRQOL outcomes were mean change from baseline to prespecified week 18 in European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire-Colorectal 29 (EORTC QLQ-CR29) scale and item scores, and in the EuroQoL 5 Dimensions 3 Levels (EQ-5D-3L) visual analogue scale and health utility scores; the proportion of patients with improved, stable, or deteriorated scores from baseline to prespecified week 18 in EORTC QLQ-C30 scales and items; and time to deterioration in EORTC QLQ-C30 global health status/quality of life (GHS/QOL), physical functioning, social functioning, and fatigue scores and EORTC QLQ-CR29 urinary incontinence scores. The threshold for a small and clinically meaningful mean difference in EORTC QLQ-C30 score was 5-8 points. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02563002 and is ongoing; recruitment is closed. FINDINGS: Between Feb 11, 2016, and Feb 19, 2018, 307 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive pembrolizumab (n=153) or chemotherapy (n=154). The HRQOL analysis population comprised 294 patients (152 receiving pembrolizumab and 142 receiving chemotherapy). As of Feb 19, 2020, median time from randomisation to data cutoff was 32·4 months (IQR 27·7-37·8). Least squares mean (LSM) change from baseline to prespecified week 18 showed a clinically meaningful improvement in EORTC QLQ-C30 GHS/QOL scores with pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy (between-group LSM difference 8·96 [95% CI 4·24-13·69]; two-sided nominal p=0·0002). Median time to deterioration was longer with pembrolizumab versus chemotherapy for GHS/QOL (hazard ratio 0·61 [95% CI 0·38-0·98]; one-sided nominal p=0·019), physical functioning (0·50 [95% CI 0·32-0·81]; one-sided nominal p=0·0016), social functioning (0·53 [95% CI 0·32-0·87]; one-sided nominal p=0·0050), and fatigue scores (0·48 [95% CI 0·33-0·69]; one-sided nominal p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Pembrolizumab monotherapy led to clinically meaningful improvements in HRQOL compared with chemotherapy in patients with previously untreated microsatellite instability-high or mismatch repair-deficient metastatic colorectal cancer. These data, along with the previously reported clinical benefits, support pembrolizumab as a first-line treatment option for this population. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme, a subsidiary of Merck & Co, Kenilworth, NJ, USA.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorretais/tratamento farmacológico , Instabilidade de Microssatélites , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Encefálicas/psicologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Neoplasias Colorretais/psicologia , Reparo de Erro de Pareamento de DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Metástase Neoplásica , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/mortalidade , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/psicologia
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